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Full text of "New encyclopedia of Texas, volume 1"

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/newencyclopediao01davi 



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Compiled Ar\d Edited b\\ 



ELLIS A. DAVIS - EDWIN H.GR0BE 



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TEXAS DEVELOPMENT BUREAU 

DALLAS. TEXAS 



iOUSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 

Foreword 1 

Texas, The Lone Star State 2 

By Pat M. Neff 
Ex-Governor 

History of Texas : 4 

By Elizabeth H. West 

Former State Librarian 

Public School System of Texas 9 

By Annie Webb Blanton 

Ex-Superintendent Department of Ed- 
ucation 

The University of Texas 10 

By Dr. Robt. E. Vinson 

Ex-President 

Progressive Legislation in Texas 12 

By W. P. Hobby 

Ex-Governor 

The Texas Judiciary 13 

The Relation of the Lawyers to the 

Court 
By Thomas B. Greenwood 

Associate Justice Supreme Court of 
Texas 

Texas Libraries 14 

By Elizabeth H. West 

Former State Librarian 

History of the Texas Oil Industry.... 17 

By J. Edgar Pew 

Former President American Petro- 
leum Institute 

Oil Production of Texas by Fields 
from 1895 to January 1, 1922. 19 

Agriculture of Texas _ 20 

By Clarence Ousley 

Ex-Assistant United States Secretary 
of Agriculture 

The Texas Cotton Industry 21 

By M. H. Wolfe 



Page 

Cattle Raising in Texas 22 

By E. B. Spiller 

Secretary, Texas and Southwestern 
Cattle Raisers' Association 

The Texas Cowboy 24 

By Tom L. Burnett 

History of the Texas Automobile 
Industry _ 26 

By J. W. Atwood 

Manager of Dallas Branch Buick Mo- 
tor Company 

Public Health in Texas 28 

By Dr. C. W. Goddard 

Ex-State Health Officerr 

History of the Texas Medical Pro- 
fession 30 

By R. W. Knox, M. D. 

Ex-President State Medical Associa- 
tion of Texas 

History of the Texas Bar Association 31 
By Claude Pollard 

, Ex-President 

The Lumber Industry 32 

By John H. Kirby 

The Houston Banks 33 

By J. T. Scott 

Houston's Industries and Oppor- 
tunities ----- --.- 36 

By R. M. Farrar 

President Houston Chamber of Com- 
merce 

History of Houston _ 40 

By Houston Post 

History of the Houston Bench and 
Bar 43 

By Judge H. M. Garwood 

Houston The Center of The Oil 

Industry 46 

By W. S. Farish 

President of the Humble Oil and Re- 
fining Company. President Amer- 
ican Petroleum Institute 



I 



70 A 6 2 14 






Page 

Houston The Cotton Market 47 

By K. E. Womack 

The Rice Industry 48 

By W. K. Morrow 

Future Outlook of Houston 49 

By The Houston Chronicle 

Houston The Railroad Center 51 

By W. R. Scott, President South- 
ern Pacific Lines of Texas and 
Louisiana 

City and Port of Texas City 52 

Houston Municipal Progress 53 

By Judge A. E. Amerman 

Ex-Mayor 

Rice Institute 54 

By Doctor Edgak Odell Lovett 

President 

The Port of Houston 56 

By Col. T omas H. Ball 

History of Hotel Activities in Texas.. 57 

By R. E. Pellow 

Chairman Board Directors Texas 
Hotel Association 

History of Galveston ...- 58 

By Alexander Russell 

Galveston Tribune 

Galveston Texas Port Gateway of 
the Southwest 60 

By Edwin Cheesborougii 

History of Beaumont 63 

By J. L. Ma pes 

Vice President Enterprise Co., Inc. 

Beaumont Metropolis of Southeast 
Texas 65 

By Beaumont Chamber of 
Commerce 

Beaumont and Port Arthur Ship 
Channel 66 

By Harvey W. Gilbert 

Member Waterways Commission 



Pace 

Founding of Port Arthur 67 

By George M. Craig 

Port Arthur Where Oil and Water 
Mix 70 

By Port Arthur Chamber of 
Commerce 

Orange 72 

By Orange Chamber of Commerce 

Corsicana 74 

By Corsicana Chamber of 
Commerce 

Waco Built in a Park. 76 

By Waco Chamber of Commerce 

History of Waco 78 

By George Robinson 

Prop. Waco Times-Herald 

Texas Cotton Palace 80 

By Walter V. Crawford 
Pres. Texas Cotton Palace 

Masonry, Its Objects and Influences 81 

By Sam P. Cochran 

History of Dallas 83 

By E. J. Kiest 

Prop. Dallas Times-Herald 

Industries and Opportunities of 
Dallas 85 

By Dallas Chamber of Commerce 

Dallas Banking History 87 

By E. M. Reardon 

Pres. American Exchange National 
Bank 

Dallas Medical Center of Southwest.. 88 

By Edwin H. Cary, M. D. 

History of Bench and Bar of Dallas.. 89 

By F. M. Etheridge 

Dallas Municipal Activities 91 

By Sawnie R. Aldredge 



Page 

Public Schools of Dallas 92 

By Justin F. Kimball 

State Fair of Texas 93 

History of Texas Banking 94 

By W. F. Ramsey 

Mexia The Central Texas Oil City.... 95 

By Mexia Chamber of Commerce 

Texas Farm Products 96 

By Edward M. Johnston 

Statistician U. S. Department of Ag- 
riculture 

Fort Worth Commercial and Indus- 
trial Progress 97 

By Fort Worth Chamber of 
Commerce 

History of Fort Worth Banks.... 100 

By G. H. Colvin 

Chairman of Board, F. and M. Bank 

History and Progress of Fort Worth 101 

By J. H. Allison 

Prop. Fort Worth Record 

Wichita Falls, The City That Faith 
Built 103 

By Wichita Falls Chamber of 
Commerce 

Wichita Falls Irrigation Project 104 

By J. A. Kemp 

Chairman Board, City National Bank 
of Commerce 

Transportation and Industries of 
Wichita Falls 106 

By Frank Kell 

North Texas Oil Industry 107 

By Walter D. Cline 

Ex-President Texas and Louisiana Di- 
vision, Mid-Continent O. & G. Assn. 

History and Progress of Brecken- 
ridge 108 

By Breckenridge S. Walker 



Page 

Breckenridge The Oil City 109 

By Breckenridge Chamber of 
Commerce 

History of Ranger Ill 

By M. H. Hagaman 

Mineral Wells 112 

By Mineral Wells Chamber of 
Commerce 

Ray Leeman, Manager 

Austin, The Home City 113 

By Austin Chamber of Commerce 

The Wonderful Resources of West 
Texas 115 

By Porter A. Whaley 

San Antonio . 116 

By San Antonio Chamber of 
Commerce 

The Future of San Antonio 117 

By Charles S. Diehl 

Amarillo, Metropolis of the Pan- 
handle 118 

By Board of City Development 

El Paso 119 

By El Paso Chamber of Commerce 

Cities and Towns of Texas 121-165 

Counties of Texas. _ 166-184 

Index to Counties, Towns and Post 
offices with Population ...185 

Maps of Texas 192-195 

Maps of Texas' Leading Trade 
Areas 194-196 

Men of Texas 201 

Governors of Texas..... 202 



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FOREWORD 

EXAS comprises a vast area with a wide diversity 
of soil, climate and industries and a wealth of re- 
sources, products and opportunities which make 
the Lone Star State an empire within itself. The 
History of Texas, the only State of the Union that 
has lived under six flags, is rich in traditions and filled with 
picturesque lore that thrill with romantic interest. 
In the preparation of the Encyclopedia of Texas, our aim 
has been to make it a publication of practical utility that will 
be educational, interesting and attractive to the greatest pos- 
sible number of people. In addition to a History of Texas and 
Historical sketches of the leading cities, we have compiled and 
tabulated the principal facts of interest regarding every city, 
town, county and district of the State, which we have alphabet- 
ically arranged and carefully indexed. 5[In view of the many 
topics of interest on which it is important that full and reliable 
information should be published, we have secured the collabor- 
ation of many eminent Texans and Texas Organizations who 
have contributed articles covering subjects on which they are 
recognized as competent authorities. So that this volume is 
not a work of any one man or group of men, but the product of 
a great number of the most capable men of Texas, a work of 
Texans, by Texans and for Texans, as well as a source of infor- 
mation for the people throughout the world who are interested 
in the Great Southwest. *j[The work is illustrated with appro- 
priate pictures showing scenic beauties, types of architecture, 
panoramic views, street scenes, public buildings, and views 
representative of Texas industries. Maps of railroads, electric 
lines, public highways and geographical and political divisions 
of the State, accompanied by an index to all towns and coun- 
ties, are an attractive feature of the work. 
We offer this volume to the reading public, not only as a 
Historical and Pictorial Review of the Lone Star State, but as 
a Standard Reference Encyclopedia for Public and Private 
Libraries, Banks, Business and Professional Offices, Schools, 
Hotels, Newspapers, Civic, Social and Publicity Organizations 
and all others seeking reliable information upon Texas. 

THE EDITORS. 



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TEXAS, THE LONE STAR STATE 




T 



By PAT M. NEFF 

Ex-Governor 



EXAS, popularly 
known as the Lone 
Star State, occupies a 
vast area of over a quarter of 
a million square miles, has 
perhaps a greater diversity 
of climate, soil, industries 
and products than any other 
state in the Union. 

Texas measures eleven 
hundred miles from east to 
west. Its greatest distance 
from north to south is nine 
hundred miles. Although a 
state with every variety of 
industry, the most important 
is agriculture. The surface 
of Texas is mountainous in 
the northwest and rolling 
prairies and lowlands. The soil consists of fertile 
black land, red land and sandy loam. In parts of 
West Texas irrigation is necessary to get the best 
results from the soil. In the eastern, central and 
southern portions, there is sufficient rainfall for any 
kind of agricultural produce. The climate is so 
varied that it is not so unusual in the winter time 
for ice to be found at Amarillo, while fresh straw- 
berries are being picked at Alvin. 

Texas leads all states in the production of pure 
bred live stock. It also has a long lead as a cotton 
producing state. The total value of agriculture, 
according to the 1921 census was $727,400,000, 
while its nearest competitive state, Iowa, had but 
$459,191,000. In 1921 Texas also led all states in 
the production of 
oil and the unde- 
veloped oil fields 
no doubt still 
hold possibilities 
of a greater pro- 
duction than any 
other state. Texas 
also leads in the 
output of refin- 
eries. More than 
one-fourth of the 
oil consumed in 
the United States 
is being refined 
here. The income 
from Texas oil 
fields alone 
amounts to near- 
ly five billion dol- 
lar?. 

Texas is rich in 
mineral deposits, 
leading the Union 
in the production 
of sulphur and 
second to Cali- 
fornia in the pro- 
duction of quicksilver. Large deposits of lignite 
and brown ore lie in central and east Texas. 

The state ranks high in the lumber industry. 
There are sever hundred saw mills producing up- 
wards of three billion feet of lumber annually. Ten 



per cent of the yellow pine timber of the United 
States stands within its borders. 

Although fundamentally an agricultural state, 
Texas has more rapidly growing cities than any 
of her sister states. The wide area of west Texas, 
no doubt offers greater inducements for prospective 
settlers than any of the northern states. 

Although Texas, through her extensive areas and 
large population has led in aggregate total of agri- 
cultural products, there is a large opportunity for 
greatly increasing the output and much can be done 
by the application of scientific principles of farming 
and the education of those who live upon the soil to 
enhance the value of their farm products, thus in- 
creasing the prosperity of the farm district. This 
can be done by the practice of greater diversified 
farming and rotation of crops. The agricultural 
department of Texas has done much and in the 
future will do a great deal more in the education of 
the farmer to get the most possible from his land. 
The chief fault, if it may be called a fault, of the 
Texas farmer is, to stake too much on one product. 
In the rich cotton raising areas it has been the habit 
to devote his entire time and available land to 
raising nothing but cotton. In the cattle raising 
districts, to raising nothing but cattle, in the wheat 
raising districts, to raising nothing but wheat, etc. 
This system has many drawbacks, as in case of a 
large crop of cotton, the price of the product might 
be too small to give much of a profit. The same 
principle will apply to the other products. In case 
of an over production, of low price or entire failure 
of a crop of any particular kind, it leaves the 




THE STATE CAPITOL, AUSTIN 
in a Park on a Hill, Surrounded with a Luxuriant Growth of Trees and Herbage 
is the Largest and one of the Finest State Capitols in the United States 

farmer with little, if any profit for his labors. With 
a systematic study of the kind of products that each 
district can produce and a diversity of the crops 
upon each farm, the land owner will always be 
assured a fair profit for his labors. 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



The variety of soil, climate and rainfall in the 
different districts of the state has naturally made 
possible the different kinds of produce. In East 
Texas great emphasis has been given to the fruit 
and vegetable industry. A wide area in this section 
is devoted to tomatoes, which has possibly been the 
greatest vegetable crop. Peaches are also an im- 
portant crop in this area while sweet potatoes and 
watermelons are raised in abundance. 

In Southern Texas small fruit and vegetables pre- 
dominate. Strawberries in the late winter and early 
spring are an important crop. Alvin is one of the 
leading centers. Farther south, near the Mexican 
border, the Bermuda onion, cabbage, cucumbers and 
watermelons have brought the farmer handsome re- 
turns. Laredo, on the border, is one of the prin- 
cipal centers for these products. 

The lower Rio Grande Valley, with its ample rain- 
fall and mild winter climate has become a profitable 
section for citrus fruit. 
Grape fruit and oranges 
of exceedingly delicious 
flavor are raised in 
abundance in this area 
and the acreage devoted 
to this product is being 
greatly increased. Cante- 
loupe raising is another 
profitable industry. Pe- 
cans, the fruit from the 
most popular Texas tree, 
has long been a profit- 
able industry and the 
cultivation of pecan 
trees has brought this 
delicious nut to the fore- 
ground in agricultural 
districts throughout the 
state. There is a bound- 
less opportunity for a 
great increase of the 
pecan growth on land 
which has hitherto been 
considered unproductive. 
The value of pecans as 
a food is becoming more and more appreciated. 

Texas is well provided with transportation facili- 
ties. Railroads penetrate all the rich agricultural 
and oil regions with transportation accomodations 
to the local as well as foreign markets. Electric 
roads radiate from the leading cities to the interior 
towns. The city of Dallas is the center of more 
miles of electric lines than any other city of its size 
in the United States. Public highways are being 
rapidly improved and a veritable net work of paved 
automobile roads will surround the leading cities and 
connect the larger centers with the most modern 
means of travel. 

Texas is composed of a progressive and energetic 
people. The refined culture and hospitality, char- 
acteristic of the southern people, tempered with the 
enterprise and broad vision of the western type, 
make a distinct personality which characterizes the 
true Texan, who radiates that charming quality, 
known as the Texas Spirit, giving the Texan the de- 
served reputation of being the greatest people of 
the greatest state of the Union. 

A great deal has been written about the great 
area of Texas and the state has been generally 




Executive Mansion, Home of Texas' Governors, Austin 



known throughout the North and East as a great 
unbroken range and many of the descriptions of 
Texas express distances and terms of miles and 
even hundreds of miles and the great ranches of 
the West in terms of thousands of acres. This, of 
course, has appealed to the imagination and lent a 
great amount of romantic interest to those who are 
attracted by the spirit of adventure. These de- 
scriptions have in the past been accurate to a more 
or less degree but in a treatise of the conditions 
as they are today, consideration must be given to 
the development which has taken place during the 
last few years. In large sections, where recently 
countless herds of cattle roamed over the unbroken 
range, large ranches have been divided into smaller 
ranches, the soil which is capable of producing 
cereals has been planted to small grains and the 
raising of wheat, oats, rye, kaffir corn, cotton and 
other profitable farm products have taken the place 

of stock raising. Al- 
tho it must be admitted 
there are still large dis- 
tricts of Texas where 
the rainfall is too small 
and the land too barren 
to become productive for 
the raising of grain or 
even for grazing, yet 
there are still large 
areas that are capable 
of being made far more 
productive than they 
have been in the past 
and if the population of 
the productive areas 
were as dense per square 
mile as the states of 
Missouri and Iowa, the 
state of Texas would 
have more than double 
its present population. 

Possibly one of the 
greatest opportun i t i e s 
for the increasing of 
productivity of Texas, 
would be in the conservation of the water sup- 
ply and the irrigation of large tracts of land 
which could thereby be brought under close cultiva- 
tion and the production vastly increased. This 
opens up a great field for the investment of capital. 
Dams could be built on many of the Texas streams 
and reservoirs maintained which would fill up during 
the rainy seasons and conserved for a time when 
the water is needed for the crops during a season 
when there is a lack of rainfall. An example of this 
kind may be seen in Wichita County and through 
the activity of enterprising citizens, the county has 
been bonded for four and a quarter million dollars 
for the building of a dam on the Wichita river 
where a reservoir will be maintained, which will irri- 
gate an area of one hundred and fifty thousand acres 
of rich Wichita Valley land, thus bringing non-pro- 
ductive districts into a rich and intensified farming 
area. This plan could be duplicated in many of the 
districts of North and West Texas, where the amount 
of rainfall is scant and large districts be brought 
under cultivation, thus increasing the productivity 
and hence the value of the lands. 



HISTORY OF TEXAS 

By ELIZABETH H. WEST 

Former State Librarian 




SPANISH discoveries and 
discoveries of the fif- 
teenth and sixteenth 
centuries notably those of 
Columbus, Pineda, Cabeza de 
Vaca, Coronada and De Soto, 
formed the basis of Spanish 
claims to the country which is 
now Texas. 

Remembering that the 
Spaniard has ever been a 
better dreamer than a doer, 
one is not surprised that 
the elaborate plans of Spain 
to occupy the North Ameri- 
can mainland were but slowly 
put into effect. New Mexico, 
the first settled part of our 
present Southwest was per- 
manently occupied almost a century, Texas almost 
two centuries after Columbus' discovery. 

The Spanish were temporarily driven out of New 
Mexico by the Indian uprising of 1680. The fugi- 
tives gathered into a settlement which formed the 
beginning of El Paso del Norte, or Paso del Norte, 
now the Mexican City of Juarez. This settlement, 
which was kept up after the reoccupation of New 
Mexico, in time overflowed to the Texas side of the 
Rio Grande thus furnishing a nucleus about which 
grew the present city of El Paso, Texas. 

The occupation 
of Texas by of- 
ficial intent was 
the outcome of 
long years of in- 
vestigation and 
planning on the 
part of the Span- 
ish Government. 
Back of it lay 
economic, relig- 
ious and polit'cal 
motives. The eco- 
nomic motive was 
the desire, which 
had led to plans 
and royal orders 
to settle a colony 
on Matagorda 
Bay, for a port 
closer to New 
Mexico than was 
the port of Vera 
Cruz, which was 
needed to shorten 
the long expens- 
ive overland trade 
route for goods 
imported from 

Spain. The religious motive was the desire to 
Christianize the Indians. The political motive was 
the desire to hold the country against foreigners, 
especially the 'French 

The execution of these plans, somewhat modified 
by circumstances was stimulated by La Salle's 



abortive attempt to settle a French colony on the 
Garcitas River, an inlet of Matagorda Bay, under 
the impression that he had reached the mouth of the 
Mississippi River. 

In their efforts to find the French intruders the 
Spanish made friends with a Tejas Indian chief and 
in 1690 founded a mission among these tribes. This 
mission, San Francisco De Las Tejas, was in 1693 
abandoned. 

The first permanent settlement was also the di- 
rect outcome of a Frenchman's entry into Texas, the 
Frenchman in this case being Louis de Saint Denis, 
who in 1715 came in from Louisiana to the Rio 
Grande in the interest of French trade. 

This easy, albeit peaceful invasion showed the 
Viceroy of New Spain the need of prompt action 
towards carrying out Spain's long cherished plans 
for the occupation of Texas. Accordingly an expe- 
dition was sent out in 1716 under Domingo Ramon 
and St. Denis, which resulted in the founding of a 
group of Missions and presidios in the vicinity of 
the present Nacogdoches and St. Augustine. Save 
for the brief period between 1719, when the Span- 
iards were driven westward by a French invasion and 
1721 when they were brought back by the Marquis 
de Aguayo, this mission group was kept up as a 
Spanish frontier outpost until 1762 when the cession 
of Louisiana to Spain making an Eastern outpost 
less important, the settlement was broken up by the 
Government. 




Surrender of Santa Anna, April 2 2, 1836, to Genera] Sam Houston 
After the Battle of San Jacinto 

Seventeen years later, however, some of those 
colonists impelled by longing for their old homes, 
came back under the lead of Antonio Gil Ybarbo, 
and founded Nacogdoches, which in turn became an 
important Spanish outpost when the United States 
acquired Louisiana in 1803. 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



At the close of the eighteenth century Nacogdo- 
ches, Goliad and San Antonio constituted practically 
the net result of the various Spanish experiments in 
the colonization of Texas. 

Goliad was the settlement clustered about the 
third site of the Spanish missions which had origi- 
nally been established on the site of La Salle's at- 
tempted colony. 

San Antonio or San Antonio de Bexar, had, so far 
as official records go, begun in 1718 with the removal 
thither of Rio Grande missions which, officially 
known as San Antonio de Valero, has come down in 
history as the Alamo, and the Marquis de Aguayo 
had completed its official establishment in the course 
of his entrada of 1719-1722. The settlement consis- 
ted of the civil establishment, San Fernando de Bex- 
ar, and the group of missions in and about San An- 
tonio, which still remain. 

All the other mission buildings, those in East 
Texas, those near Rockdale, near Menardville on the 




Battle of San Jacinto, April 21, 1836, at which Texas Secured Liberty from Mexico. Gen. Sam 
Houston with Eight Hundred Texans Attacked Gen. Santa Anna with an Army of Thir- 
teen Hundred Mexicans and Killed or Captured the Entire Command. 

lower Trinity, on the Coast, have long since crum- 
bled into ruins and disappeared. 

The readjustment which in 1763 followed the 
French and Indian war divided the Mississippi Val- 
ley, or Louisiana, between Spain and England, Span- 
ish Louisiana lying West, English Louisiana east of 
the Mississippi River. The readjustment, which in 
1783 followed the American Revolution made 
Eastern Louisiana a part of the United States of 
America. 

Spain was much disturbed at the close neighbor- 
hood of a republican government, fearing a de- 
moralizing influence in Texas and the Floridas. 
This concern was deepened when in 1803, only three 
years after Spain had returned Western Louisiana 
to France, the latter conveyed it to the United States. 
Clashes occurred in the early nineteenth century in 
the Floridas and on the Texas-Louisiana frontier 
which threatened serious trouble. So far as the Tex- 
as-Louisiana boundary was concerned the trouble 
was temporarily settled in 1806, by an agreement 
between the United States and Spain designating a 
frontier strip as the neutral ground, and permanently 
settled by the treaty of 1819, which definitely fixed 
the boundary. 



In the early years of the nineteenth century, the 
infiltration of republican ideas that Spain had 
dreaded brought about a revolt which beginning in 
1810 with the sounding of the GRITO by the poet- 
priest Hidalgo, ended in 1821 with the separation of 
Mexico from Spain. 

Spain was powerless to prevent the incoming 
of Anglo-American ideas. 

The intruders came as filibusters, notably under 
Philip Nolan, who led several expeditions, the last 
in 1800, under Augustus Magee and under James 
Long, both of whom came in to co-operate with the 
Republican forces. 

They also came in as settlers. Little is known 
of this phase of early nineteenth century history; 
unpublished documents however indicate that from 
1800 on there was considerable unofficial activity 
in this direction. Officially, so far as published 
history goes, the Anglo-American colonization of 
Texas began in December 1821, when Stephen F. 

Austin brought in 
the First Anglo- 
American colony. 
The grant had 
been made by the 
Spanish govern- 
ment in 1820 to 
Austin's father, 
Moses Austin, 
after the father's 
death the grant 
was passed to the 
son; and it was 
confirmed by the 
Mexican govern- 
ment which suc- 
ceeded the Span- 
ish. 

Far from try- 
ing to keep for- 
eigners out, Mex- 
ico at first held 
out liberal in- 
ducements to en- 
courage foreign 
immigration. Austin took out several other colon- 
ization contracts, as did other empressarios. By 
1835, it is estimated, there were at least 25,000 
Americans in Texas, who, being energetic and re- 
sourceful, had made an excellent beginning in de- 
veloping the resources of Texas. 

At first the centers of government were too far 
away for the Texan to feel much governmental re- 
straint in everyday affairs. Under the Mexican 
government developed early in the Anglo-American 
period, Texas with Coahuila formed the state of 
Coahuila and Texas; the state governor and legisla- 
ture were at Saltillo, the state capital. Closer to 
the individual colonists was the departmental gov- 
ernor, the closest of all was the local government. 

There was at first only one Texan department, 
that of Bexar, in 1834 there were three with political 
chiefs at San Antonio, San Felipe de Austin and 
Nacogdoches. The principal local officer was the 
ALCALDE, and there was a local municipal coun- 
cil known as the AYUNTAMIENTO. 

The average Anglo-Texan then, came into little 
direct contact with Mexican officials and took little 
thought of Mexico. With the United States, on the 
other hand, the Anglo-Texan had very strong ties. 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



In the United States were his friends and kindred, 
with the United States he had trade relations, to the 
United States if anywhere he sent his children to be 
educated. 

Although the Mexicans in the first flush of their 
victory over Spain in the War of Independence had 
shown a very liberal policy toward Americans, it 
was not long: before the old distrust founded upon 
inter-racial misunderstanding flamed up again and 
grew worse until it finally culminated in the Texas 
Revolution of 1835-36. 

The Fredonian Rebellion of Hayden and Benjamin 
W. Edwards in 1825, President Guerrero's emanci- 
pation proclamation of September 15, 1823, the De- 
cree of April 6, 1830, the Texan Rebellion of 1832, 
the imprisonment of Austin in 1834 and 1835, in 
the course of his mission to Mexico City to urge the 
separation of Texas from Coahuila, marked succes- 
sive stages in the growth of this mutual distrust. 

Finally General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna by 
a succession of tyrannical acts, notably the occu- 
pation of Texas with Mexican soldiers and the at- 
tempted arrest of a number of prominent Texans, 
brought the difficulty to a head. 

Austin upon his return from Mexico in Septem- 
ber 1835, issued a call to the colonists to arm them- 
selves for the inevitable conflict. In less than two 
weeks after this call the Revolution actually began 
with the battle of Gonzales, October 2, 1835. Short- 
ly after this trouble Austin was made Commander- 
in-Chief. In November, however, the Consultation 
which met at San Felipe de Austin elected General 
Sam Houston as Commander-in-Chief and sent Aus- 
tin with Archer and Wharton as commissioners to 
the United States. 

The war lasted seven months. Its most out- 
standing events were the battle of Gonzales, Octo- 
ber 2, 1835, the capture of San Antonio by the Tex- 
ans in December 1835, the capture of the Alamo by 
the Mexicans on March 6, 1836, and the massacre of 
the handful of Texans under William Barrett Travis 
who had heroically defended it against overwhelm- 
ing numbers; the massacre of Fannin and his com- 
mand at Goliad on Palm Sunday, three weeks later; 
thf eastward flight of the non combatant Texans, 
known as the "Runaway Scrape," and the battle of 
San Jacinto on April 21, 1836, which ended the 
war. 

The Texans began by fighting not for indepen- 
dence but for their rights under the Mexican Con- 
stitution of 1824. As time went on however, the 
course of events made independence inevitable and 
the Convention which assembled on March 1, 1836, 
passed a Declaration of Independence and later 
adopted a constitution. 

Under this constitution an independent republican 
government with David G. Burnet as provisional 
president replaced the provisional state government 
consisting of a governor and council set up by the 
Consultation of November, 1835, whose dissensions 
had done much to weaken the Texan cause and invite 
disaster. 

Texas remained an independent Republic for ten 
years, its independence being recognized by the Uni- 
ted States and several European powers. Mexico 
did not trouble Texas for about six years following 
the battle of San Jacinto. The two Mexican inva- 
sions of Texas in 1842 were partly in retaliation for 
Texan aggressiveness, notably the Santa Fe Expe- 
dition of 1841, and partly to emphasize the fact that 



Mexico had never recognized the independence of 
Texas. Following these came the unfortunate Mier 
expedition, which ended the fighting between Mexico 
and Texas. 

The annexation of Texas by the United States in 
1845, however, angered Mexico so that the Mexican 
war, 1846-1848, resulted. 

This war ended by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidal- 
go, February 2, 1848, which gave to the United 
States for $15,000,000, not only Texas, but the 
country which is now California, Nevada, Utah, Ari- 




The Alamo, the Historic Place where Heroic Texans 
Fought and Died for Texas Liberty 

zona, part of New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming, 
the Rio Grande being agreed upon as the Western 
boundary of Texas. 

The question which soon arose between the 
United States and Texas as to the latter's boundary 
threatened serious trouble for a while; it was finally 
settled by Henry Clay's Omnibus Bill which gave to 
Texas its present boundary and ten million dollars 
for giving up its claim to the rest of the territory ac- 
quired by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. 

Sixteen years after annexation the Civil war broke 
out. Despite a strong union sentiment in Texas, the 
chief exponent of which was Governor Sam Houston, 
Texas seceded from the Union and became one of 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



the Confederate States of America. Because Texas 
was on the extreme western edge of the Confeder- 
acy there was little actual fighting within the State. 
Galveston was captured by the Union forces in Oc- 
tober, 1862, and recaptured by the Confederates on 
New Year's day, 1863. Sabine Pass was attacked 
but not taken by the Federals, and Brownsville was 
occupied for a short while. That was all. 

After the collapse of the Confederacy, Texas was 
occupied by the Federals in 1865, the slaves were de- 
clared free, and a provisional government was estab- 
lished by President Johnson. In 1866 a popular elec- 
tion restored the regular state government. 

In 1867 however, Congress rejected the President's 
plan of reconstruction and put the South back under 
military rule. From this time until 1872, the state 
was in a very turbulent condition. The dominant po- 
litical party, the Radicals, enfranchised the negroes 
and disfranchised many of the whites. In 1869 they 




The Fall of the Alamo, March 6, 1836. In this Battle the Complete Garrison of One Hundred 
and Eighty-Two Texans were Annihilated. The Alamo was Defended by this Little Force of 
Texans Under the Command of Col. Travis, Assisted by Crockett and Bowie. An Army of 
Several Thousand Mexicans, Commanded by Santa Anna, Surrounded and At- 
tacked the Texans, Killing the Entire Force. 

formed a new constitution and elected Edmund J. 
Davis Governor. 

The antebellum ruling class naturally resented 
this reversal of the old order; they resented the 
harsh radical legislation; they resented the place of 
prominence assumed by the Negroes; they resented 
the difficult conditions of life naturally growing 
out of the abnormal state of things subsequent to 
the war. 

One channel through which this resentment found 
utterance was the Ku Klux Klan, a secret organiza- 
tion formed for the purpose of holding down the 
lawlessness of the Negroes. Its first effect seems 
to have been genuinely on the side of good public 
order, unfortunately however it fell into the hands of 
men who took advantage of the opportunity which 
it afforded them to play the brute. 

In 1870 Texas was restored to the Union. In 1872 
the Democratic party gained control of the Legisla- 
ture and in 1873 elected Richard Coke governor; it 
has been the dominant party in Texas ever since. 

The political history of Texas for almost half a 
century has therefore been practically the history 
of factional contests within the Democratic party. 



For the most part the basis of party alignment has 
been personal loyalty. Of late, however, the pre- 
dominance of principle over personalities has added 
dignity to Texas politics. The chief specific issue 
has lately been prohibition; viewed in its broader 
aspects, however, the struggle has been between pro- 
gressive and conservative ideas. The progressive 
element is now in the ascendancy and has enacted 
into law a number of progressive measures, notably 
statewide prohibition and the primary ballot for 
women. The influence of this party has also led to 
the ratification of the Federal amendment granting 
women full suffrage. 

The election of 1918, while a sweeping victory 
for the progressive group, headed by William P. 
Hobby, who was elected governor, has been pro- 
nounced nothing short of a political revolution, the 
most important in Texas history since the election 
of Coke. Governor Hobby's opponent in this cam- 
paign was ex- 
governor James 
E. Ferguson, who 
the year before 
the election had 
been impeached, 
convicted and re- 
moved from of- 
fice. 

The Terrell 
election law has 
been in use ever 
since 1906. 

The constitution 
under which we 
are now living 
was ratified by 
the people in 
1876. In the num- 
ber of its details, 
in the rigidity of 
its checks upon 
official action, it 
reflects the popu- 
lar distrust born 
in the unsatisfac- 
tory conditions under the reconstruction state gov- 
ernment. 

In the course of the past half century violence and 
fraud have gradually been suppressed. Public or- 
der has gradually become better. The state finances 
have improved steadily since Governor Roberts the 
"Old Alcalde" put into effect his famous "Pay as 
You Go" policy. The state debt has been almost 
wiped out. 

The state has practically quintupled its popula- 
tion in the generation following Reconstruction, 
while its wealth has increased about fifteen fold. 

In the foreign part of its cosmopolitan population 
German and Mexican elements predominate. 

One notable characteristic of this period is the 
rapid growth of cities and their progress in govern- 
ment and public work. 

The economic development of Texas since condi- 
tions have become more stable has been very rapid. 
In the eastern part of the state farming and lumber 
industries are especially important; in the central 
western and southern, farming and stockraising are 
growing in importance. Manufacturing industries 
are also steadily developing. 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



The oil fields, both the southeastern group dis- 
covered about thirty years ago and the northern and 
western groups discovered within the last few years, 
are becoming increasingly important in the indus- 
trial life of Texas and are bringing to the front so- 
cial problems, especially labor questions, which bid 
fair to become more progressive in the course of 
time. 

When all is said and done, Texas still remains pri- 
marily a farming state. Fruit and truck growing 
have long been predominant in the east and the south, 
cotton growing in most of the lower river valleys. 
Rice growing in the coast country is a notable de- 
velopment of the past quarter century. Large areas 
in the West are being changed by irrigation projects 
from grazing to farming land; the Rio Grande Val- 
ley especially, is becoming increasingly important 
in truck growing. Cotton farming interests have 
suffered greatly of late years from the Mexican boll 
weevil, the eradication or control of which has con- 
stituted a serious public problem. The pink boll- 
worm is another pest which has lately developed; 
th : s constitutes so grave a problem as to engage the 
attention of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture and to have forced the convening of the Leg- 
islature in special session to provide for its hand- 
ling. 

The railroad development of Texas is as yet in- 
complete, large areas being still remote from rail 
ways, even though the state ranks first in railway 
mileage. 

The building of railroads began before the civil 
war, the period of most rapid progress being be- 
tween 1879 and 1893. Private contributions, gifts 
of city and county bonds, loans from the state 
schools, and grants of public lands were means used 
to encourage railway development. 

As time went on and the need of regulation in the 
public interest becoming apparent, the Railroad 
Commission was in 1891 created at the instance of 
Governor Hogg. Its first chairman was United 
States Senator John H. Reagan, former Postmaster 
General of the Confederacy. 

in addition to the boundary disagreement with the 
United States which was settled in 1850, Texas has 
had two boundary controversies with Oklahoma. 
The first was settled by the decision of the United 
States Supreme Court in 1896, awarding Greer 
County to Oklahoma. The other which concerns an 
important oil field on the Red River, is still pending. 

Texas has suffered a number of public disasters 
from fire and flood and pestilence. Notable among 
these have been the epidemic of cholera and yellow 
fever, in the fifties and seventies; of meningitis in 
191 1 -12; of influenza in 1918-19, the Brazos Floods 
of 1899-1902-1914; the Coast storm of 1900, 1915 and 
1919; the West Texas drought of 1916, 1918; and 
the burning of the Capitol in 1881. 

Nature, science, and human will power and re- 
sourcefulness however, have turned these disasters 
to account in making for better things. 

Yellow fever at least has practically been con- 
quered. Galveston Island has been fortified with a 
seawall, and has out of its disaster evolved the com- 
mission form of government, which has proved such 
an improvement over the older form of municipal 
government as to impel cities far and wide to adopt 
it. Corpus Christi has in large part recovered from 
storm damage and is working to fortify itself 
against fjture disaster. The Brazos farms have 



been productive enough in the good years to make 
up for the losses in the flood and drought. The 
West Texas drought was broken by the rains of 
1919; the old capitol has been replaced by a new one, 
larger and more substantial, which has been in use 
since 1888. 

The growth of the State's educational system while 
yet far from complete has been another outstanding 
fact in recent state history. Though the founda- 
tion was laid in the time of the Republic by the set- 
ting aside of public lands for the provision of reve- 
nue for the educational purposes and though at- 
tempts at actual installation were made before the 
Civil War the present system has practically grown 
up since the Civil War, and especially since the pe- 
riod of reconstruction. 

The public educational agencies are the free pub- 
lic schools, the institutions of higher education, and 
the free public libraries. 

The free public schools comprise schools for nor- 
mal children, for handicapped groups the institu- 
tions for the blind and the deaf and dumb, for de- 
linquent groups, the State training schools for boys 
and girls. 

The institutions for higher education are the Nor- 
mal Colleges, the Grubbs Vocational College, the 
John Tarleton College, the College of Industrial 
Arts and the Agricultural and Mechanical College, 
and the University. Most of the Institutions of 
higher education and the institutions for the handi- 
capped and delinquent groups are supported wholly 
by legislative appropriations except in so far as 
some of them are benefitted by Federal appropria- 
tions under the land grants acts and the later Smith- 
Hughes and Smith-Lever Acts; the free public 
schools and the University have endowments de- 
rived from the sale and lease of public land set 
aside by the Republic; the free schools also have 
special state and local taxes, some of them also 
have a certain amount of state aid from legislative 
appropriations, the University has regularly a legis- 
lative appropriation for maintenance. 

In 1915 a compulsory attendance law was passed, 
which, notwithstanding its imperfections, is a step 
forward in educational progress. Following this and 
growing logically out of it was the enactment of 
the free text book law, which went into effect in 
1919. 

The growth of the higher institutions has of late 
been phenomenally rapid. 

There are also a number of private and church 
institutions, the wealthiest of which is Rice Institute 
at Houston. Baylor College at Waco, Southwestern 
at Georgetown, Southern Methodist at Dallas, Texas 
Christian at Ft. Worth, Trinity at Waxahachie and 
Austin College at Sherman are the principal church 
colleges. 

The free public library system of Texas, though 
one of the most vital parts of the educational system 
of any state, is only beginning. The period of most 
activity in the establishment of city libraries was 
between 1900 and 1915; it is only within the past 
ten years that developments tending to the welding 
of the whole into one articulated system have become 
significant. 

The most important piece of legislation looking 
to this end has been the law creating a library com- 
mission, passed in 1909 and amended in 1919, and 
the county free library law, passed in 1915 and 
amended in 1917 and 1919. 



PUBLIG SCHOOL SYSTEM OF TEXAS 

By ANNIE WEBB BEANTON 



Ex-Supt. Department of Education 




PROVISION for public 
education in Texas was 
included in the State 
Constitution framed by a 
convention which met at 
Austin in 1845. Not only 
were vast areas of land set 
aside as provision for a state 
permanent fund for public 
schools but lands to form the 
basis of a county school fund 
was allotted to such counties 
as had not already received 
: from the Republic of Texas 
their quantum of land for the 
: purpose of education. The 
. state permanent school fund 
j is now estimated to be 
$72,865,496, a sum for which 
for the scholastic year of 1918-19 produced an in- 
come of $10,252,619. The unsold school lands ap- 
proximate 800,000 acres. The county permanent 
school fund, including the value of unsold lands, 
totals $12,751,493. 

In addition the state levies for public free schools 
and for the purchase of free text books, a tax 
of three and one-half mills, and appropriates also 
for this purpose one dollar of each pull-tax collected. 
For the scholastic year of 1919-20 the state provides 
a per capita apportionment of $7.50, totaling $9,- 
253,440 for the 1,233,792 Texas children of scholastic 
age. 

In addition, the state makes a special provision 
for the aid of rural schools by appropriating from 
the general revenues $2,000,000 per year. This is 
appointed to the weak schools, in proportion to their 
needs, special allowances being made for school dis- 
tricts which will replace old buildings with new, 
erect teacherages and purchase additional equipment 
and suitable libraries. Aid from this fund for the 
transportation of pupils and for increases of salary 
for rural teachers who will take additional courses 
of study and who will remain in the same position. 

The value of public school property in the state, 
including buildings, grounds and equipment, is ap- 
proximately $50,000,000. There are about 16,000 
school buildings in Texas, 6,000 of which are of one- 
room type. About 500 teacherages have been erected 
within the last few years. 

In the public school service about 30,000 teachers 
are employed. The average annual salary, exclusive 
of remuneration paid to superintendents, principals, 
and other school o r cers, is approximately $500 per 
year. A campaign for substantial increases of 
salary is now under way. 

A number of state colleges with which most of 
the public high schools are affiliated afford excellent 
opportunities for higher education. The main branch 
of the University of Texas is situated at Austin, 
with the Medical Branch at Galveston and the School 
of Mines at El Paso. The University is co-educa- 
tional in all of its branches. In the central part of 
the state, at Bryan, is the Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College for young men, which institution is 
also a military school. The Grubbs Vocational Col- 
lege at Arlington and the John Tarleton College at 



Stephenville, both ranked as junior colleges, are 
branches of the Agricultural and Mechanical College. 
The College of Industrial Arts, for young women, is 
situated in North Texas, at Denton. The state has 
made provision for the establishment of eight normal 
colleges of the first class. Six of these are now in 
operation: The Sam Houston Normal College, 
Huntsville; the North Texas Normal College, Den- 
ton; the Southwest Texas Normal College, San Mar- 
cos; the West Texas Normal College, Canyon; the 
East Texas Normal College, Commerce; and the Sul 
Ross Normal College, Alpine. The other normal 
schools situated at Nacogdoches and at Kingsville, 
respectively, have lately begun operation. 

The State University, the Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College, the College of Industrial Arts, and 
the system of Normal Colleges have respectively, 
their own governing boards consisting of from six 
to nine members for each board, one-third of the 
membership of each board being appointed biennially 
by the governor. 

The state schools for the Blind and Deaf and 
Dumb are located at Austin. The state has also 
provided schools for delinquent boys and girls. The 
training school for boys being situated at Gates- 
ville, and that for girls at Gainesville, Texas. 

For vocational education under the Smith-Hughes 
Act, Texas will spend in 1919-20, $120,198.45, which 
sum is duplicated for Texas by the United States ap- 
propriation. A special state appropriation of $25,000 
is made available for vocational education in rural 
schools, to aid these schools in securing the benefit of 
the Smith-Hughes funds. 




Group of Buildings at Baylor University. Waco, one of the 
Oldest Institutions of Higher Learning in Texas 

The state superintendent of public instruction has 
general supervision over the public schools. From 
the state department of education ai'e distributed 
blanks for school reports, teachers' registers and 
various supplies. The statewide system of free 
textbooks is administered by the state superintend- 
ent, and the affiliation and classification of schools 
is carried out under the direction of the State De- 
partment of Education. The state superintendent 
is responsible also for the state course of study and 
has in charge the direction of summer normal in- 
stitutes and of the certification of teachers. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS 

By DR. ROBT. E. VINSON 



Ex-Preiident 




T 



,HE idea of a University 
for Texas was con- 
ceived in the minds of 
the fathers of the state about 
a century ago. Having thrown 
off Mexican domination be- 
cause, among other unbear- 
able burdens, Mexico had re- 
fused to provide educational 
facilities, the citizens of 
Texas immediately took steps 
to establish a public system 
which should include a uni- 
versity as the highest of its 
branches. 

The Congress of the Re- 
public in 1839 made goodly 
appropriations for the pur- 
pose of the university educa- 
tion, and in 1858 the state legislature made an 
enormous addition to this appropriation. 

The legislature of 1858 also passed an act whereby 
a university should be established, which univer- 
sity should be "an institution of learning — so en- 
dowed, supported and maintained as to place within 
the reach of our people, whether rich, or poor, the 
opportunity of conferring upon the sons of the 
state a thorough education." 

The Constitution of 1876 further provided specific- 
ally for the establishment and organization of "the 
University of Texas." In 1881, by popular vote, the 
University was located at Austin; two years later 
its formal opening was held. 

In the thirty-six years of its existence, the Uni- 
versity has grown in every direction. Beginning 
with the Academic and Law Departments, it has 
had added unto it the Departments of Engineering, 
Extension, Education and Medicine, and the Grad- 
uate Department and Summer Schools. The original 
University of Texas was housed in one building, 
which, incidentally, is now the west wing of the main 
building. Since that time the physical plant has 
grown until it includes nine large permanent build- 
ings and numerous temporary frame structures. 



' 



Since the University was created by the state 
primarily for the State, it is the privilege and re- 
sponsibility of every citizen of Texas to make him- 
self acquainted with the facts as to whether the 
State University has lived up to its principles and 
whether the results that it accomplishes are worthy 
of the institution which its originators meant it to be. 

The University of Texas was from the beginning 
meant to be "a means whereby the attachments of 




1 




Texas Women's College, Fort Worth, one of Texas' Insti- 
tutions for Higher Education 



Looking North on University Avenue from the Capitol Toward 

the University of Texas. The Main Building 

is in the Center 

the young men of the state to the interests, the in- 
stitutions, and the rights of the state and the liber- 
ties of the people might be encouraged and in- 
creased." These words may be considered as an 
expression of the goal toward which the institution 
has striven and is striving. To the same degree 
that its functioning has been perfect has it at- 
tained the purpose set for it. Moreover, the worth- 
iest possible compliment to be given the institution 
is that its (students and through them other Texans) 
should feel an increased responsibility and love for 
the interests, institutions and rights of the state 
The severest criticism would rightly devolve upon 
it if there should be no evidence of this intensified 
feeling in those who come under the influence of its 
teachings. 

This brings us as loyal Texans to 
the question: Are the students of 
the University of Texas by means 
of their attendance there more 
closely attached to the interests of 
the state? It is possible to tell 
only by observing the positions of 
trust creditably held by ex-students 
of the University and by noting the 
response made by them when their 
support is needed to preserve some 
former benefit or secure a new 
good for the state and its citizens. 
Actual statistics are impossible to 
be had on so intangible a subject, 
but it is a self-evident fact that 
men and women who have been 
students in the State University 
have keener visions and are more 
capable and more eager than they 
otherwise would have been to pro- 
mote the interests of the state. ■ 



10 



! 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



The large majority of ex-students in public or 
private positions stand for "clean" politics, in the 
commonly accepted sense of the term. Their worthy 
and effective devotion to the interests of the state 
has been felt in more than one political struggle. 

Is the University of Texas faithful to its trust in 
regard to upholding and maintaining the institutions 
of the state ? Are its students distinguished for 
their increased attachment to these institutions ? 
In answer to these questions let us first consider 
that functioning of the University which has to do 
with the educational system of the state. Standing 
as it does, at the head of education in the state, the 
University has been the means of encouraging and 
promoting scholarship in the public schools. In 
order that their students may be capable of enter- 
ing the University, the big schools of the state must 
maintain a certain standard of instruction. This 

standard, set 
by the Uni- 
v e r s i t y of 
Texas is said 
to have had 
more influ- 
ence than any 
other factor 
in the devel- 
opment and 
growth of the 
schools of 
Texas. 

Another im- 
portant ser- 
vice rendered 
by t h e Uni- 
versity is the 
supply of 

University of Texas. Upper: Main Building f .„„).„.- 
Lower: Women's Dormitory i. r. _ „„ 

which comes 
annually from its class rooms. In large measure has 
it been through them that the demands of the public 
schools have been filled and the prescribed standard 
kept up. 

Nor is school teaching the only profession which 
has a bulwark of strength in the University of 
Texas. An educated bar is rapidly becoming a thing 
of certainty, thanks largely to the Law Department 
of the University. The practice of Medicine is, as 
a whole, on a much higher level on account of the 
Medical Department, and the graduates who go out 
from it every year. Engineers and scientists of all 
descriptions are prepared in the State University 
so that they may go out and give their service to 
the people of the state. 

It is hardly appreciated by the average citizen 
taxpayer in the State of Texas, what the University 
of Texas stands for as an institution to promote the 
education and progress of the state. What in reality 
does the University consist of? It is not merely a 
teaching mill, it is an assemblage of a body of men 
of science and learning provided with the facilities 
for the work of education and research, with which 
they share with the students who are to become 
the first citizens of communities throughout the 
state. Such an institution depends upon the co- 
operation and confidence of the taxpayers through- 
out Texas, for which it is created to serve. 

The church, while not an institution of the state 
in the true sense of the word, is another of the in- 
stitutions within the state which possesses a staunch 





ally in the University of Texa3. Sectarian teachings 
being forbidden in the school, a broadness of vision 
is fostered which encourages the student to know 
his faith and why and whence it came. That the 
University is not 
lacking in its 
spiritual charac- 
ter is testified by 
the numbers o f 
young men and 
women who have 
gone out from it 
in religious and 

SOCial Service Engineering Building 

work at home and in foreign countries. 

The founders of the University of Texas further 
desired that it should be a means whereby the liber- 
ties of the people should be increased. Whatever 
may have been their ideal when they wrote these 
words, the University has not failed in this respect. 
Exemplifying and standardizing democracy on its 
own campus, it honors the millionaire and the self- 
supporting student. Opportunity for an education 
lies in it for all. And its teaching opens other doors 
to greater liberty that comes with a well informed 
and understanding mind. 

"That the liberties of the people might be in- 
creased." The men who wrote these words builded 
greater than they knew. It was not possible for 
them to conceive of the service which their Univer- 
sity should give toward increasing the liberties of 
the people of Texas and the world. 

The significance of the University is a part of the 
educational system in this state, to be more fully 
understood by mention of its varied activities: First, 
there is the Academic Department offering to 
students the foundation subjects, Classic Literature, 
History, Ancient and Modern Languages and 
Sciences. The departments of Jurisprudence and 
Medicine where the embryos of our future physi- 
cians, lawyers and judges are prepared for their 
professional careers. The University works hand in 
hand with the elementary schools to which they 
supply the teachers and where from the high schools 
throughout the state, its own classes are recruited. 

It would be trite to rename those many things 
that the University did and made possible during 
the recent World War. One story cannot describe 
the University of Texas as it was in 1917-20. There 
were the various military schools, the enormous 
sums of money spent for their maintenance, the 
special classes in the University proper that made 
the men and women better fitted for the responsibili- 
ties thrust upon 
them. There 
were the inspir- 
i n g examples — 
among the per- 
sonnel of the Uni- 
versity of t h o s e 
who gave greatly 
for the sake of 
others. And 
there was, and is, 
the gigantic service flag with its thousands of 
stars, hundreds of which are gold ones. 

The University can progress only to the extent 
that the public encourage and support by instructing 
their representatives to provide financially for its 
support and send their children there to be educated. 




University Library 



11 



PROGRESSIVE LEGISLATION IN TEXAS 



By W. P. HOBBY 

Ex-Governor 




W 



ITHIN the last few 
months the popula- 
tion of Texas has 
greatly increased, our indus- 
tries have grown and our 
commerce has expanded. 
Along with this development 
there has been a great change 
for the better in some of our 
ideas along economic, in- 
dustrial and educational lines. 
New conditions have created 
new demands, and public 
opinion has become crystal- 
lized into statutes to make 
possible the achievement of 
things now essential. 

Among the list of laws 
enacted since 1912, we find 
a number that indicate the new conditions on 
the one hand, and the important changes in public 
opinion on the other. The largest group of these 
piogiessive measures is that affecting labor. Among 
the most important of these is the Workmen's Com- 
pensation Law. A commission was appointed in 
1911 to study and investigate the subject of work- 
men's compensation. Legislation followed in 1913 
However, the act was practically re-written in 1917 
to provide, among other things, (1) increased com- 
pensation for specific injuries with a greater num- 
ber of injuries coming under this class; (2) in- 
creased powers of the Board in enforcing its de- 
cisions and administering the law; (3) the re- 
quiring of insurance companies to enter suit after 
an award has been made where they refuse to pay 
the compensation as awarded and the employee is 
forced to bring suit; (4) the overlapping system 
of the Board, which increases the term of office t > 
six years. (Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess. 3 5th Leg., 1917, 
Ch. 103.) 

It may be doubted whether any other subject of 
labor legislation has gained such general accept- 
ance in the United States for its principles in so 
brief a time as workmen's compensation, and Texas 
was one of the earlier states to recognize the ne- 
cessity of guarding against and compensating for 
industrial accidents. 

Women and Children in industry have received es- 
pecial attention at the hands of the legislature with 
a view to preventing the exploitation of the present 
generation at the expense of the future manhood and 
womanhood of Texas. Women have assumed a new 
status in our industrial life; and in recognition of 
this new status and of the new dangers to herself 
and to society thereby entailed, it has been provided 
that she shall not work more than fifty-four hours 
a week (Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess., 34th.. Leg., 191f., 
Ch. 56) and that she shall receive minimum wage. 
(Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess., 36th Leg., 1919 Ch. 160). 
The Legislature furthermore has created a special 
woman's division in the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
for the sole purpose of guarding the interests of 
women and children as wage-earners. (Gen. Laws, 
Reg. Sess., 35th Legislature, 1917 Ch. 106). Pro- 
vision has also been made for mothers' pensions 
(Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess., 35th Leg., 1917, Ch. 120). 



Closely allied to the movement to protect children 
in industry is the enactment of the compulsory ed- 
ucation law. (Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess., 34th Leg., 1915 
Ch. 49.) This legislation, as well as that prohibiting 
the employment of children of tender years in cer- 
tain employments, (Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess., 32nd 
Leg., 1911, Ch. 46), looks to a more highly educated 
and more efficient democracy. 

As supplementing the foregoing laAvs in the in- 
terest of child welfare is the Free Text Book law. 
The State constitution was so amended in 1919 as to 
make it possible for the State to provide school books 
free within prescribed limitations, and the Text 
Book Law, making operative the amendment, was 
passed in 1919. (Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess., 36th Leg-, 
Ch. 29.) During the past six years, Texas has ap- 
propriated eight million dollars to be spent in im- 
proving her rural schools with a view to giving chil- 
dren in the rural districts the educational advantages 
enjoyed in the urban centers. 

As looking further to the conservation of young 
manhood and womanhood, the legislature in 1919 
provided for the establishment and maintenance of 
a Home for Dependent and Neglected White Chil- 
dren. (Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess., 36th Leg., 1919, Ch. 
159). 

Texas has not only given legal recognition to 
woman in industry, but is making rapid strides to- 





An Attractive Bit of Scenery Near the City of Austin 

ward extending to her full rights and privileges un- 
der the law. The married woman s property- 
rights act gives married women the same property 
rights as those possessed by a femme sole, (Gen, 
Laws, Reg. Sess., 33rd Leg., Ch. 32), marks one of 
the first steps toward equal rights for women. To 
elevate further the legal status of married women, 
the legislature, in 1919, passed a law permitting 
them to become stockholders in corporations. (Gen. 
Laws, Reg. Sess., 36th Leg., 1919, Ch. 132). Equal 
suffrage in primary elections and conventions was 



12 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



recently conferred upon women by an Act of the 4th 
called session of the 35th Leg., (Ch. 34), and the 
Act was sustained by the Supreme Court in a ma- 
jority opinion handed down January 28, 1920, in 
the case of Rot vs. Schneider, not yet reported. 
Following close upon this reform was the ratifica- 
tion of the federal suffrage amendment at the last 
special session of the legislature. 

The legislation outlined pertaining to women rep- 
resents hard-won victories in the state, making for 
her political emancipation. 

Another sharply contested battle extending over 
many years culminated in 1918 in the adoption of 
a prohibition amendment to the state constitution 
(Gen. and Sp. Laws, both called Sess., 35th Leg., 

1918. H. J. R. 1, p. 200) closely allied reform measure 
is the law abolishing pool halls passed by the legisla- 
ture in 1919. (Gen. Laws. Reg. Sess., 3 6th Leg., 
1919 Ch. 14). 

Probably the most far-reaching administrative leg- 
islation in Texas in recent years is the Board of 
Control law enacted at the last regular session of 
the legislature. (Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess., 36th Leg., 

1919, Ch. 323.) Aside from its extensive consoli- 
dation features, it discharges in a measure the func- 
tions of a budget commission, and those of an audit- 
ing department. It looks generally to a co-ordinated 
and economic administration of the affairs of the 



eleemosynary and other institutions. The passage 
of the Bill marks the beginning of a new era in the 
financial policy of Texas. 

As important in the state's financial policy two 
other measures have been recently passed; the first, 
the Act providing for the investment of surplus 
funds in the treasury in short-time U. ii. Certificates, 
passed in March, 1918; the second, the Depository 
Law of 1919. The former, which was passed as a 
co-operative war measure, has yielded the State a 
return of $289,936.79; the latter brings in a reve- 
nue of $30,000 per month, representing an interest 
item for the use of State funds. 

Other laws indicating progressive legislative ten- 
dencies are the Uniform Negotiable Instruments Act 
and the Uniform Warehouse Receipts Act, both 
passed in 1919. There seems to have been an effort 
to make this legislation uniform in character with 
that of various states in the Union. 

Our absentee voting law, although limited in scope 
is probably a precursor of future legislation in line 
with the absentee voting laws in force in some of 
the other states. 

The war measures are not included in this article. 
It is sufficient to say they were vigorous, thoroughly 
American in spirit, and framed with a view to full 
co-operation with the National Government in the 
prosecution of the war. 



THE TEXAS JUDICIARY 

THE RELATION OF THE LAWYERS TO THE GOURT 
By THOMAS B. GREENWOOD 

Associate Justice Supreme Court of Texas 



A REVIEW is sought in the Supreme Court each 
year of from five hundred to six hundred of the 
decisions of the nine courts of civil appeals. 
The oldest application awaiting the court's disposi- 
tion in October 1920 was filed in June 1919. Three 
months work will be required to again get the 
docket to where the applications will relate to de- 
cisions rendered within the previous ninety days. 

Hearing so much of the Supreme Court's delay, 
I am not certain that the people generally realize 
that about three out of every four appeals, which are 
contested to the utmost, are finally disposed of 'by 
the Supreme Court, not after years and years of 
distressing and vexatious waiting for action, but 
after a maximum delay of some fifteen months. It 
is nevertheless true that writs of error are granted 
on only about twenty per cent of the applications, 
consequently, of all the causes, in which the de- 
cisions of the courts of civil appeals are not ac- 
cepted by the parties as final, some three fourths 
are made final by the action of the Supreme Court 
within the rather brief periods already indicated. 

Many lawyers think that the Supreme Court 
should make greater use of the Act of March 15, 
1917, empowering justices of the courts of civil ap- 
peals to act on applications for writs of error. In 
its actual operation the Act develops almost as 
much, work on the judges of the Supreme Court, in 
passing on applications, as is involved in their un- 
aided determination. The reason lies mainly in the 
law's requirement that the Supreme Court alone 
shall act in every cause where there has been a 
dissent, or where there is a conflict between the 
holding complained of and a holding of another 
court of civil appeals or of the Supreme Court, or 
where a statute is held void. 



Nor is this the only impediment to the success- 
ful operation of the Act. The really numerous ap- 
plications alleging errors of importance to the juris- 
prudence of the State cause another impediment, 
for the legislature has further provided that before 
writs should be granted to correct errors of im- 
portance to the jurisprudence of the State the 
errors must be of such importance as "in the opinion 
of the Supreme Court to require correction." 
Thus action is again required from the Supreme 
Court judges, and on the whole, the difference in 
time required for the Supreme Court judges to 
perform their duties under this Act and to determine 
the applications, without assistance, has not been 
thought of late to justify the hampering of the 
courts of civil appeals by the withdrawal from their 
work of three of their members. 

There is one thing entirely within the control o' 
the lawyers, which is a real aid to the Supreme 
Court, and that is the reply to the application, au- 
thorized by Supreme Court Rule 5. The Statutes 
and rule, in effect, invite counsel for the defendant 
in error to furnish the court a plain, clear and con- 
cise refutation of the grounds of jurisdiction or the 
grounds of error, or both, as set forth in the appli- 
cation. 

Why do counsel commonly fail to reply to an ap- 
plication for writ of error? 

Perhaps the omission is due in part to the idea 
that the briefs in the courts of civil appeals may 
suffice. But that idea overlooks the essential pur- 
pose for the reply, which is to point out why the 
action of the court of civil appeals be held final 
or should be sustained. There is so much to be 
gained from a carefully prepared reply to an ap- 
plication that I do not think counsel would so often 



13 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



forego its filing were it not that the time allowed, 
viz: ten days, is so short. The Statute ought, it 
seems to me, to be amended so as to allow the same 
time for the filing the reply as is allowed for 
the preparation of the application, that is, thirty 
days. 

Under subdivision 6, of article 1521 of the Re- 
vised statutes, as amended in 1917, the Supreme 
Court will grant a writ of error, upon an assignment 
that the Court of Civil Appeals erred in its conclu- 
sion that there was or was not any evidence to call 
for the determination of an issue by the court or 
jury, only in the event that the Court of Civil Appeals 
can be fairly regarded as so flagrantly wrong as to 
amount to a virtual denial and abrogation of the 
established rules of law which in the one instance, 
enjoin upon the trial court the exercise of its essen- 
tial function, and in the other preserve the right of 
jury trial. Notwithstanding the fact that rarely 
will such errors occur, the duty is nevertheless im- 
posed upon the court to examine all assignments 
raising questions of that kind, and at least their 
supporting statements, to see if they entitle the 
applicant to the writ. So errors of this kind are 
assigned in amazing numbers, and covering endless 
pages. It seems logical that where the return for 
such an amount of work is so slight that the Court 
ought to be relieved by the Legislature of this 
really considerable burden. 

The total number of causes on the Court's trial 
docket, on the last Saturday in June 19 20, wherein 
judgment had not been entered was 274. Of this 
number submitted to the Supreme Court, 89 had 
been referred to the Commission of Appeals, and 173 
remained on the trial docket, neither referred nor 
submitted. At the end of the Summer term the 
court determined 90 cases, without referring them 
to the Commission. The Court determined 138 
cases, which had been referred to the two sections 
of the Commission; the aggregate of causes on the 
trial docket thus being 228. 



Many people, including lawyers, seem to have the 
habit of estimating the delay on the Supreme 
Court's trial docket by figuring the time which has 
elapsed since the docketing of the oldest undisposed 
of cause. By this method of calculation, one can 
prove that the Court is at least five and a half years 
behind on its trial docket. It happens, however that 
there is only one unsubmitted and undisposed of 
cause, which was entered on the trial docket in the 
year 1914, and none whatever in the year 1915. Of 
causes entered on the trial docket in the year 1916. 
only five remain undisposed of and not transferred 
to the Commission, and only two of the 1916 causes 
which were transferred to the Commission remained 
undisposed of. This makes only 8 cases, referred 
and unreferred, to be submitted, which reached the 
trial docket before the year 1917. 

There are 96 unreferred and unsubmitted cases 
in the Supreme Court preceding the last case re- 
ferred to the Commission, in which the writ of error 
was granted on March 19, 1919. If its work were 
confined to the oldest cases, the Supreme Court, 
in one term, could more than dispose of these 96 
causes, if it acted on no more Commission cases 
during the term than the 89 already referred. It 
seems demonstrable, therefore, that it is neither ac- 
curate nor true that the Court's trial docket is 
five and a half years in arrears. 

And yet, with 274 cases remaining undecided 
on the trial docket of the Supreme Court, including 
cases referred to the Commission of Appeals, and 
with 450 pending applications for writs of error and 
with the increased volume of litigation attendant 
on the marvelous development of the State's match- 
less resources, no lawyer ought to be heedless of the 
obligation to do all within his power to relieve the 
burden on the Court. 

I have not the least doubt that the people will 
ultimately enlarge the Court and make it possible 
for a large part of its business to be determined 
by sections. 



TEXAS LIBRARIES 

By ELIZABETH H. WEST 

Former State Librarian 



ACCORDING to the latest figures available, 
there are in Texas forty-two libraries wholly 
or partially supported by the state; fifty free 
public libraries, forty-eight supported wholly or 
partly by municipalities, two by endowments; 
thirty-six subscription public libraries, and twenty- 
four libraries in colleges or universities not sup- 
ported by the state. 

State Supported Libraries: The state supported 
group comprises twelve governmental libraries, 
seventeen educational, eight in homes and hospitals, 
and four penal or correctional. The twelve govern- 
mental libraries are the State Library, the Supreme 
Court Library, and the libraries of the Court of 
Criminal Appeals. The seventeen educational li- 
braries are those of the University, main, depart- 
mental and extension; the Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College, John Tarleton College and Grubbs 
Vocational College; the eight normal colleges; the 
College of Industrial Arts; and the three schools 
for the Blind and Dea f . The libraries in homes and 
hospitals and those of the two Confederate Homes, 
the Orphan's Home, the Tuberculosis Hospital, and 



the three hospitals for the Insane. The libraries for 
the state prisons at Huntsville and Rusk and of the 
two state training schools, constitute the penal and 
correctional group. 

The State Library has approximately 40,000 vol- 
umes, 30,000 pamphlets, 100,000 manuscripts and 
transcripts. Its appropriation for the current bi- 
ennium is $20,112 for the first year, $22,298 for the 
second. It is housed in the State Capitol in quarters 
which it is rapidly outgrowing, having in 1909 been 
assigned not quite half of the space occupied pre- 
viously by the Supreme Court Library alone; its 
public documents are shelved in the basement, for 
want of available space elsewhere. 

It has, since 1909, been a separate state depart- 
ment under its own governing board, the Texas 
Library and Historical Commission. In the previous 
years of its existence it had for the most part been 
only a division of some other state department, 
1839-66, insurance, statistics and history — later 
agriculture, insurance, statistics and history — 1876- 
1909. 

Under the provisions of the law of 1909, creating 



14 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



the Texas Library and Historical Commission, as 
amended in 1913-1919, the library performs the usual 
functions of a state library in serving the executive 
departments and the legislature especially through 
its legislative reference division; it also has a cus- 
tody and care of historical material already ac- 
quired, official material to be transferred from other 
departments, and other future acquisitions. It is 
authorized to print its collections, and sell such 
printed copies. It is also authorized to serve as the 
distributing agency for state documents. 

Among the most important sections of the law are 
those which provide for the qualification of the State 
Librarian Staff. The State Librarian must have 
had at least one year's library school training and 
three years' experience as head of a free public 
or institutional library, or as an assistant of high 
rank in such library; all assistants above the rank 
of clerks and laborers are required to have technical 
library school training, heads of departments being 
required to have in addition at least one year of ex- 
perience in library work prior to appointment. The 
commission consists of five members, to be ap- 
pointed by the governor for six-year overlapping 
terms. It is empowered to act as a governing board 
for the State Library and to "give advice to such 
persons as contemplate the establishment of public 
libraries, selection of books, catalogueing and library 
management, conduct library institutions, and en- 
courage associations." The State Librarian must in 
connection "ascertain the condition of all public 
libraries in the state, and report the results to the 
commission." 

The State Library, therefore, has the legal author- 
ity to help materially in the development of the free 
public library system of Texas. It has heretofore 
been able to do little in the way of library extension, 
because of insufficient funds. It has published an 
excellent quarterly bulletin, "Texas Libraries," when 
it has had the money to do so; and it has instituted 
a traveling library service, which has proved ex- 
ceedingly useful so far as it has been able to func- 
tion at all under its financial limitations. It has 
also in the present biennium inaugurated a state- 
wide service for the blind. 

The Supreme Court Library, established in 1854, 
is under the direct control of the Supreme Court; 
the deputy marshal of the court acts as librarian. 
As stated above, it divides its quarters with the 
State Library. It is strictly a reference library, 
its books not circulated outside the Capitol building. 

It contains approximately 21,000 volumes; its spe- 
cial strength lies in its collection of Federal and 
State reports. Its appropriation for the current 
biennium total $3,400 for the first year, $3,000 for 
the second. 

The libraries of the Courts of Appeals have for 
the current biennium appropriations ranging from 
$100 to $750 each year of the biennium, the total 
for the ten being $5,150 for each year. The latest 
available statistics indicate that their size ranges 
from approximately 1,200 to 6,000 volumes. Each 
is under the care of the clerk of the court. 

Of the state supported group, of all the libraries 
of the state, in fact, the main library of the Uni- 
versity is the largest, and for scholarly use the 
most important. When it was opened in 1883, it was 
housed in a single room in the main building, and 
the librarian devoted only a part of his time to its 
care; the first full-time librarian was appointed only 



in July, 1897. From this small beginning it has 
grown into a library of approximately 130,000 vol- 
umes and 30,000 pamphlets, with a building of its 
own, with seven departmental branches, with a li- 
brarian and a staff of twenty-seven assistants. 

The rapid yet healthy growth of the University 
Library in general and special collections is going 
far toward bringing the University of Texas to the 
goal set by the fathers — "a University of the first 
class." 

In addition to direct scholarly service rendered 
to the university community by the main library 
and its departmental branches, the university is 
giving important statewide library service. This 
is rendered to a limited extent through direct loans 
from the main library to individuals, groups or li- 
braries; to a far more important extent through the 
library schools, the Extension Loan Library, and the 
Library of the School of Government. 

A library training class was conducted in 1901- 
1902, 1903-1907. In the fall of 1919 a regular library 
school was installed. The director holds the rank 
of adjunct professor; the assistant, that of in- 
structor. Junior standing is required for admission, 
and courses are counted towards the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts. The school has begun with only 
course in catalogueing and classification; others will 
be added from year to year. 

The Extension Loan Library is a package librai'5 
under the Department of Extension. It lends di- 
rectly to individuals and groups packages of ma- 
terial on subjects of timely interest, a typical pack- 
age containing about twenty clippings and pam- 
phlets and one or two books. It is especially useful 
to debaters of the interscholastic league, to high 
school students, and to adult groups studying ques- 
tions of current importance. It draws freely upon 
the resources of the main library but is an independ- 
ent library. 

The Library of the School of Government bears a 
closer relation to the main library than does the 
extension loan library. Its collections consist of live 
books, pamphlets, periodicals and typewritten ma- 
terials on topics of present interest to students of 
government. Its statewide service is especially 
helpful to municipal officials and other persons in- 
terested in civic affairs. It is intimately connected 
with the work of the Bureau of Municipal Research 
and of the League of Texas Municipalities. 

The items of the current appropriation specifically 
designated for the various library activities of the 
university total $23,550 for each year of the bi- 
ennium. 

Appropriations for the other libraries maintained 
by the state are as follows: Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College, $7,500 for each year of the current 
biennium; College of Industrial Arts, $710; Sam 
Houston Normal, $720, including textbooks; North 
Texas Normal, $3,421; Southwest Texas Normal, 
$8,100, including textboks; East Texas Normal, 
$5,400; Sul Ross Normal, $1,400; John Tarleton Col- 
lege, $2,400; Grubbs Vocational College, $2,700; In- 
stitution for the Blind, $1,125; School for the Deaf, 
$500; Orphans' Home, $300; Girls' Training School, 
$300. The Epileptic Colony and the hospitals for the 
insane have each a fund for literature and amuse- 
ment ranging from $300 to $1,500 for each year 
of the biennium. 

The Agricultural and Mechanical College, the Col- 
lege of Industrial Arts, Sam Houston, North Texas, 
and West Texas Normal College? have each a li- 



15 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



brarian and assistant librarian; Southwest Texas 
Normal College has a librarian and two assistants. 
The other Normal Colleges, John Tarleton, Grubbs 
and the Institution for the Blind have each a li- 
brarian only. The other institutions, other colleges 
and university libraries have no specific provision 
for library service. 

Of the colleges and universities not supported by 
the state, the largest libraries are those of Baylor 
University. Waco, which has approximately 31,000 
volumes; Southwestern University, Georgetown, ap- 
proximately 10,000; Austin College, Sherman, ap- 
proximately 10,000. Both Baylor and Southwestern 
have full time librarians; the Baylor librarian has 
four staff assistants, and a varying number of stu- 
dent assistants; the Southwestern librarian has only 
student assistants. The library of Austin College is 
administered by student assistants under the direc- 
tion of one of the faculty. 

Subscription Libraries: Of the thirty-six sub- 
scription libraries of Texas some have their own 
quarters, while others are kept in stores, banks, 
school houses, private residences, dental parlors, club 
houses, Masonic Lodges, city halls or court houses. 

They are mostly kept open only a few hours each 
week, and administered by volunteers; in many cases 
they are kept up by the efforts of club women. Fees 
range from 50 cents to three dollars a year. 

This group of libraries is doing good in meeting, 
even though inadequately, a strong felt need for 
library service; and, judging from past history, 
they are likely to serve a useful purpose in laying 
the foundation for free public library service. 

Free Public Libraries: The establishment of the 
free public libraries of Texas in their present form 
is in the main the work of the last twenty years. 

Many of them have back of their present organi- 
zation a history of years of struggling effort ana 
small things; one, the Houston Lyceum, now merged 
with the Carnegie Library, dating back to 1848. 
Some are still leading a more or less hand-to-mouth 
existence, kept from death only by the persistent 
efforts of a devoted group of women. Their in- 
comes range from the amounts that can be secured 
from contributions by interested individuals, or 
groups, sometimes with a small appropriation from 
the municipal government, to $22,000, the sum an- 
nounced in the press as the appropriation for the 
Houston Lyceum and Carnegie Library for the pres- 
ent fiscal year. 

Twenty-six library buildings have been donated 
by the Andrew Carnegie Corporation, to which Mr. 
Carnegie, in his later years, turned over his work. 
The conditions of the gift were in each case the 
furnishing of a site by the city and the promise of a 
yearly maintenance fund from the public revenues 
at least equal to ten per cent of the amount granted. 

Statistics for 1917, the latest comparative state- 
ment available, indicate that the incomes of this 
group range all the way from nothing at all in the 
way of public support to $19,500, the amount derived 
from the library tax in Dallas. Incomplete statistics 
gathered since that time indicate a decided advance, 
several of the municipalities which had fallen be- 
low their original library maintenance, having lately 
come up to, or even beyond the amount stipulated. 
One city, for instance, has recently placed in its 
charter a provision for an annual levy of five cents 
on the hundred dollars valuation. 

The cities that have continued the originally stipu- 



lated support have, according to these later reports, 
changed places in the income scale. El Paso, for 
instance, has in its revised charter a provision for 
a library tax levy of 3% mills on the dollar; which 
tax was levied for the first time in 1919. The in- 
come for this levy will approximate $21,000 for the 
current year, practically the same as the estimated 
income of the Dallas Public Library, which in 1917 
has the largest tax-derived income in the state. 
Houston is now the leader in this respect, the city 
commission of Houston having voted for 1920 an 
appropriation of $22,000. Dallas and El Paso con- 
sequently will drop to second or third place. 

The Rosenberg Library, Galveston, the Nicholas 
P. Sims, Waxahachie, and the Kemp Public Library, 
Wichita Falls, are the three notable gift libraries of 
the state. The two first are supported by endow- 
ments; the third, by city taxation. 

Rosenberg Library has the largest income of all 
the free public library group — approximately $30,000 
annually. 

Besides the usual service of a public library it has 
for years maintained a free public lecture course. 

Other public libraries, notably San Antonio, have 
in the past also rendered this service. 

Special Collections: The most notable special col- 
lections are in the state supported group of libraries. 
The State Library has a valuable history collection, 
including the King collection, the Lamar and Reagan 
papers, the Diplomatic, Consular and Domestic Cor- 
respondence of the Republic of Texas, the Spanish 
and Mexican official records known as the Nacog- 
doches papers, the original ratification copies of the 
Foreign Treaties of the Republic of Texas, etc. The 
University has a large and growing Southern history 
collection of manuscripts, books, pamphlets, news- 
papers and periodicals purchased by the Littlefield 
Fund. The Wrenn collection of rare books, largely 
Shakespearian and of literary manuscripts, also pre- 
sented by Major George W. Littlefield; the Palm 
Library; the Ashbel Smith Library; the John H. 
Reagan Library, etc. 

The public libraries have in most cases made a 
point of collecting local history material. 

The General Situation: A glance at the library 
map of Texas shows that the great majority of the 
libraries serving the public are situated to the east 
of the 100th meridian; that in the whole vast region 
to the westward are only four free public libraries, 
two of them only partially supported by their munic- 
ipalities, and three subscription libraries. It is ob- 
vious therefore that the Texas public is but meagerly 
supplied with libraries, and a study of these libraries' 
workings show that the service rendered by the most 
of the existing libraries is inadequate to the needs 
of their communities. 

An examination of statistics of the libraries in 
state institutions, educational, eleemosynary, penal 
and correctional shows that these have also a long 
way to go before the people of Texas can be said to 
have really adequate library service; that is to say, 
adequate library service within the reach of every 
man, woman and child in the state. 

A strong system of county free libraries, adequate 
appropriations for the state supported group, espe- 
cially provision for state library field workers are 
the desiderata. 

Much is hoped for in this connection from the 
educational work of the American Library Asso- 
ciation's Enlarged Program. 



16 



HISTORY OF THE TEXAS OIL INDUSTRY 



By J. EDGAR PEW 

Former President Ameri-an Petroleum Institute 




O 



N January 10th, 1901, 
the great Lucas Gush- 
er commenced to pro- 
duce oil. This well was drilled 
about four miles south of 
Beaumont, Texas, by John J. 
Guffey and John Galey of 
Pittsburg, Pa., and ushered 
in the "Spindle Top" oil field. 
This was the beginning of a 
new era in the oil business. 
Prior to that time but little 
oil had been produced west 
of the Mississippi River, and 
in fact, among the "Oil 
Fraternity," but little was ex- 
pected. This new discovery 
also brought into the oil 
industry an entirely new set 
of men. The "Old Timers," as is the custom among 
oil men, came to Texas, looked the oil over and ex- 
amined the oil, but the majority of them went back 
east to tell the boys, "not to be alarmed, the oil was 
N. G." and "It cannot be refined" and they also pre- 
dicted the well would be a "freak and would soon go 
to water." Some few of them stayed and with their 
experience in the business, were generally well paid 
for their judgment. 

Of these oil men from the east, previously promi- 
nent in the business, were W. L. Mellon, of Pitts- 
burgh, who organized what are now known as the 
Gulf Companies; J. S. Cullinan, formerly of Wash- 
ington, Pa., but at that time located at Corsicana. 
Texas, who, together with Ex-Governor Jas. Hogg, 
of Texas, Judge Jas. Swayne of Ft. Worth, Texas, 
and William Campbell, also a Texan, organized 
what is now the Texas Company; and J. N. Pew of 
Pittsburgh, Pa., who organized the Sun Company, 
and a little later, S. G. Bayne, of New York, who 
organized what is now known as the Magnolia Pe- 
troleum Company. All of these companies were 
formed to handle this new grade of oil, and to con- 
vert it into marketable products. The result of their 
enterprise and good judgment are too well known 
to the entire oil world to require further details. 

But it is not only to these that credit for this 
beginning of this great industry in Texas should be 
given. Beaumont was soon filled up w?th men from 
all parts of the country, the great majority of whom 
prior to that time, had never seen an oil well and 
many of them had not the remotest idea of how 
oil was produced. From such, we have today many 
of the most successful producers in the business. 
The names of these are too numerous to mention in 
this brief article. 



The discovery of "Spindle Top" or the "Beaumont 
Field," as it is more properly called, was a "real 
epoch," a "decisive period" in the oil business, it 
was the first opportunity of the "Independents" in 




The New Magnolia Building, Dallas, the Tallest Office 
Building in Texas, Completed in 1922 

the history of oil. This Beaumont field together 
with the later discovery of Sour Lake, Batson, Sara- 
toga, and Humble, and later still at Goose Creek 
and West Columbia, all have produced a total of 
more than 250,000,000 barrels of oil, and from an 
actual producing area for the total of these fields, 
of probably not to exceed 4,000 acres 

But Texas is a large state and all J its oil ^as 
not to be confined to its coastal fieias. Before tbe 
Beaumont discoveries a very profitable pool of 
oil had been found at Corsicana, Navarro County, 
Texas, but not until the Electra Field in Wichita 
County was developed was the production in Texi-.s 
of high grade oils for refining purposes really an 
important factor in the industry. This was in 1911. 

The interest in Electra has subsided, the "wise 
ones" who had finally come to Texas when this real 
oil was discovered, had returned to Oklahoma and 




A Wilderness of Oil Derricks in the Goose Creek Oil Fields Southern Texas 

17 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



the east, and it was the faith of Edgar L. Marston, 
of New York City, President of the Texas-Pacific 
Coal Company, and W. K. Gordon, his able manager 
in Texas, who called them back, when in the month 
of October 1917, they drilled to the "Farmer's" 
sand and developed the McClesky well, near the then 
smail town of Ranger, Eastland County, Texas. The 
developments following this discovery have opened 
the eyes of the world to the possibilities of Texas, 
as the Great Reservoir, from which the greatest, 
production of oil for many years to come, will be 
obtained. As a result of this new discovery, "wild 
catting" (the name for drilling in new territory be- 
fore the discovery of oil in the vicinity) was stim- 
ulated, and has resulted in a greatly enlarged pro- 
ducing area around Ranger at Caddo and Brecken- 
ridge in Stephens County, and at Desdemona in Co- 
manche County, and also the development of the new 
and spectacular Burkburnett field in Wichita County 
These discoveries promise to extend not only over 
these counties but into the adjoining counties of 
Young, Wilbarger and Archer, also Palo Pinto. In 
each of these counties light oil in small quantities 
has already been discovered. How much further this 
development will be extended within the counties 
named, and with what results, or whether oil will 
be developed in paying quantities in additional coun- 
ties in North Texas, is beyond the knowledge of 
man. More recently the Mexia field in Limestone 
County, had been developed by Col. A. E. Humphreys 
one of the most spectacularly successful "wild cat- 
ters" in the business. This new development opens 
up again possibilities for Texas to become the great 
producing state of the Union. 

Great sums of money are being, and will yet be, 
spent in practically every county of Central, North 
and Northwest Texas, and while geology is being 
followed very largely in these efforts, it is only the 
drill that will produce results. 

An average well in the Comanche, Eastland, and 
Stephens County fields, is from 3,000 to 3,400 feet 
deep, to where the oil is found in what is known as 
the "Black Lime" formation. These wells will vary 
in size from 25 barrels to 12,000 barrels in their 
initial production, and cost from $32,000 to $50,000 
each to drill and equip. Such wells cannot be prof- 
itably drilled at present high cost of labor, material, 
etc., if they produce less than 100 barrels or more 
per day, and wells of this minimum size must prove 
consistent producers for a long perioa in order to 
pay out. The fields have not been producing for a 
sufficiently long period to determine this. 

Shallow oil is also being developed in these areas 
at from 1,800 to 2,150 feet in depth and this oil, 
on account of the greater amount of sand, and the 
lesser cost of drilling, may yet prove of greater 
value than the deep production. 

In the Burkburnett field, the oil is found at from 
1,5 to 1,750 feet, and the cost of a well is much 
less, probably now about $20,000; the amount of 
producing sand is greater in this field, also, than 
in the "Black Lime" district, further south, and 
within the confines of the pool the average initial 
production of the wells is greater. This field has 
been the "Eldorado" of the small producer, and 
where the operations have been carried on with good 
judgment, and the financing honest and reasonably 
conservative, will probably make for the operators 



and their stockholders, more money on the average 
than any of the Texas fields, so far developed. 

The oil of North and North Central Texas, is of 
a gravity varying 3 4 degrees B, to 44 degrees B. 
It gives a yield of Gasoline of from 12 to 40 7o and 
much of it has good lubricating values. It is prob- 
ably the equal in value of the average Oklahoma 
oil, excepting that cf the Healdton field, which is 
much inferior, much of it is better than the Kansas 
oil, and is better than that produced in Ohio, Illi- 
nois and Indiana, but not the equal of the oils pro- 
duced in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, on account 
of the superior lubricating values of these latter oils. 

When the Texas-Pacific Coal & Oil Company made 
the discovery in the McClesky well at Ranger, Texas 
was producing not over 30,000 barrels of light oils 
in all of its then developed fields; it is now produc- 
ing about 200.000 barrels, or a production on Nov. 
1, 1921, n?t much less than that of Kansas and Okla- 




Oi! Gusher at Currie, which Opened Up a New Field Four- 
teen Miles North of Mexia 

homa combined. South Texas is producing about 
110,000 barrels. What Texas will produce in the 
future is anyone's guess, but my prediction is that 
this production will gradually grow, and that for the 
next twenty years, Texas will be leader in the pro- 
duction of the light and high grade oil of the world. 
In conclusion, this means prosperity for all con- 
cerned, for the farmer, for the merchant, for the 
banker, for the workmen in the field, and for the oil 
operator. The cities of Dallas, Ft. Worth and 
Wichita Falls have greatly prospered, and in the 
future will still greatly prosper by these develop- 
ments and from the general good times resulting 
from this new discovery in their midst. 



18 



OIL PRODUCTION OF TEXAS BY FIELDS FROM 
1895 TO JANUARY 1, 1922 



Year Gorsicana 



Petrolia Spindle Top Sour Lake 



Batson 



Saratoga 



Humble Goose Creek 



1895 
1896 


1,450 
65,975 
544,620 
668,483 
829,560 
763,424 
571,079 
401,817 
374,318 
312,595 
336,387 
276,311 
211,117 
180,764 
137,331 
128,526 
233,282 
158,830 
133,811 
143,275 
135,263 
131,828 
♦361,980 
*150,000 
530,000 
305,335 


















1897 


















1898 


















1899 


















1900 


5,479 
37,121 
46,812 
100,143 
129,329 
131,051 
675,842 
596,897 
398,649 
383,137 
450,188 
373,055 
251,240 
283,476 
282,279 
237,410 
215,729 
196,855 




3, 59?, 113 

17,420,949 

8,600,905 

3,433,842 

1,600,379 

1,075,755 

1,613,513 

1,747,537 

1,388,170 

1,182,436 

965,939 

822,916 

716,374 

580,130 

388,266 

341,411 

308,039 

502,265 

458,680 

323,995 

321,080 












1901 














1902 




44,338 
8,848,159 
6,442,357 
3,369,012 
2,156,010 
2,354,997 
1,595,060 
1,703,798 
1,518,723 
1,364,880 
1,175,108 
1,348,053 
5,209,208 
4,114,622 
4,923,332 
4,763,004 
3,115,033 
2,740,142 
2,073,485 
1,749,625 










1903 




4,518 

10,904,737 

3,790,629 

2,388,238 

2,166,554 

1,593,570 

1,206,214 

1,113,767 

1,023,493 

844,563 

741,350 

775,804 

703,686 

744,915 

692,417 

654,950 

502,200 

484,035 

516,225 








1904 


65,455 
101.651 
111,072 

83,260 
113,485 
113,485 
126,531 
168,965 
197,421 
344,868 
550,585 
349,857 
302,145 
282,420 
297,320 
212,624 
135,385 
132,295 


739,239 

2,922,215 

2,289,057 

2,198,585 

1,634,786 

1,183,559 

1,024,348 

925,777 

1,116,655 

937,720 

889,743 

864.266 

781,128 

682,797 

791.740 

616,110 

913,735 

936,695 






1905 


18,066,428 
3,570,845 
2,930,842 
3,778,521 
3,237,060 
2,495.511 
2,426,220 
1,829,923 
1,504,880 
2,799,458 
11.061.802 
10,925,805 
7,389,831 
5,645,104 
3,270,617 
3,692,115 
3,098,500 




1906 




1907 
1908 




1909 




1910 




1911 




1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 


43.808 

249.641 

134.74% 

119.336 

397,291 

7,300,279 

9,419,132 

7,288.716 

5,666,390 

5,647,020 


Totals 


8,087,361 
Includes Powell. 


4,794,692 


3,657,978 


47,384,644 


60,608,946 


30,851,865 


22,447,155 


87,723,462 


36.266,261 



Orange 
County 



Matagorda 
County 



Dayton 



Blue Ridge 

and 

Other Pools 



Marian 
County 



Wichita and 

Wilbarger 

Counties 



Moran 



Thrall Miscellaneous 



1904 




151,936 

46,470 

8,000 

4,500 

62,640 

29,103 

455,999 

561,828 

300,000 

294,553 

164,192 

137,481 

158,336 

128,011 

99,540 

53,260 

75,775 

89,405 
















1905 




60,294 
192,460 
120,036 

39,901 
17,647 
9,582 
4,344 
12,151 
13,329 
18,791 
10,378 
8,571 
9,995 
7,442 
1,000 
1,000 
30,410 














1906 
















1907 
















1908 




31,185 

87,039 

129,497 

2,800 

1,044 

1,620 

1,780 

47,254 

43,921 

159,245 

40,000 

24,910 

*173,085 

•461,035 










4,525 


1909 












4,554 


1910 




251,717 
677,689 
362,870 
262,392 
180,584 
123,464 
64,971 
57,952 








3,656 


1911 




899.579 
4,227,104 
8,131,624 
8,227,951 
5,833,386 
7,837,386 
9,541,636 
12,159,032 
30,279,108 
32,895,485 
24,184,955 






3,379 


1912 








4,062 


1913 


17,706 
43,208 
21,697 
17,758 
7,023 
3,425 
4,400 
4,000 
704,870 






7,074 


1914 


68,191 
109,116 
135,608 
68,118 
54,900 
32,500 
48,575 
50,455 




12.900 


1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 


613,182 
432,695 
176, 8S7 
12,000 
8.2C0 
8.000 
73,280 


4.061 
32,140 
111,220 
130,000 


1919 
1920 


*• 


235,075 
25,000 


1921 




24,000 








Totals 


824,087 
'Figures not obtaii 


2,821,029 
lable. 


557,331 
•Blue Ridge only. 


1,204,415 1,981,639 
e-Estimated 


144,217,246 


567,463 


1,324,244 


601,646 



Strawn 



Colemin 
County 



Eastland 
County 



Stephens 
County 



Desdamoaa 



Brown 
County 



Damon Mound 



Hull 



1915 


50,498 


1916 


175,147 


1917 


340,950 


1918 


185,520 


1919 


101,300 


1920 


512,260 


1921 


262,055 



1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 



4,716,805 



31,253 
46,590 
83,785 
66,190 



93,053 
3,107,120 
22,379,665 
10,141,385 
5,887,420 


36,219 

790,243 

10,514,216 

23,852,050 

31,037,710 



7,375,825 
5,097,745 
2,467,115 



6,043 
451,002 
213,256 
114,665 
122,475 



134,895 
2,820,080 



2,954,975 



75,000 
103,035 



178,035 



49,850 
422.205 



472.055 



1,403,940 
l,4f!3.040 



20,000 
169,415 
136.375 

49,885 

375.675 



486,640 

434, 7C0 

1,259,375 

1,353,960 



136,3 r 
8,128,809 
10,563.150 
12,573,450 

31.401.759 



330,300 
1.476.405 
4.46S.615 
S, 717.970 



Totals 


1,627,730 


227,819 


41,608,643 66,230,438 


14,940,685 


907,438 


3,534,675 


14.993,290 


Year 


Mexia 


Young 
County 


Nacogdoches Holliday-Archer 
County 


Pierce 
Junction 


Barber's 
Hill 


West 
Columbia 


San Antonio 

District and 

Somerset 



5S.40O 

94,100 

:45,135 

482,340 

S79.975 



TOTAL PRODUCTION OF OIL FOR TEXAS EACH YEAR FROM 1839 TO JAN. 1, 1922 IN BARRELS OF 42 GALLONS 



1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 



Grand Total from 1889 to 1921 . 



60 

50 

1 450 

65,975 
546,070 



1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 



669 013 

836 039 

4 393 658 

18,083,659 

17 955 572 



1904 22 241 413 

1905 28 136 189 

1906 12 567 897 

1907 12,322,696 

1908 11,206,464 



1909 9 534 467 

1910 8 899 266 

1911 9 526 474 

1912 11,735.057 

1913 15,009,47S 



1914 20 06S 1S4 

1915 24 942 701 

1916 27,644.605 

1917 32,413. 2S7 

1918 38,50,031 



1919 85 512 000 

1920 96 000 00O 

1921 111,969,575 



620,831,580 



TOTAL AMOUNT OF OIL PRODUCED IN EACH STATE IN 1921— ALSO AMOUNT PRODUCED FROM 1859 TO JAN 

Total 1921 



Pa. andN. Y.. 
Ohio. .......... 

VVext Virginia. 

California 

Ky. & Tenn. . . 



Total 1921 1859 to 1922 

8,410,000 814,415,053 

7,^14.000 486,336,978 

7,945 010 319,625,398 

114.267,000 1,431,383.360 

9,092,300 41,015,992 



Colorado. 



Illinois. 
Kansas. 
Texas. . 



Total 1921 1359 to 1922 

108,200 11,779,250 

1.165,000 109,132,364 

10.085,000 331,518,380 

24,312,586 256,303. 9S4 

111,969,575 620 831,583 

19 



Missouri 

Oklahoma 

Wyo. & Mont. 

Louisiana 

United States. 



111.256,160 
20.473. S00 
27.S14.5S0 

474,S5S,216 



1, 1922 

1859 to 1921 

S6.977 

1,140.429.517 

91.242.693 

250.4S3.2O1 

5,904 550,yj5 



AGRICULTURE OF TEXAS 

By CLARENCE OUSLEY 

Ex-Asst. U. S. Secretary of Agriculture 




T 



HE growing belief in 
diversification is the 
"silver lining to the 
cloud" discovered by observ- 
ers of Texas agricultural 
conditions during the last 
year. Contemplating the 
future, they predict more and 
more diversification, a growth 
of the small stock farming- 
industry and increasing pros- 
perity therefrom. Especially 
in the "black land sections" 
of North Texas has this ten- 
dency become uppermost, and 
in Dallas County, Ellis Coun- 
ty, Collin and other counties 
where land prices are high- 
est, the small stock farmers 
are becoming numerous and the interest in pure- 
bred and registered stock of all kinds is growing. 
While individual farmers in Texas are suffering 
as a result of decline in prices the agricultural in- 
dustry of the state, as a whole, is nearer than it has 
ever been to a basis of stability and prosperity. 

Record of Production: Production during the last 
year has been very lai-ge and the effect of this large 
addition to the wealth of the state can not long be 
observed by the smoked glasses of pessimism. There 
is inspiration in figures like these for a normal year: 
Cotton, 4,200,000 bales; corn, 169,000,000 bushels; 
wheat, 31,665,000 bushels; oats, 42,336,000 bushels; 
sweet potatoes, 9, 000,000 bushels; rice, 9,212,000 
bushels; hay, 1,239,000 tons; grain sorghum, 60,000,- 
000 bushels; wool, 17,600,000 pounds; apples, 489,000 
bushels; syrup, 650,000 gallons; peanuts, 4,900,000 
bushels; broom corn, 8,000 tons; barley, 469,000 
bushels; hogs, 2,102,000 heads; beef cattle, $200,- 
000,000 value; dairy cattle, $90,000,000 value. 

While prices are low the actual wealth produced 
is here and can not fail to circulate through all the 
intricate and complex channels of trade and thus 
nourish and enrich all the people. 

A very bright spot on the silver lining of the cloud 
is the large feed crop produced the 
past year. In former years when 
something happened to put the price 
of cotton down Texas farmers faced 
the next year with empty barns and 
had to borrow large sums of money to 
buy feed to make the next year's crop. 
There is an abundance to feed on 
Texas farms at this time and borrow- 
ings for operations will be relatively 
very small. 

There has been more intelligent 
diversification of crops in Texas this 
year than ever before. The all-cotton 
farmer is hard to find where he was a 
majority a few years ago. Many so- 
called "patch crops," such as sweet 
potatoes, peanuts and tomatoes have 
become dependable cash crops. 

Live Stock Improves: There is more 
and better live stock on Texas farms 
now than the most hopeful advocate 



of live stock believed possible a few years 
ago. This is particularly true in the rich black land 
counties. A few years ago the land owners in these 
sections believed that the high price of land com- 
pelled them to plant only cotton. Now they have 
found that only by combining live stock with feed 
crops and cotton can they earn a return upon the 
high valuation of their land. The experience of 
older states is being duplicated in Texas, and we 
are finding the best quality of live stock in the 
regions of highest land values. 

Recently large numbers of pure-bred hogs and 
dairy cows were brought into the state, and during 
the same period many local centers of pure-bred live 
stock production began to supply other sections of 
the state with breeding stock. 

Marketing Studies: Notable progress has been 
made during the year by farmers in perfecting co- 
operative marketing associations patterned closely 
after the successful California co-operative organi- 
zations. The first of these to be formed is the 
Lower Rio Grande Valley Marketing Association, 
which will handle about $6,500,000 worth of early 
vegetables and fruits. The Texas Tomato Growlers' 
Exchange now organized will control more than 60 
per cent of car-lot tomato shipments from the state 
of a value approximately $1,000,000. 

The outstanding event in the field of co-operative 
marketing is the launching by the farm bureau of a 
co-operative selling agency to control not less than 
1,000,000 bales of cotton per year. This understand- 
ing is the outgrowth of a study of the cotton market- 
ing problem by a large group of farmers and busi- 
ness men, and it differs from all previous efforts 
in that it is based upon legal contracts of growers 
to deliver their cotton to the association, and in a 
plan of financing which, it is claimed, will command 
the approval of large banking interests. 

When all the things enumerated above are taken 
into consideration, I feel warranted in saying that 
notwithstanding the difficulties of the price situa- 
tion Texas agriculture is today nearer the basis of 
permanent stability and prosperity than it has ever 
been. 




An Orchard Scene in East Texas 



20 






THE TEXAS COTTON INDUSTRY 

By M. H. WOLFE 




C 



OTTON is the ouvstand- 
ing industry of Texas. 
There is something 
fascinating about the produc- 
tion and disposition of a 
large cotton crop, such as 
Texas often produces. The 
crop never fails in Texas. 
Some years the yield is small- 
er than in other years, but 
cotton is a natural growth in 
the Texas soil and climate 
and will produce whether it 
has a chance or not. It is in- 
teresting to study the pro- 
duction and the money value 
of a cotton crop. For in- 
stance, in 1914 Texas farm- 
ers planted 11,931,000 acres 
in cotton and produced 4,959,112 bales which sold 
for an average price of 7.22 cents. Realizing in 
money approximately $165,770,000, while in 1918 
the acreage was 11,235,000 which produced only 
2,580,000 bales but sold for an average price of 
28.02 cents, realizing about $363,780,000. 

The cotton crop in Texas about equals in value 
all other crops combined. It might be said in this 
connection that there are vast domains of agri- 
cultural lands in Texas, suitable to cotton production 
that has never been touched by a plow, and it is 
possible that in the future there will be produced 
in Texas as much cotton as is now produced in the 
entire world. By an experienced and observant eye 
it can be easily seen that there is practically no limit 
to the cotton possibilities in a state so large and 
whose productive powers respond so quickly to the 



fall when cotton is everywhere and the fields are 
white with open bolls, instead of ice snow we have 
cotton snow. Instead of rivers flowing with water 
we have trains flowing with cotton. As the people 
went west so did cotton, and many cotton farms 
are now to be seen over the Panhandle of the West 
where such seemed formerly impossible. From all 
parts of Texas come the contestants in the boys' and 
girls' Texas Cotton Club who have averaged more 
than one bale per acre and many of them over two 
bales per acre, running as high as 2.67 bales per 
acre. These boys and girls have the "bush that 





A Warehouse Crew in a Prosperous Farming District 



Picking Cotton on a Large Texas Plantation 

bears fleece more beautiful than the wool of the 
sheep" as the Greeks of Alexander's army said about 
the cotton of India. 

Besides the fleecy staple there comes from cotton 
about 1,600,000 tons of cotton seed from the Texas 
crop, which has a value of about $90,000,000. There 
are about 200 cotton seed mills in Texas and when 
the seed are milled the production is about one- 
fourth oil and three-fourths "cotton seed cake." The 
cotton seed oil is very rich and from it the manu- 
facturers produce "pure olive oil and hog lard," and 
from the left overs they make everything from soap 
to phonograph records. Boll worms, 
boll weevils and caterpillars gather 
more cotton in Texas than the people 
gather. However, the worms and 
their allies, by working overtime find 
the job too big and a fair crop is left 
for the people. Only about two per 
cent of the Texas crop is manufac- 
tured in Texas. Cotton spinning is 
just beginning in Texas and last year 
the cotton mills used 83,389 bales. 
Some of the mills are very successful, 
manufacturing chiefly duck. C. W. 
Post, of Postum fame, built in West 
Texas a cotton mill that takes cotton 



coaxing of nature and the magic hand of man. In 
her black prairie farms Texas has the largest and 
finest body of cotton land in the world. The long 
cotton rows are as straight as the crow flies, and 
where the mocking bird sings the loudest the cotton 
stalk grows the tallest. It is in obedience to the 
natural laws and the divine call that cotton so pre- 
vails in Texas. During the past decade the in- 
crease in the cotton acreage in Texas has exceeded 
the increase in all the other states combined. It 
seems that the acreage devoted to cotton in Texas 
is about twice the size of the state of Massachusetts, 
which explains the fact that Texas produces about 
one-third of the cotton grown in the United States. 
Snow time in Texas is not in the winter, but in the 



from the farmers' wagon, gins it, weaves it, and 
delivers hemmed sheets and pillow cases ready for 
use by the housewife. The hope is that his tribe 
will increase. 

One of the principal requirements to the success 
of any manufacturing industry is the availability of 
the raw product from which the goods are manufac- 
tured. With the large amount of cotton raised in 
Texas, much of which is stored in warehouses here 
to await marketing. The manufacture of cotton 
would always find a bountiful supply of the raw 
product available at a minimum transportation cost. 
The same would apply to the manufacture of cotton 
products. Much can be done to increase the value 
of cotton crops in Texas, by encouragement of manu- 
facturers who will utilize the raw material. 



21 



CATTLE RAISING IN TEXAS 

By E. B. SPILI.ER 

Secretary, Texas and Southwestern Cattle Raisers' Association 




T 



{ HE live stock industry 
is one of the largest 
and in many respects 
the most important industry 
in the United States. The 
value of the live stock in the 
United States is estimated at 
above $3,000,000,000. Aside 
from the vast investment the 
importance of the industry is 
found in the necessity for live 
stock to maintain the fertility 
of the soil, and to consume 
the products of farms and 
ranges, 80 per cent of which, 
according to census reports is 
fed to live stock; and the 
further fact that animal food 
is a very essential factor in 
the diet of the American people of today. 

Texas is the leading cattle breeding state of the 
Union, and annually furnishes steers for the feed 
lots of the corn belt 
states, and the 
ranges of Okla- 
homa, Kansas, Col- 
orado and other 
range states. Vol- 
umes would be re- 
quired t o review 
e v en briefly the 
magnitude of the 
business in Texas 
and the far-reach- 
ing influence which 
the breeding, fat- 
tening and market- 
ing of live stock 
has upon the social 
and economic wel- 
fare of all lines 

of industry. In the short space alloted to me I must 
be content with a few general observations and re- 
frain from reference to the hardships of the pioneer 



cattlemen, their long journeys over the trails with 
vast herds of cattle en route to Kansas and other 
states before the days of the railroads; and the evo- 
lution of the Texas steer from the longhorn of years 
ago to the modern market-topping and prize winning 
steer of today. 

The mild climate over most of the state and the 
succulent native grasses which need be supple- 
mented with other feed only on rare occasions, make 
it possible to breed cattle in Texas more economic- 
ally than in any other state in the United States. 
The principal beef breeds of cattle are Herefords 
or white faces, Shorthorns, or Durhams, and Aber- 
deen-Angus or black muleys, with the Herefords 
leading numerically. Along the Texas coast the 
Brahmas because of their power to resist ticks, flies, 
mcsquitoes and other pests, and ability to thrive 
even in times of short range, are becoming very 
popular. Many breeders prefer a cross of Here- 
fords and Shorthorns, and others are crossing the 
Angus and Brahmas with Herefords and Shorthorns 




One of the Herds of Thoroughbred Cattle which Graze on the Large West Texas Ranches 

with hiP'hlv satisfactory results. 

Splendid herds of registered and grade breeding" 

cattle are found in all sections of the state, but 
because of the severe weather, 
which sometimes visits the Pan- 
handle, cattle breeding is conduct- 
ed more successfully in the western, 
southwestern and southern portions 
of the state. By using good bulls, 
culling the herds of undesirable 
animals annually, careful herd man- 
agement and good business meth- 
ods, the leading stockmen of Texas 
have succeeded in raising the qual- 
ity of their range herds to a very 
high plane. Breed improvement has 
progressed more slowly in the 
eastern part of the state, but the 
doctrine of "better sires" is spread- 
ing, and soon the "piney woods 
scrub," like the longhorn will be a 
relic of the past. 

Some stockmen keep only their 
breeding herds and sell the increase 
as calves; others keep up their 




The Packing House District of Fort Worth as Viewed from an Airplane 

22 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



breeding 1 herds and hold the increase until one or 
two years old, and still others handle only steers. 
Many Panhandle stockmen buy calves, yearlings or 
one or two-year-old steers, hold them for a short 
time and either feed them for market or sell to 
grazers and feeders in other states. Cattle bred on 
the Texas ranches and fed in the corn belt states 
have won many prizes, the championship at leading 
stock shows — topped the markets hundreds of times. 

In normal years 
cattle may be 
wintered in most 
sections of the 
state without feed 
other than the na- 
tive grasses. In 
the Panhandle it 
i s customary t o 
feed cattle thru 
the winter to have 
them in good 
flesh in the 
spring, and many 
are "full fed" in 
order that they 
might be fat and 
ready for the 
spring market. 
The principal 
feedt used for 
wintering and fat- 
tening cattle are 
cotton seed cake, 
meal and hulls, 
hay, silage, sorg- 
hum, kaffir and 
other forage 
crops. Because of 
the tropical clim- 
ate in the south- 
ern part of the 
state stockmen of 
that section usual- 
ly have grass fat 
steers for the 
early spring 
markets, and 
realize good 
prices from them. 
While Fort Worth 
is now the third 
largest market in 
the United States, 
and receipts o f 
this market are 
confined almost 
entirely to Texas 
cattle, one cannot 
get a fair idea of 
the volume of the 
cattle business in 
this state from 
this alone. In ad- 
dition to the very 
large number of 
cattle handled at the Fort Worth market, thousands 
are sold and slaughtered at the markets at San An- 
tonio, Houston and El Paso, and much greater num- 
bers are shipped direct to markets at Kansas City, 



St. Louis, Oklahoma City, Wichita Falls, St. Joseph 
and New Orleans, or from pastures in other states, 
and many of the choicest fat cattle sold at the 
Chicago market are bred in Texas and fed in the 
corn belt. 

Texas cattle pulled the chattels of the pioneers 
to the plains of Texas, drew the plows which first 
cultivated the soil, converted grass and weeds into 




Where the Live Stock from the West Texas Plains is Converted into Meat. Upper: The Armour 
Packins' Plant. Center: The Stock Exchange. Lower: Swift Packing Plant 



milk and beef, and hauled to market the products 
of the fields. They were the foundation of our 
modern civilization; without them the wheels of 
commerce would grind more slowly. 



THE TEXAS COWBOY 

By TOM L. BURNETT 




T 



j HE reconstruction per- 
iod following the close 
of the Civil War has 
oft been referred to by those 
in whose memory the vision 
of that dread conflict has not 
been wholly effaced, as "The 
days that tried men's souls." 
Texas, vast empire of the 
sunny south, for generations 
the veritable battle ground of 
civilization, has presented 
many problems that tried the 
souls of men and in slowly 
yielding to the onward march 
of progress offered boundless 
opportunities for the demon- 
stration of those qualities 
that determine when a man's 
a man. In the earlier days, and in fact, until quite 
recently, Texas was largely made up, from Red River 
to the Rio Grande, from the panhandle to the Gulf, 
of vast ranches, many of them far exceeding in area 
some of the petty principalities of Europe and the 
regions of the Far East. 

Between these widely scattered ranches were well 
nigh boundless forests or vast unending plains where 
the majestic sweep of the prairies was broken only 
by slowly moving herds of buffalo. 

It was into such regions as this the doughty cow- 
boy forged his way and planted the seeds of refining 
civilization that resulted finally in the wrestling 
of this magnificent domain from a state of barbarism 
and made possible the scintillating Lone Star that 
today proudly takes its place in the firmament of 
commonwealths that go to make up our nation as a 
whole. 

The valor and progress of the western cowboy 
ha\e been immortalized in song and story and the 
history of their achievements has a distinct place 
in the literature of the present day. The glory of 
his accomplishments will never die and ages after 
the deeds of martial heroes have faded in the limbo 
of a forgotten past, the memory of the western 
cowboy still will be revered. 

But the old days of the open range and the wild, 
exciting scenes of the annual round-up are nearly 
over. Science and civilization — those twin foes of 
the freedom of man — are bringing nearer and nearer 
the time when this dramatic and impressive char- 
acter will, indeed, be but a memory. 

To many, if not to all of the old timers, the pass- 
ing of the cowboy brings a well defined pang of 
regret. He has been aptly termed the vanguard of 
civilization and Texas, in erecting monuments to 



those of her sons who have had a distinct and out- 
standing part in her glorious history ,will bring to 
herself shame and humiliation should she forget the 
part played by those rugged heroes of the plains 
and hills — the cowboys. 

Numbers of men who today are leaders in the 
commercial and financial circles of the state, had 
their start as cowboys and rode the range in the 
early days. Notable among those former cowboys 
who have achieved material and financial success 
are W. T. Waggoner, Col. C. C. Goodnight, S. Burk 
Burnett, Col. C. C. Slaughter, Marion Sansom, 
Phy Taylor, Jack Abernathy, John Blocker, T. A. 
Coleman, C. B. Lucas, Geo. West, Mr. Kokernot and 
others too numerous to mention. Majestic office 
buildings, towering masses of steel and stone, bear 
the names of some of these men and give silent 
tribute to their indomitable will-power and determi- 
nation to succeed. 

However, the achievements of these men, former 
cowboys, in wresting the fertile plains of Texas from 
domination of the redman and the buffalo, will be 




Lunch Served: Theodore Roosevelt and Party of West Texans 
on Famous Wolf Hunt, May, 1906. 

Reading from Left to Right : W. T. Waggoner, Major S. B. 
Young, Tom L. Burnett, Col. Theodore Roosevelt, Cecil Lyons, 
Br. Lambert, Bonnie Moore, Capt. S. Burk Burnett, Capt. Bill 
McDonald, Chief Quannah Parker, E. M. Giles, Guy Waggoner, 
on Wagon: D. P. "Phy" Taylor, Lee Bivens. 

cherished in the memories of former Texans long 
after the towering monuments of steel and stone 
have crumbled into dust. 

In order to keep alive for coming generations the 
knowledge of how the cowboys lived and worked on 
the plains in the earlier days, there are being staged 
in many of the cities and towns of Western Texas 
annual round-ups or rodeos where the few remaining 
cowboys gather each year and, in good natured com- 
petition go through with an exhibition which rc- 
curately typifies the open life of the plains country 




The Rodeo at Wichita Falls in 1921. This Western Classic has Become an Annual Event to Perpetuate the Spirit and 
Traditions of the West Texas Range and the Cowboy 



24 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



in the early days. In keeping with this movement, 
plans are now under way for the erection in Wichita 
Falls of a monster stadium where the rodeo may 
be held each year in connection with the proposed 
agricultural and live stock fair. 

With the onward sweep of civilization the western 
cowboy will pass into history, having fully achieved 
h i s destiny 
and c o m- 
pleted the 
work which 
in the divine 
plan of the 
ages it was 
meant that 
he should 
do. In the 
near future 
palatial 
trains of 
steel Pull- 
man cars 
and high 
powered au- 
t o m o b iles 
will move 
swiftly a- 
1 o n g roads 
of steel and 




concrete where once the lone cowboy on his pinto 
pony traversed an endless unbroken plain. 

Men of the future have a debt of gratitude to the 
western cowboy which can never be repaid. Let him 
be immortalized in song and story, erect monuments 
of steel and granite to his memory, let the pages 
of history be emblazoned with a record of his deeds 

and even 
then the 
half will 
not have 
near been 
told. 

A tribute 
to the west- 
ern cowboy 
has been 
beautiful 1 y 
expre s s e d 
by a well 
known west 
ern poet, 
Jack Hil- 
dreth Beall, 
which may 
b e appro- 
p r i a t e 1 y 
quoted be- 
low: 



of Prize-Winning Thoroughbred Cattle on one of 
the Burnett Ranc hes in West Texas 



THE TEXAS COWBOY 
It matters not what comes or goes, 
Through summer's heat or winter's snows, 
At work or play, on plain or hill, 
The Texas Cowboy with a will, 
Is ever ready, night or day, 
To help a man along life's way. 
He rides the plains from dawn 'till dark, 
Is ever ready for a lark, 
Throws a lariat, shoots a gun, 
Does his work and calls it fun; 
He's rough and ready, tried and true, 
Oh Texas Cowboy, here's to you. 



In song and story, film and play, 
We've seen the passing of his day, 
And now, with labors nearly done, 
He faces still, the western sun, 
Undaunted, firm and unafraid, 
His fame and glory ne'er will fade. 
And once each year we'll meet again, 
Those hardy cowboys from the plain, 
We'll see them ride, bull-dog and throw, 
At each recurring rodeo. 
And say to those from every land, 
Our Texas Cowboy is a MAN. 

—Jack Hildreth Beall. 




THEODORE ROOSEVELT AND GROUP OP NOTED WEST TEXANS ON WOLF HUNT. MAY, 1906. 
Left to Right, Standing: Lee Bivens, Capt. Bill McDonald, Jack Abernathy holding Wolf, Major S. B. Young. Capt. S. Burk 
Burnett, Col. Theodore Roosevelt, E. M. Giles. Sitting: Two Soldiers, John Doe, Bonnie Moore, Quannah Parker 
Kneeling: Cecil Lyons, Dr. Lambert, Phy Taylor. 



25 



HISTORY OF THE TEXAS AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY 



By J. W 




T 



[HE automobile indus- 
try in Texas is only 
twenty years old, the 
first car brought to the state 
being owned by Mr. E. H. R. 
Green, of Terrell, Texas, 
president of the Texas Mid- 
land Ry. Co. In those days 
automobiles were referred to 
by many people as horseless 
carriages. Mr. Green's car 
was a St. Louis Gas Car of 
the surrey type, with two 
cylinders both of which ex- 
ploded at the same time giv- 
ing the automobile a rather 
rough jolt with each ex- 
plosion. 

About this time Mr. Jay 
Gould, the New York railroad magnate, presented 
an automobile to Mr. L. S. Thorne, general manager 
of the Texas & Pacific Ry. Co. This was the second 
car brought into the state. The first automobile 
dealer in Texas was Mr. Henry Garrett, of Dallas, 
who, in 1902, bought his first car, a National Electric. 
After selling this car he took the agency for the 
Locomobile. During this year of 1902, Mr. R. L. 
Cameron, of Dallas, purchased a car from Mr. Gar- 
rett, an Olds steam car. This was Mr. Cameron's 
first automobile but later in the year he took the 
agency for the Steamobile, handling it for one year 
after which he put in a regular sales place for auto- 
mobiles taking the agency for Buick and putting 
travelers on the road, which was the first attempt 
to sell cars throughout the state. Mr. Cameron 
has continued in the automobile business for the in- 
tervening twenty years. In the latter part of 1902 
Mr. H. R. Cromer, of Fort Worth, bought a Rambler, 
a two cylinder car which he still owns, in 1922. 

In 1903 Parlin and Orendorff Implement Company 
took up the agency for Cadillac to distribute them 
throughout the state. Th ,- s same year Mr. James 
Collins, of San Antonio, took the Cadillac agency 
for San Antonio territory and sold one car, a one- 
cylinder Cadillac, October 16th, to Mr. Al. Haslett, 



\TWOOD 

Mnnneer of Dallas Branch Buick Motor Company 

panies were established in Dallas which was the be- 
ginning of the establishment of factory branches 
and distributors in all the large towns of the state. 
In 1907 the state legislature passed a bill requir- 
ing automobiles to be licensed in the county in which 








^■'uJijiis'.yao. 



■r<ii ir>i 







The Union Terminal Depot, Dallas, with Ferris Plaza in the 
Foreground 

a Southern Pacific engineer, at the price of $1,050. 
In 1904 Mr. A. B. Wharton, of Fort Worth, took 
the agency for the Olds and Winton, opening up a 
garagf- in Fort Worth. He sold this business about 
one year later to Mr. H. H. Lewis. 

In 1905 the Maxwell, Briscoe and Handley com- 



Jefferson Hotel and Ferris Plaza, Near Union Terminal Depot, 

Built, Owned and Operated by Charles Mangold 

and E. W. Morten 

they were owned, this license being 50 cents to 
cover expense of clerical work. The owner of the 
car was privileged to buy any sort of number that 
he chose. 

In 1908 the first real salesroom and service sta- 
tion was opened in Dallas by the Buick Automobile 
Company, the first well equipped place of the kind 
in the entire Southwest. 

Beginning with 1908 many distributing agencies 
and branch houses were opened in the five larger 
cities of Texas, Dallas, Houston, San Antonio, Fort 
Worth and El Paso and from that time until 1914 
when the war broke out in Europe many new 
agencies were established each year. Cars were im- 
proved and trucks came into existence. The first 
trucks were made by putting special bodies on the 
regular automobile chassis, many times using old 
chassis that had been taken in by the dealer in 
trades. 

In the fall of 1908, during the Texas State Fair, 
there was run between Dallas and Fort Worth an 
economic and endurance contest, in which fifteen 
cars were entered. This contest created great in- 
terest and each of the three following years similar 
affairs were pulled off to Mineral Wells, Waco and 
San Antonio. In 1909 R. L. Cameron sold his busi- 
ness to Roy Munger, including the agencies for 
Cadillac, Ford, Stevens Duryea, Jackson and Frank- 
lin. The first work of the Munger Company was to 
get rid of the Ford cars taken over in this deal. 
This they accomplished after considerable effort. 
Ford cars at that time listed for $900 to $1,000. To 
use the expression of the Munger Company they 
cheerfully and gladly surrendered what later proved 
to be the greatest profit maker in the industry. 
Beginning with 1909 rubber tire concerns established 
their first branches in all the distributing centers 
of the state, then came the large accessory houses 
supplying equipment that many buyers liked to add 
to their cars. 



26 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



In the early clays automobiles came without tops, 
windshields, in fact with no more of the later re- 
finements in equipment than the farm wagon 
possessed, and it was not until about 1914 that they 
came equipped with these essentials, providing for 
extra tire, etc. 

During 1909 the Buick Automobile Company sold 




Wilson Building, the First Large Office Building of Dallas. 
Erected by the Late J. B. Wilson 

to the Dallas Fire Department 
one of their Model 17s, which was 
the first automobile fire fighting 
apparatus in the state. This car 
was used for four years in the 
service of Chief H. F. McGee. Be- 
tween 1909 and 1921 practically 
every department in all the larger 
cities and many of the small towns 
of Texas became motorized and 
many factories have been built in 
the North and East for the especial 
production of this class of ap- 
paratus. 

In 1910 the first hearses on 
motor trucks were bought by the 
undertakers of the larger cities of 
Texas, the number increasing 
slowly on account of prejudice for 
the motor car. Popular opinion 
was changed to the extent that all 
well equipped undertaking estab- 
lishments have been motorized 100 
per cent by 1920. 

The first motor factory in the 
state of Texas was that of the 
Wichita Truck Company, at Wich- 
ita Falls, Texas, which began in a 
small way in 1911 and expanded 
rapidly until Wichita Trucks have 
been in use for several years in 
all parts of the world. 

The Ford Motor Company estab- 
lished an assembly plant in Dallas 
in 1914. Also one in Houston in 
July, 1914, which in 1922 had a 



capacity of 150 cars per day. Howevei the Houston 
branch was established in 1910 as a sales and service 
branch only. 

In 1917 the Texas legislature passed a bill creating 
a highway commission authorizing same to Mcense 
automobiles, trucks, motor cycles, etc., and in 1920 
the number of such licenses issued was 427,C9.'i, in 
1921 approximately 475,000. During the period be- 
tween 1914 and 1920 there were approximately 1,500 
automobile dealers in the state. In 1920 the volume 
of business was tremendous, amounting with the 
allied lines to $350,000,000 in the state. In 1918 
many motor truck lines were established for trans- 
portation of supplies and produce between the large 
centers and the small towns throughout the state. 

In 1918 the Texas Motor Car Association opened 
a manufacturing plant in Fort Worth for the pro- 
duction of Texan passenger cars. 

During the world war and the year following the 
signing of the armistice the automobile industry, 
together with allied lines, prospered beyond expecta- 
tions in Texas, small towns as well as the large 
cities of the state taking on great activity. Many 
tourists remarked the fact that the greater number 
of better class buildings in even the smaller towns 
were erected and used by automobile concerns, hand- 
some salesrooms as well as well equipped service 
stations and garages. 

In the beginning the automobile was looked upon 
as a plaything for the rich and considered an ex- 
pensive luxury and the citizenship of Texas did not 
dream that within a few years an automobile would 
be an essential and ordinary possession of the aver- 
age family. In the year of 1922 there is an average 
in Texas of one car to every ten persons. 




Area Inclosed in a Circle Described by One Hundred Mile Radius Around Dallas, 
is Rapidly Becoming Threaded with Good Public Highways 

27 



PUBLIC HEALTH IN TEXAS 

By DR. G. W.£GODDARD 

Ex-State Health Officer 




T 



, HE discussion of public 
health can not be 
brought to our atten- 
tion but that the first and 
foremost thought that comes 
to our minds is: There should 
be no preventable diseases 
and no preventable deaths. 
Therefore, we shall deal with 
these groups alone: 

Typhoid fever is endemic 
in Texas at all times, to the 
extent of about five thousand 
cases a year, resulting in 
nearly five thousand deaths. 
Tuberculosis in some form or 
other effects some 30,000 
people, and was responsible 
for the death of over five 
thousand people last year. Pneumonia in all its 
forms kills on an average of 3,000 people a year, or 
about one in six of those who have this disease. 
Smallpox, which is so easily prevented, was in evi- 
dence in 154 counties of the state in 1919, there 
having been reported some 2,600 cases, and of scarlet 
fever, 12,500 cases. Diphtheria is one of the diseases 
which has lost some of its prestige in the last few 
years but was responsible for about 250 deaths last 
year, out of a total of 3,200 cases. Mumps, measles 
and whooping cough have also been reported and 
measles alone was responsible for nearly one thou- 
sand deaths. Anthrax has been found in six human 
beings in the last few months, no fatalities. 

Pellegra took a total from Texas of over five hun- 
dred people last year. 

The greatest reaper health authorities have had 
to contend with has been influenza, which was re- 
sponsible for so many people dying in the winter of 
1918-19. Only about 2,500 cases have been reported 
this winter, and the death rate for 1920 had de- 
creased. Other diseases that have been reported in 
varying numbers during the past year are epidemic 
meningitis, "infantile paralysis," rabies, leprosy, 
beri beri and dengus fever. Venereal diseases were 
found to be more prevalent than all other com- 
municable diseases combined, there being 58,000 of 
which practically all were preventable. 

The saving of forty thousand persons a year who 
die of these unnecessary and preventable diseases, 
would, if calculated in dollars and cents, amount 
into millions, to say nothing of the increase of human 
life that would spring from the neglected infants 
who are destroyed before they become of value to 
society from a financial standpoint. 

The indexical health survey which has just been 
finished shows among other valuable facts that on 
account of sickness during one year, school children 
lost 4,790,901 days from school; also that there were 
lost 17,356,771 days from labor, which counted in 
day's work alone, giving no consideration to the 
suffering and expense of caring for patients, cost 
Texas the enormous sum of $52,070,315 in one year's 
time. 

Thus, the above figures show that with a popula- 
tion of more than five million of people, the per- 
centage of deaths from these preventable diseases 



is only thirteen. And the percentage of diseases 
is only fourteen and six-tenths. 

Texas, with her broad plains, her balmy gulf 
breezes, her productive fields, her grazing grounds, 
her mineral resources, her congenial citizenship, a 
progressive race, touched with a climate that pro- 
duces anything that the heart could desire, a climate 
condition that from its very beginning has produced 
and continues to produce such wonderful surprises 
has within her borders everything that can be 
desired both as a winter resort, for persons seeking 
relief from the continued and extreme cold of the 
northern states, and the cooling summer winds that 
furnish relaxation, a refreshing sleep for the tired 
and weary, and never a doubt but that somewhere in 
this vast tract of land, a condition that is suited 
to any purpose that may be desired by an ever 
progressing civilization. 

With more than 256,000 square miles of territory 
she is a state that you might surround with an im- 
pregnable wall and there would be produced within 
her borders anything that her citizenship would 
desire, not only for his comfort and well being, but 
for luxurious enjoyment of his leisure time. Her 
coastal cities furnish a decided advantage over other 
pleasure resorts for summer enjoyments and pleas- 
ures; her southern inland cities furnish a retreat 
from the cold of the northern states, so that the 
person who is seeking a retreat from extreme cli- 
matic conditions in order to nurse himself back to 
health and happiness finds that which he most de- 
sires and needs within her borders. 

As an agricultural state she is unsurpassed. Her 
mineral resources have not yet been developed to the 
limit of their capacity. New oil fields are being 
opened almost daily, and with this discovery of oil 
in regions that were once thought to be worthless, 
her riches have increased one hundred per cent dur- 
ing the past three years. With iron ore, and coal 
fields, there is nothing to prevent the production 
of enough iron to supply her own needs. Her pro- 
ductive cotton fields, the sheep from her grazing 
grounds, can more than supply the needed clothing 
for her inhabitants. Her rice farms, her wheat 
fields, her cattle ranges, with chicken ranches, in 
fact anything in the supply of food for sick or well, 
her fruit regions of East Texas, the timber lands 
of the same region, her building stone, with all of 
this, an impregnable wall could be constructed en- 
closing her from the outside world and her residents 
would never know the difference. 

But with new people come new ideas, and with 
new ideas come progress, thus civilization develops, 
and with that hospitality that has won fame abroad 
as southern hospitality, the hearty handclasp of the 
native born Texan for the stranger within her midst, 
has shown that her citizenship is ever ready to divide 
that which is good, and for which he holds the key, 
is ever ready to welcome the stranger within her 
borders bidding him enter, select his stamping 
ground, and produce that which will bring happiness 
to him and to his neighbor. 

In time of distress, in one region, another is pros- 
perous beyond its own needs, while possibly a neigh- 
boring region may fall heir to some misfortune, and 
in this instant there is ever a helping hand from one 



28 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



section to anouiei, and no sooner has the disaster 
befallen, than the one extends a helping hand to 
the other, it is righted and all is well for a pros- 
perous and progressive future. 

It is through the activity of the Health Depart- 
ment of Texas, that plans are made and carried out 
to prevent contagious diseases from becoming rooted 
in many localties and being a menace to the citizens. 
The Health Department of this state is equipped 
with laboratory for research work and for the 
preparation of chemicals to exterminate the germs 
of disease. By co-operating with the Health De- 
partment in the various counties throughout the 
state, giving the constitutors and authorities proper 
assistance, they are able to have an important part 
to play in the bettering of the health conditions in 
the various communities. It is by the co-operation 
of this department with the authorities in various 
sections, that epidemics may be prevented. 

The Health Department of Texas has spent large 
sums of money, long and careful research in all 
sections of the state, in order to have at hand full 
information in which sections contagious diseases 
are most prevalent, and which counties are most 
free from contagion. Probably the greatest work 
of the department is that devoted to education. 
There is no limit to the extent of good that can be 
accomplished in this particular department of the 
work, for the education of many people or com- 
munities to use hygienic methods will be the greatest 
asset to the promotion of health. 

There is nothing more essential to the happiness 
or prosperity of the individual or community as that 
of good health, for wealth and prosperity availeth 
little without good health. In the extent to which 
this department succeeds in educating the citizens 
up to methods which prevent diseases, just that 
much is the department a success. 

The Medical and Health Authorities in the various 
sections of Texas, find this department a very helpful 
refuge in any time of need. 

Thus it is that her citizenship through a desire to 
build up a system that none might equal has seen 
fit through her law makers to provide means for a 
continual warfare upon preventable disease and by 
preventable the other meaning of the word might be 
substituted, unnecessary disease, and this unneces- 
sary prevalence of disease the State Board of Health 
is helping every section of the state to overcome. 
First remove the cause, thus removing the disease 
and this plan is succeeding in no small measure. 
For that purpose the Board of Health was formed, 
and its work is being pursued with all the skill that 
modern science lends to the aid of mankind so that 
there is noticeable a decreasing number of the dis- 
eases from year to year, and which will continue 
through the time the state with her millions of peo- 
ple shall last. 

To combat this unnecessary loss of life, there have 
been established four new bureaus, in addition to 
the original bureaus established as follows: 

1. Bureau of Child Hygiene, which is to provide 
county public health nurses, in co-operation with the 
Red Cross; to establish child health centers; to give 
pre-natal and anstetrical care and advice concern- 
ing infants and young children; to give bedside care 
to the sick in their own homes by public health 
nurses, under regulations adopted by the State Board 
of Health and approved by the County Medical So- 
ciety; to distribute leaflets on pre-natal, infant and 



child care; to arrange child health conferences in 
co-operation with the Child Welfare Division of the 
Home Economics Department of the University of 
Texas; education and training. Supervision, in- 
struction in ophthalmia neonatorum and infant hy- 
giene. Investigation of unlicensed midwives; to 
urge complete registration of births; to establish 
the following clinics: Pre-natal, well baby, sick 
baby, pre-school child; to make physical inspection 
of school children. 

2. Bureau of Communicable Diseases, whose pro- 
gram is as follows: To supply the City and County 
Health officers with information about communicable 
diseases; instructing and directing such officers in 
carrying out the laws regarding reportable and 
qaurantinable diseases; enforcing the above men- 
tioned laws and establishing general quarantine when 
necessary; receiving, tabulating and recording all re- 
ports on communicable diseases; formulating plans 
for the prevention of epidemics and the eradication 
of preventable diseases; investigating and assisting 
in the control of epidemics; preparing and supplying 
literature on the following subjects: List of com- 
municable diseases, list of "Reportable" diseases, im- 
portance of promptly reporting communicable dis- 
eases, disease "carriers," what they are and how 
controlled, vaccination— the importance and tech- 
nique, immunity — what it is and how acquired, ad- 
vantages of immunity — to the individual and the 
public, and the duty of local health officers, county 
and city officials, the community, and the individual 
in the prevention and control of communicable dis- 
eases. 

3. Bureau of Public Health Education, whose 
purpose it is to carry on the educational work of all 
the bureaus of the State Health Department; get- 
ting out pamphlets and literature for the various 
phases of public health work; keeping informed 
upon the latest public health literature on public 
health matters, and giving advice to the other 
bureaus; arranging and giving public lectures; sup- 
plying articles for the press on various activities of 
the Health Department; arranging public health ex- 
hibitions; organizing public health societies and the 
medium through which the activities of all the 
bureaus will be reduced to writing and disseminated 
to the public. 

4. Bureau of Public Health Nursing, which is to 
keep in touch with public health nursing in the 
state; to act in advisory capacity to any organiza- 
tions contemplating establishing such service; to 
interest suitable nurses in public health nursing with 
the object of increasing the supply; to properly 
place before city and county officials and the medical 
profession the importance of public health nursing 
and the functions of the public health nurse; to 
stimulate public health nursing education among 
nurses in co-operation with the State Nurse's Asso- 
ciation and State League for Nursing Education; 
to support and co-operate with the School of Public 
Health Nursing, University of Texas; through a 
plan of co-operation with the American Red Cross 
the Director of the Bureau of Public Health Nursing 
of the State Board of Health is also Director of 
Public Health Nursing for the American Red Cross 
in Texas; nurses employed by Red Cross Chapters 
carry out the public program of the State Board 
of Health in their several communities in con- 
junction with the local health officers and local 
physicians. 



29 



HISTORY OF THE TEXAS MEDICAL PROFESSION 

By P. W. KNOX M. D. 

Ex-President State Medijal Association of Texas 




JUST as Texas had men 
of the first magnitude in 
her earliest military and 
civil affairs, the mere men- 
tion of whose names recall 
days of achievement of which 
the world is proud to this 
day, so the pioneer predeces- 
sors of the Medical Profes- 
sion of today had a standard 
at the outset which compared 
favorably with that of any 
state in the Union. Among 
those early physicians were 
such men as Ashbel Smith, 
physician, surgeon, scientist, 
statesman and scholar, Phil- 
lips Anderson, Chief Surgeon 
of the Texas Navy and Alex- 
ander Ewing, Chief Surgeon of the Texas Army. 
These names merely mentioned prove the high stand- 
ard when Texas began as a Republic. But with the 
winning of freedom and the establishment of safety 
within the Texas borders, multitudes flocked into 
the Republic from varying quarters, the scarcity of 
physicians was felt, and finally necessity demanded 
volunteers who had had experience in hospital work, 
nursing, the drug business or who were simply par- 
ticularly gifted in their ministrations for the sick 
to join the regular practitioners in their service for 
their country. About 1845 to 1850, the first few 
years after the Republic became a state, the medical 
profession was greatly strengthened by young men 
coming from other states, graduates of the best 
literary and medical colleges in the land, cultured 
and refined. The high standard of the earliest days 
began to be approached again, and in 1857 the first 
attempt was made to organize the Texas physicians 
when, on March 11th, the Houston physicians ef- 
fected an organization. In 1859 these men issued a 
call to all Texas physicians and surgeons to organ- 
ize but no record was kept of the meeting that re- 
sulted from that call. However, it is evident that 
the Texas physicians and surgeons first organized 
in that year for, after the Civil War days and with 
reconstruction under way, in 1869 the Houston phy- 
sicians issued a state call for "re-organization." On 
April 15, 1869, twenty-eight physicians responded 
and as a result the first state meeting whose records 
have been preserved was held. Dr. T. J. Heard, of 
Galveston, was chosen president Dr. R. H. Jones, 
of Washington County, first vice-president; Dr. D. 
R. Wallace, of Waco, second vice-president; Dr. A. 
A. Connell, of Houston, recording secretary; Dr. W. 
P. Riddle, of Houston, corresponding secretary, and 
Dr. F. Hassenberg, of Houston, treasurer. Two days 
were consumed in these details of organization. At 
the second meeting, at Houston, Dr. R. T. Flewellen, 
of Houston, was chosen president, and Dr. D. R. 
Wallace became first vice-president. The third ses- 
sion, also at Houston, found an increased attendance 
and interest. Dr. Wallace, of Waco, was made presi- 
dent; he was a man of unusual executive ability and 
at once his influence for good was felt. Through him, 
the association was brought into closer relations 



with the American Medical Association and Dr. S. O. 
Young was chosen as the first Texas delegate to the 
national body. He appointed various committees 
to do special work and report at the next annual con- 
vention. 

The fourth session of the Texas Medical Associa- 
tion, meeting at Houston, elected Dr. D. F. Stuart, 
of Houston, as president; Dr. S. O. Young as record- 
ing secretary, and Dr. J. Larendon, also of Houston, 
as treasurer and this position Dr. Larendon retained 
for a quarter of a century. This meeting was April 
15, 1872. It was then decided to abandon Houston 
as the permanent quarters. Waco was designated 
as the next meeting place. It has already been 
noted by the reader, perhaps, that the Texas Medical 
Association began as a Houston idea and was chiefly 
maintained by physicians and surgeons of that city 
and its immediate territory until its final success. 

A great deal has been accomplished through the 
activities of the Medical Association. It has in 
many cases acted as a law making body for its own 
members, prescribing certain rules of ethics and 
standards of practise which its members were re- 
quired to adopt. Through the work of the Associa- 
tion many evils of the practise have been eliminated 
and evil practitioners barred from practising. 

To trace the history of the Association from that 
fourth meeting to its present, would be to catalogue 
the accomplishment of much good for the people of 
Texas that could not have been achieved in any 
other form. Before the association was organized 
the state at one time came to be overrun with medi- 
cal quacks of every kind; there were no laws to re- 
strain them nor laws to protect the public and reput- 
able physicians. In 1871 the association began a 
crusade for laws of protection, first meeting with 
meager results but finally calling forth a state law 
requiring every physician to register statement of 
where, when and at what school he graduated and 
to register his actual diploma. This shut out some 
but not all quacks as there were bogus schools just 
as bogus graduates. Finally the Texas Medical 
Association secured a law calling for a state board 
of examiners before which every physician then 
practicing had to appear for an examination. An- 
other noteworthy accomplishment was the law creat- 
ing the State Board of Health. The general state 
work of the association is greatly furthered and 
given dispatch by a division of the state into sub- 
divisions, as the East Texas Medical Association, 
the West Texas Association. Then, too, special in- 
terests have come to have their own organization, as 
the Railroad Surgeons' Association, etc. Space fails 
us to permit of mention of how disease epidemics of 
every kind have been eliminated, health departments 
established, even in county and city forms for the 
entire state, which in turn have aided materially in 
establishment of pure water supplies, special labora- 
tories over the country, etc., — all of which have- 
greatly reduced death rates and given a state-wide 
health. There are at present approximately 7,000 
physicians and surgeons in the state of Texas, and 
90 sanitariums with 125 hospitals and homes, and 
the Texas Medical Association never in so flourishing 
a condition. 



30 



HISTORY OF THE TEXAS BAR ASSOCIATION 

By CLAUDE POLLARD 



Ex-President 




SINCE the dawn of civili- 
zation the government 
of the tribe, state, na- 
tion and empire has been di- 
rected and largely controlled 
through particular elements 
of society. Early Rome was 
effectively governed by the 
powerful patrician families, 
later fell under the rule of 
the emperors, and finally 
under the dominant spirit of 
militarism. Early England 
was governed by the feudal 
lords, later came under the 
domination of the House of 
Lords and is now controlled 
by the lower house of Parlia- 
ment. In the United States 
s.nce the Declaration of Independence, the lawyers 
have been the great controlling and directing in- 
fluence of the government. In Texas to the lawyers 
and to their organization, the Texas Bar Association 
is particularly deserving that tribute of Daniel 
Webster: 

"Law is the great interest of man on earth. It 
is the ligament which holds civilized beings and 
civilized nations together. Wherever her temple 
stands there is a foundation for social security, gen- 
eral happiness and the improvement of progress of 
our race. And whoever labors on this edifice with 
usefulness and distinction, whoever clears its founda- 
tions, strengthens its pillars, adorns its entablatures, 
or contributes to raise its august dome still higher in 
the skies, connects himself, in name, and fame, and 
character, with that which is and must be as durable 
as the frame of human society.'.' 

The first meeting of the Texas Bar Association was 
called at Galveston in the year 1882. At this meet- 
ing tentative plans were made for a permanent or- 
ganization and many lawyers expressed their will- 
ingness to co-operate with the new organization. 
Among the charter members of the association were 
some of the most prominent attorneys of Texas, 
amongst whom are: James L. Autry, of Houston, 
James A. Baker, of Houston; Colonel W. L. Craw- 
ford, of Dallas; Senator C. A. Culberson, of Dallas; 
R. V. Davidson, of Dallas; Walter Gresham, of Gal- 
veston; T. S. Henderson, of Cameron; Charles F. 
Hrme, of Houston; Rudolf Kleburg, of Austin; John 
Lovejoy, of Houston; B. F. Masterson, of Galveston; 
Judge T. S. Maxey, of Austin, F. D. Minor, of Beau- 
mont; Anson Rainey, of Dallas; N. A. Rector, of 
Austin; Judge Seth Sheppard, of Washington, D. C; 
W. S. Simpkins, of Austin, R. G. Street, of Galves- 
ton; B. D. Tarlton, of Austin; Charles F. Todd, of 
Texarkana, and John C. Walker, of Galveston. It is 
to these "old guardsmen" that the association is in- 
debted for its existence and it is through their ef- 
forts that much of its success has been gained. In 
their constitution they provided that annual meet- 
ings were to be held for the purpose of "advancing 
the science of jurisprudence, promoting uniformity 
of legislation in the administration of justice 
throughout the state, upholding the honor of the 



profession of law, and encouraging intercourse 
among its members." Galveston was selected as the 
permanent convention city and for twenty years it 
continued to be the annual meeting place. The first 
president of the association was Thomas J. Devine, 
of San Antonio, who was one of the early Texas 
settlers and who had won a substantial reputation 
throughout the state as a lawyer of great ability. 
By 1900 the membership had reached the hundred 
mark and it was thought advisable to change the 
meeting place of the yearly convention from city 
to city. This policy being carried out, the next 
meeting was held at Dallas. By means of interest 
thus stimulated the membership began to increase 
and by 1914 it had approximately five hundred named 
on its roll, while at the present time the membership 
is over the thousand mark. 

As stated in the constitution the purpose is to aid 
the state in its legal and governmental prob- 
lems. In furtherance of this aim the yearly con- 
ventions are devoted to a thorough discussion of 
problems of the state. Committees are frequently 
appointed to consider and report to the state legis- 
lature changes in existing laws which might be 
advisable and by this means many state laws have 
been greatly changed to the advantage of the people. 

The presidents of the association, who in their 
time were among the most prominent men of the 
state have been: Thomas J. Devine, 1882; T. N. 
Waul,1883; J. H. McCleary, 1884; B. H. Bassett, 1885; 
A. J. Peeler, 1886; T. J. Beall, 1887; W. L. Crawford, 
1888; F. Charles Hume, 1889; H. W. Lightfoot, 1890; 
Norman G. Kittrell, 1891; Seth Sheppard, 1892; John 
N. Henderson, 1893; S. C. Padelford, 1894; Thomas 
H. Franklin, 1895; William L. Prather, 1896; William 
H. Clark, 1897; William Aubrey, 1898; Frank C. 
Dillard, 1899; Presley K. Ewing, 1900; M. A. 
Spoonts, 1901; James B. Stubbs, 1902; Lewis R. 
Bryan, 1903; T. S. Reese, 1904; H. C. Carter, 1905; 
H. M. Garwood, 1906; A. L. Beaty, 1907;A. E. Wilkin- 
son, 1908; Yancey Lewis, 1909; William H. Burges, 
1910; Hiram Glass, 1911; R. E. L. Saner, 1912; John 
T. Duncan, 1913; W. W. Searcy, 1914; Allan D. San- 
ford, 1915; John L. Dyer, 1916; Frank C. Jones, 1917; 
Charles K. Lee, 1918; W. L. Estes, 1919; and Claude 
Pollard, 1920. 

For thirty-eight years the Texas Bar Association 
has been the largest association of its kind in the 
Southwest. It has furnished the national halls of 
Congress many able men and many are the learned 
jurists that have come from its ranks. Ever mind- 
ful of the duties that rest with the association the 
members are continually striving for the greater, 
better Texas, and many are the measures of reform 
which it has been the means of having introduced 
and passed through the legislature of this state. 
The preservation of our state institutions is depend- 
ent in no small degree upon the patriotic zeal of 
this body of lawyers, and the things for which they 
contend, and, if always true to the heritage of the 
history of our state and its institutions, it may al- 
ways be said of her: 

"Though storms and tempests thunder on its brow 

And oceans break its billows at its feet. 

It stands unmoved, and glories in its height." 



31 



THE LUMBER INDUSTRY OF TEXAS 

By JOHN H. KIRBY 




T 



HE Lumber Industry, 
with all that it in- 
cludes from the initial 
stage of logging to the fin- 
ished product, constitutes the 
third greatest manufacturing 
activity of the United States 
and also ranks third among 
the industries of the Lone 
Star State. Though Texas 
as the largest state in the 
Union has more forested area 
than any other state, she has 
a "stand" much smaller than 
that in several other territo- 
ries. One estimate gives 40,- 
000,000 acres of wooded land, 
but this is inaccurate and, in 
fact, it is practically impos- 
sible to make an exact estimate for much wooded 
land is unfit for commercial lumbering. As our 
state varies greatly in climate and physiography, 
practically the whole range of forest trees found 
in the temperate zone is within our borders. Four 
general lumber belts may be mentioned — East Texas, 
greater than all the others combined, the Grand 
and Black Prairies, Edwards Plateau and territory 
west of the Pecos River. 

The distribution of lumber producing trees may 
be given as follows: In the coast plain, along swamps 
and sluggish streams, pines — the most valuable — 
tupelo. magnolia, sweet gum and other species; in 
the alluvial bottoms are the hardwoods — the oaks the 
most important in quantity and value — ash, hickory, 
gum, holly and other hardwood species; in the in- 
terior of the coast plain the loblolly pines and hard- 
woods abound, while pines are also on sandy ridges 
and hardwoods in the half -swampy flats. The Hardin 
County "Big Thicket" of Hardwoods is famous as 
being almost impenetrable. North and east of this 
area are the long leaf pines. And Texas has the 
last large stands of the long leaf pines for which 




Lumber Mill of the Kirby Lumber Company at Voth, Texas 

our state is famed far and wide. Between this area 
and the Red River westward to the Black Prairies 
are the short leaf pines and accompanying hard- 



woods. The Grand and Black Prairies, bounded by 
the Brazos and Nueces Rivers and the Coast Plain, 
abound in live oaks. The Edwards Plateau, mostly 
west of the 98th meridian, has hardwoods in canyons 
and about streams with post oak, mountain oak, and 
cedar brakes of extensive area on hills and bluffs. 
Practically all logging and saw mills are in East 
Texas — from which it is again seen that East Texas 
comprises all the most valuable forests of the State, 
forty-eight counties in number. There are no pub- 
licly owned lands here. Three holdings alone include 
22.1 per cent of the total stand of which six-sevenths 
is the long leaf pine — an enormous concentration, 
and eighty-one largest holdings of the state have 
55.3 per cent of the total stand or 72.2 per cent of 
the most valuable woods. The total stand for East 
Texas is estimated as 66,000,000,000 board feet, of 




Airplane View of One of the Plants of the Kirby Lumber 
Company at Voth, Texas 

which the long leaf pine leads with over 22,000,000,- 
000 board feet with the short leaf pine close on to it. 
It is estimated that the annual cut is 2,099,130,000 
board feet or 3.2 per cent, at which rate, not allowing 
for reforestation, it will require about thirty-one 
years to exhaust the timber supply of Texas. 

Eleven and eight-tenths per cent of the total 
volume of Texas manufactured output are from the 
lumber mills and wood using plants, while 33.5 per 
cent of all wage earners in the manufacturing indus- 
try of Texas are engaged in the manufacture of 
lumber or lumber products, working in 799 plants. 

To summarize then, the Texas lumber business has 
799 manufacturing plants employing 33.5 per cent 
of all manufacturing employees of the state, putting 
out 11.8 per cent of the total of the Texas manu- 
factured output; the distribution of timber varies 
from the tupelo and cypress of the swamps of the 
East and Southeast to the cactus on the high, dry 
western plateaus with 150 varieties of valuable 
timber producing trees between; the annual "cut" 
is about 3.2 per cent of the total "stand" which is 
estimated as 66,000,000,000 board feet in which the 
long leaf pine leads with about 25,000,000,000 board 
feet, six-sevenths of which are owned by three hold- 
ings while 81 holdings have 72.2 per cent of the most 
valuable woods, and America's last large stands of 
the famed long leaf pine are in the state of Texas. 



32 



HISTORY OF HOUSTON BANKS 



By JOHN T. SCOTT 

President of First National Hank 




H 



OUSTON is the home 
of the first bank ever 
organized in Texas, 
as it can boast of having had 
so many other things first. 
The banks and trust compa- 
nies of this city have played 
a very important part in the 
growth and development of 
the city and today Houston 
is one of the leading finan- 
cial centers of Texas, con- 
tributing in every way to the 
orderly and permanent 
growth of Southern Texas. 

Houston's first bank, the 
Commercial and Agricultural 
Bank of Texas, was charter- 
ed by the congress of Coa- 
huila and Texas to S. M. Williams and associates in 
1835, one year before there really was a town of 
Houston. Its authorized capital was $1,000,000.00 
and $100,000.00 was paid in. It was a bank of issue. 
The first president was S. M. Williams and the first 
cashier was J. W. McMillan. Constant warfare was 
made against it and it finally went out of business 
in 1859, when the supreme court annulled its char- 
ter. Texas chartered no banks until after the adop- 
tion of the Constitution in 1870, so this was the 
only chartered bank in Texas for many years. Soon 
after the death of Mr. Williams the affairs of the 
bank were wound up by B. A. Shepherd, who had 
become one of its principal owners. 

Several of the early merchants such as T. W. 
House, Sr., Cornelius Ennis and - W. J. Hutchins, 
conducted banks of their own in connection with 




their cotton and mercantile transactions. In 1854 
B. A. Shepherd engaged exclusively in the banking 
business and so he was the first man in Texas to 
do so. Practically all the banking business in the 




First National Bank Building: Main to Fannin Streets at 
Franklin 



Second National Bank Building, Corner Main and Rusk, 
Houston, Texas 

state was done in Houston and Galveston until after 
the Civil War. The Commercial and Agricultural 
Bank of Texas was also engaged in lines other than 
banking. The first national bank of Texas, now 
known as the First National Bank of Galveston, 
was organized in 1865 and was the first National 
bank in the state. In 1866 the First National Bank 



33 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



of Houston was organized by T. M. Bagby and 
others, Mr. Bagby becoming its first president. 
Later Mr. Shepherd became president and after his 
decease his son-in-law, Mr. A. P. Root, succeeded 
him. After the death of Mr. Root Mr. O. L. Coch- 
ran, another son-in-law of Mr. Shepherd, became 
president. In 1015 John T. Scott succeeded to the 
presidency of the bank and is serving in that posi- 
tion at this time. The original capital of the bank 
was $100,000.00. In 1906 it increased to $500,000.00, 
in 1909 to $1,000,000.00 and in 1912 to $2,000,000.00. 
The total assets of this bank today exceed $30,000,- 
000.00. In September, 1909, the deposits were less 
than $5,000,000.00 while in April, 1912, they had 
grown to about $9,000,000.00 and at this time the 
individual and bank deposits exceed $34,000,000.00. 
F. M. Law, W. S. Cochran and Sam R. Lawder are 
vice presidents and O. W. Jackson, cashier. 

The City Bank of Houston was opened November 
1st, 1870, with a capital stock of $250,000.00 and 
was so engaged for about fifteen years, but was 




Public National Bank Building, Main Street and Preston 
Avenue 

forced to suspend payment in 1885. Col. B. A. Botts 
was its president until his death in 1885. W. R. 
Baker was chosen to succeed him. This bank sus- 
pended payment September 19th, 1885, and went 
into the hands of Major B. F. Weems, receiver. 
Mr. Baker was the principal loser, but it little 
affected the financial standing of the city. In 1874 
the Houston Savings Bank was organized and did 
business until February 21, 1886, at which time 
Dr. D. F. Stuart was appointed receiver to wind 
up its business. There was not a great deal of 
money invested so the losses were very small. 

In 1886, twenty years after the First National 
Bank began business, the Commercial National Bank 
was organized with a capital stock of $500,000.00. 



This bank grew rapidly, did a large business and 
later was merged with the South Texas National 
Bank. In 1889 the third national bank of Houston 
was chartered as the Houston National Bank. In 
1909 they obtained a new charter under the name 
of the Houston National Exchange Bank. Today 
the bank is known as the Houston National Bank 
and has a capital and surplus of $1,300,000.00. Jos. 
F. Meyer, Sr., is president and Melvin Rouff and 
Jos. F. Meyer, Jr., active vice presidents. This 
institution has grown rapidly. In 1902 its deposits 
were about $360,000.00, in 1912 $3,000,000.00 and 
in 1925 nearly $11,000,000.00. In 1890 the South 
Texas National Bank was chartered with a capital 
stock of $500,000.00. On March 2nd, 1912, this bank 
absorbed the Commercial National Bank, the new 
bank thus formed is known today as the South Texas 
Commercial National Bank with a capital and sur- 
plus of over $2,500,000.00 and resources in excess 
of $28,000,000.00. Captain James A. Baker is pres- 
ident and S. M. McAshan is vice president. The 
Union National Bank of today represents three 
original banks. The Union Bank and Trust Com- 
pany was chartered in 1905 under the new banking 
laws of Texas, receiving charter number one. It 
effected a consolidation with the Planters and Me- 
chanics Bank in 1908 and in 1910 it absorbed the 
Merchants National Bank. At this time it became 
a national bank with a capital of $1,000,000.00. Total 
deposits today exceed $17,000,000.00. Assets today 
are in excess of $20,000,000.00. J. S. Rice is chair- 
man of the board, R. M. Farrar is president, George 
Hamman and T. C. Dunn active vice presidents. 

In 1907 the Lumbermans National Bank was or- 
ganized with a capital of $400,000.00 and surplus 
of $100,000.00. Two years later it absorbed the 
City National Bank and in 1910 the American Na- 
tional Bank and the Central Bank and Trust Com- 
pany turned over their assets to it. The name was 
changed to the Second National Bank in January, 
1923. The capital and surplus is $1,600,000.00 and 
deposits over $15,000,000.00. S. F. Carter is pres- 
ident, Guy M. Bryan, C. S. E. Holland a;.d Hudson 
P. Ellis, active vice presidents. The Harris County 
Bank and Trust Company was organized in 1907, 
having one-half of its capital stock of $25,000.00 in 
its banking house. It failed in July, 1907. In 
January, 1910, the Guaranty National Bank was 
organized with a capital of $20,000.00. In March, 
1918, the capital was increased to $50,000.00. Six 
months later it was increased to $100,000.00 and 
in December, 1921, it was nationalized. The capi- 
tal stock today is $200,000.00. The deposits are 
nearly $2,000,000.00, with total resources of about 
$2,500,000.00. John D. Dyer is president and W. L. 
Dyer active vice president. 

In 1912 the National Bank of Commerce was or- 
ganized with a capital stock of $500,000.00. Its 
deposits in 1912 were $800,000.00 while in January, 
1926, they were over $11,000,000.00. Its resources 
are nearly $13,000,000.00. Jesse H. Jones is pres- 
ident, N. E. Meador and A. D. Simpson, active vice 
presidents, and A. F. Fisher, cashier. In June, 1915, 
the bank that is today known as the State National 
Bank was organized under the name of the State 
Bank and Trust Company. On December 19th, 1921, 
it was nationalized. The capital stock is $500,000.00 
and total deposits are about $5,000,000.00. J. A. 






34 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Wilkins is president, and H. M. Wilkins, vice pres- 
ident. The Public National Bank was organized 
December 1st, 1921, by J. Lewis Thompson and asso- 
ciates and has a capital stock of $300,000.00, with 
deposits over $2,500,000.00. J. H. Tallichet is pres- 
ident, and Carter Stewart, active vice president. 
On April 3rd, 1919, the Citizens State Bank was 
organized by A. C. Bell and others, with a capital 
stock of $100,000.00. The deposits are about $600,- 
000.00, with total assets of about $700,000.00. W. H. 
Irvin is president and A. V. Pace, vice president. 
On July 30th, 1919, the People's State Bank, with 
a capital stock of $150,000.00, was organized by 
Louie Cohn and associates. The Marine Bank and 
Trust Company was organized and acquired the 
business and good will of the People's State Bank, 
February 24th, 1925. The capital is $300,000.00 and 
deposits over $2,000,000.00. D. W. Cooley is pres- 
ident and T. P. Priddie, Jr., is active vice president. 
The First Texas Joint Stock Bank was organized 
in April, 1919, with capital stock of $500,000.00. 

C. S. E. Holland is president. The Gulf State Bank 
was organized in May, 1919, and its capital stock 
is $100,000.00 and has deposits of over $1,000,000.00. 

D. S. Cage is president, and Eli Marks is active 
vice president. The Seaport National Bank was 
organized in 1924, with a capital stock of $250,- 
000.00. W. S. Meyers is chairman of the board 
and president, and Phil Stillman, active vice pres- 
ident. The Central State Bank of Magnolia Park 
was organized in March, 1923. F. A. Baldinger is 
president. The Labor Bank and Trust Company 
was opened in November, 1925. It has $110,000.00 
capital stock and surplus. Senator Charles Murphy 
is president, C. L. Killingsworth and B. C. Bukowski 
are active vice presidents. 

The Federal Reserve Bank established a branch 
in Houston in 1919, and now has a modern banking 
house at 1301 Texas Avenue. The Federal Land 
Bank of Houston was organized and opened for 
business in Houston, March 26th, 1917. It has a 
capital, surplus and undivided profits of more than 
$7,500,000.00. M. H. Gossett is president, R. D. 
Johnson, treasurer, and John V. Van Demark, sec- 
retary. 

The trust companies of Houston, as well as the 
banks, have assisted materially in the advancement 
of Houston and have filled the need that is beyond 
the sphere of the bank. Houston is the home of 
some of the strongest trust companies of the South. 
The Houston Land and Trust Company is a parent 
organization of this nature in Houston. It was 
organized in 1875 and was originally chartered to 
do land trust business only and until it was reor- 
ganized in 1889 it did an unimportant business. At 
this time it was reorganized for the purpose of doing 
regular mortgage and trust business and since that 
time it has aided greatly in the growth of this 
city and surrounding territory. It has a capital 
stock of $1,000,000.00, with deposits in excess of 
$4,200,000.00. P. B. Timpson is president. The 
Texas Trust Company was organized July 12th, 
1909, with a capital stock of $500,000.00. In 1909 
the Southern Trust Company was organized and 
began business in January, 1910, with a capital 
stock of $500,000.00. In September, 1909, the Bank- 
ers Trust Company was organized with a capital 
stock of $500,000.00 and with a paid-in surplus of 



$25,000.00. The capital was later increased to $1,- 
000,000.00. In 1911 the Texas Trust Company was 
merged with the Bankers Trust Company, the cap- 
ital becoming at that time $2,000,000.00. In 1920 
the name was changed to the Bankers Mortgage 
Company. The total assets of this institution exceed 
$3,000,000.00. 

In 1911 the American Trust Company was organ- 
ized with a capital of $500,000.00. The Fidelity 
Trust Company was organized in 1914. It has a 




State National Bank Building, One of Houston's Sky-scrapers 

capital and undivided profits of over $250,000.00. 
Judge W. W. Moore is president. In February, 1917, 
the Guardian Trust Company was organized by 
C. M. Malone and associates. It has a capital and 
surplus of over $600,000.00. Captain James A. Baker 
is president, C. M. Malone, active vice president. 
On April 12th, 1920, the San Jacinto Trust Com- 
pany was organized by George F. Howard and 
others, with a capital and surplus of $110,000.00. 
The capital stock is $300,000.00 and surplus $125,- 
000.00. George F. Howard is president, and E. C. 
Barkley is active vice president. In May, 1925, the 
Federal Trust Company began business and has a 
capital stock of $200,000.00 and deposits of about 
$500,000.00. C. H. Bryan is president and Floyd 
Ikard, vice president. The Guaranty Trust Com- 
pany was organized in 1924, with capital stock of 
$100,000.00. J. A. Elkins is president and J. W. 
Keeland is active vice president. 



35 



HOUSTON'S INDUSTRIES AND OPPORTUNITIES 



By R. M. FARRAR 

President Houston Chamber of Commerce 




PICTURE to yourself a 
city of a million souls, 
a city traversed by a 
net work of transit lines; 
with elevated railways along 
the principal streets and sub- 
ways under the Ship Chan- 
nel; with beautiful homes 
stretching over the level 
plains now vacant; with hun- 
dreds of industrial plants 
sending their volume of 
mingled smoke and flare into 
the sky; with ships flying 
between here and all parts of 
■ the world— then you will vis- 
I ualize the Houston of the fu- 
Iture. This is a dream, you 
say, perhaps it is, but isn't 
the Houston of today a dream compared with the 
Houston of a quarter of a century ago ? Those who 
know local history will admit that it is. 

In all the history of American cities there is not 
a more brilliant page than that of Houston's mar- 
velous growth, commercial and industrial advance- 
ment. 

The fundamental factor in this growth has been 
the ship channel. Located on a deep water harbor, 
where 18 railways meet ocean going vessels from 
all ports of the world, Houston holds undisputed 
sway as the commercial, industrial and financial 
center of the great Southwest. No other American 
city occupies a more favored position. A land locked 
harbor, with 50 miles of water frontage for the 
accommodation of industrial plants, with an empire 
of rich and productive land from which to draw her 
trade, her rapid ascendancy to the position of a 
world port is universally recognized. 

Keen sighted investors, recognizing the superior 
advantage offered by Houston as a great distribut- 
ing point for world markets, are already coming 
into the field and the water front is becoming 
bordered with a multitude of industrial plants. Facts 
are stubborn things, and facts will prove that no 
other American city can show a more rapid and 
substantial industrial growth. 

T n ie present splendid waterway is to have still 
further improvement. Funds have been appropri- 
ated for deepening the channel to 30 feet, with a 
width of 200 feet at the base, five and a half million 
dollars have already been spent in improvements, 
and two and a half million dollars more will be 
spent in the immediate future. Nor will the work 
stop when appropriations now available have been 
spent, but improvement will continue until the port 
is the finest on the American continent. Its natural 
advantages are undisputed. The channel is an arm 
of fresh water reaching 50 miles inland from the 
high seas and affording safe anchorage in time of 
high winds. This situation constitutes the ideal 
port. The depth will be abundant. There will be 
no locks or dams necessary. The stream is as calm 
as a mountain lake, and is bordered by woodland 



and plain constituting an everchanging panorama 
view of scenic beauty. Municipal wharves and 
docks have been constructed at a cost of 
$3,250,000, and this is but the beginning of im- 
provements to follow. Private capital is now 
building docks and wharves to serve the many 
industrial plants along the channel. A Municipal 
Belt Railway connecting the wharves with 
the 18 railways entering the city of Houston af- 
ford a service for all tonnage received and sent 
through the channel. The turning basin, where 
ships begin their return voyage to the sea is 1100 





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Niels Esperson Building, the Tallest Office Building in Texas 
and One of the Finest Buildings in the South 

feet wide at the top and 1000 feet at the base. Its 
present ruling depth is 2 5 feet. This will soon be 
extended to 30 feet, and the water area materially 
extended. Plans for these improvements have been 
submitted to the United States Board of Engineers, 
and the work will be done along scientific lines. 



36 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



There will be no haphazard work, and no experiment- 
ing. 

The production of oil in Texas to-day is the mar- 
vel of the civilized world. A few years ago, oil 
production in the state was considered negligible. 
Today Texas leads every other state in the American 
Union, according to Government reports, and the in- 
dustry is still in its infancy. The coastal fields are 
new, the territory will not be exhausted for many 
years to come. The markets of Europe are looking 
to Texas for their principal supplies of petroleum 
and its products. 

There are now eighteen refineries located on the 
Ship Channel and in process of location there. These 
great plants will have a daily capacity, when com- 
pleted, of 200,000 barrels of oil. Their crude supply 
will be drawn from pipe lines now serving the 
coastal fields of Texas and Louisiana, and the North 
Texas and Oklahoma fields. Mexican crude petro- 
leum will be brought in tankers from the Tampico 
fields and those in Venezuela and other Central Am- 
erican republics. Oil from Mexico is already being 
shipped to Houston for refining. Terminating on 
the Channel are now one 8 -inch and three 6 -inch pipe 
lines, from the Oklahoma fields. Construction work 
has begun on two more 8 -inch lines. The present 
daily capacity of 5 5,000 barrels from Oklahoma 
and North Texas will soon be increased to 116,000. 
One of these new lines will come through the Burk- 
burnett field. Pipe line connections through various 
coastal fields and Oklahoma give a total capacity of 
63,000 barrels of crude oil per day to be refined at 
local refineries. The storage capacity of steel tanks 
in the vicinity of Houston is 4,500,000 barrels. 
Oil Refineries. 

The following oil companies and refineries are 
already located on the channel: 

Refineries: Houston Terminal Oil Co., Deep- 
water Oil Refineries, Keen & Woolf Oil Co., Sinclair 
Refining Co., Galena Signal Oil Co., Crown Oil Co., 
Humble Oil & Refining Co., Great Lakes & Western 
Refining Co., La Porte Oil & Refining Co., Pay-Tex 
Petroleum Co., Able Refining Co., Gulf Pipe Line Co. 
mixing plant), Trans-Atlantic Oil Refining Co. 

Other companies having large tank farms and 
storage facilities on the channel are: The Texas 
Company, Magnolia Petroleum Company, American 
Petroleum Company, Clarion Oil Company, Rio 
Bravo Oil Company and Houston Oil Terminal Com- 
pany. 

Public Wharves. 

There are now six public wharves near the turning 
basin. All have been built within the last three 
years and are modern in type and construction. 
They cover a total water frontage of 3649 lineal 
feet, and a total area of 303,634 square feec. 
Freight sheds cover 141,023 feet, with 613,611 
square feet yet to be covered. These wharves are 
provided with municipal railway trackage along the 
water front. Wharf No. 1 has been in operation 
since November 1915. It was the first to be built. 
It is now used to handle the business of the South- 
ern Steamship company's Houston-Phiiadelphia line 
The wharf is 647 feet long, with a maximum width 
of 165 feet, including the aprons. Including the 
sheds, it covers an area of 76,672 square feet. It 
has railroad tracks at rear and two tracks at front 
apron. The storage shed is of solid concrete and 
fireproof. The four other city wharves are modern 



in every particular. The cotton wharf opposite 
Wharf No. 4, is 800 feet long by 42 feet wide, 
covering an area of 33,600 square feet. The Man- 
chester Wharf, two miles down the channel from 
Wharf No. 1 will, when completed, be 500 feet long, 
with belt railway connection with main line rail 
ways. The money for building this wharf has been 
reserved out of the funds received from Bond sales 
for the purpose of building the wharf. 

The city owns two up-to-date wharves, one at 
the foot of Baker street, and the other at the South 
side of Main street. The Baker street wharf is 80 




Petroleum Building:, One of the Latest Additions to Houston 
Skyscrapers 

feet long by 20 feet wide. The Main street wharf 
is 552 feet long by 80 feet wide. The Main street 
wharf contains a storage warehouse 70 feet long 
and 24 feet wide. 

Private Wharves. 
Several private corporations which have purchased 
water frontage for the building of industrial plants 
and oil refineries, have built their own wharves, 
and many more of these are in prospect for the im- 
mediate future. Many of these will be used for 
receiving and sending oil shipments. 



37 



NEW ENCYCLOP EDIA OF TEXAS 



Public Warehouses. 

Plans for making the port a concentration point 
for merchandise and commercial products have been 
scientifically worked out, and a warehouse contain- 
ing more than 5 acres of floor space has already 
been constructed. It is located in the rear of wharf 
No. 4. and built of concrete. Of the floor space 
188,543 square feet is reserved for storage purposes. 
It is divided into compartments by concrete walls 
and automatic fire doors, with automatic sprinkler 
system, power circuits and electric lights. Three 
railroad tracks are located between the two wings 
of the building, with two tracks on the outside of the 
east wing. 

Cotton Sheds. 

Immediately to the rear of the 800 foot cotton 
wharf are three cotton sheds, having a total area 
of 2 4 2.S9S square feet, with a total storage capacity 
of 30,000 bales of cotton. Each shed is equipped 




The New Medical Arts Building:, Built Expressly for the Medi- 
cal and Dental Profession 

with the Fordyce monorail cotton trolley, connecting 
with the wharf, which transports cotton from the 
sheds to the ship's side. Each of these cotton sheds 
is served by two municipal railroad spur tracks 
rurning alongside the sheds. Three private cotton 
warehouses are located on the channel below the 
turning basin. Cotton is shipped from all sheds anu 
docks to the principal markets of the world. 
Public Terminal Facilities. 

Probably the greatest public asset connected with 
the harbor administration is the Municipal Belt 
Railway, owned and operated by the city of Houston. 
This road was built in order that terminal facilities 
of the ship channel might forever remain free from 
private control. Every industry on the channel 
stands on an equal footing as regards to terminal 
privileges. 

This city's terminal railway connects with many 
Industrial plants now in operation, and will eventu- 



ally serve every industry on the channel. The city 
owned railway connects with all the main line rail- 
ways entering Houston. The road already has 12 
miles of trackage on the south side of the channel, 
including switch yards capable of accomodating 450 
railway cars. On the north side of the channel the 
Belt line owns 157 miles of switch yards accomodat- 
ing 148 cars. The city owns two 70-ton locomotives 
with which to operate its railway, also a round- 
house, for its locomotives. As shipping on the 
channel increases the belt line terminal will connect 
with all industrial plants there. It is the pub- 
lic's safe-guard against private control of the ter- 
minal facilities of the port. 

Free to the World. 

The Port of Houston is free to the World, no 
charges whatever being made against vessels en- 
tering the harbor. No charges for dockage, wharf- 
age, or berthing are made. This affords ships com- 
ing here a tremendous advantage. The expense of 
maintaining the municipal wharves and docks is 
maintained by the taxpayers of Houston. All other 
South Texas ports, including Galveston, Texas City, 
Beaumont, Port Arthur and Orange, assess port 
charges. So does New Orleans and Mobile. This 
is made possible through municipal ownership and 
control of the port. Charges for piloting vessels up 
the channel are exceedingly reasonable. When a 
vessel has once entered the channel the charge for 
piloting is $2.50 per foot of vessel draft one way. 
Fresh water for ships is supplied by the city at fif- 
teen cents per thousand gallons. 

Other Harbors Not Free. 

Galveston harbor makes the following charges 
against vessels entering her harbor: Vessels of 
2,000 net tons and under 3,000 tons, $125; vessels of 
3,000 tons and under 5,000 tons, $150; vessels of 
5,000 tons and over $175. 

New Orleans bases her charges on the gross ton- 
nage of the vessels per day, charging 3 cents per 
ton for the first day and going down a gradual 
scale to one cent per ton for six days of the vessel's 
stay. Charges then cease until the 22nd day, when 
one cent is charged per ton until the 26th day, when 
the scale for the first week again becomes effective. 
The true spirit of Southern hospitality is exemplified 
in the management of Houston's splendid harbor. 
Numerous Industrial Sites. 

There is room on the water front for thousands 
of industrial plants. The distance from the Turning 
Basin to Morgan's Point is 25 miles. The water 
frontage on both sides of the Channel is available for 
building purposes, giving 50 miles of water front- 
age. This land is lower in price than any other 
deep water frontage in America. As industries 
develop the municipal railway will be connected 
with them and the eighteen main line railways that 
radiate in every direction from Houston. 

Steamers are now plying between Houston and 
Philadelphia, and oil tankers bring cargoes from 
the Tampico oil fields of Mexico. The Ward Line 
steamers have applied for the privilege of opening 
a line between Houston and Central American ports. 
Ship Building Industry. 

Two ship building plants have been in operation 
on the Ship Channel since August, 1917. They are 
the Universal and the Midland yards. The Universal 
plant has built nine 3,500 ton Ferris type wooden 
ships. The last one to be built under government 



38 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



contract will be completed by the end of the present 
month. This yard is now negotiating for ships to 
be built under private contract at the Universal 
plant here. 

The Midland yards have launched eight 3,500 ton 
wooden vessels and two 2,500 ton barges. All these 
ships have been built for the United States Merchant 
Marine. The vessels are being chartered to private 
corporations by the government, and are especially 
desirable for coastwise and South American trade. 
The ships are of the type best suited to coast waters, 
although they are excellent carriers for Trans-At- 
lantic service. 

Considerable interest has been shown in ship 
building as a permanent industry here. Conditions 
are ideal and materials abundant. A local organiza- 
tion has been formed also to build concrete ships 
and barges in the channel. The Gulf district of the 
United States Shipping Board has built a total of 
56 vessels, with a total tonnage of 205,400 during 
the past two years. 

Growth in Population. 

In 1880 Houston was a village of 16,513 inhabi- 
tants. The next decennial period showed an increase 
in population of 67 per cent; the next census showed 
an increase of 62 per cent. The period from 1900 
to 1910 showed 79 per cent increase, giving the total 
at 78,800. The present population of Houston (met- 
ropolitan area) is 230,500, a phenomenal increase 
since the last census was taken. It will be noted that 
the increase during the last ten year period far ex- 
ceeds that of any other period of the past. The great- 
est increase has been during the latter part of the 
present ten year period, or since the Houston Ship 
Channel has been open to navigation. It is safe to 
predict that the 1930 census will show more than 
half a million people within the municipal limits of 
Houston. 

Leading Financial Center. 

Houston is the recognized financial center of the 
Southwest. There are sixteen banks and trust com- 
panies operating here, including the Federal Farm 
Land Bank, and an important branch of the Eleventh 
District Federal Reserve Bank. The Federal Re- 
serve Bank Branch was opend August, 1919. The 
Federal Farm Land Bank has been in operation 
for eight years. During that time it has made many 
loans on farm properties, aggregating $132,000,000. 
The money represented by these loans has gone into 
farm improvements and the purchase of the farm 
homes for former tenants. The institution has given 
an added stimulus to homebuilding on the land and 
to the development of the agricultural resources of 
the state. 

Houston's annual bank clearings for 1925 were 
$1,765,968,080. For 1924 bank clearings were $1,578,- 
359,500. The increase for 1925 was $187,608,580. 

The branch of the Federal Reserve Bank located 
here will facilitate the handling of loans and banks 
in South Texas. The Federal Reserve Bank loans 
its money to banks only, on what is known as "Re- 
discount" notes. A member's bank takes the note 
of its customer, with security attached, to the Fed- 
eral Reserve Bank and gets Federal Currency, equal 
in amount to the value of the note. This currency 



circulates as money, but is retired from circulation 
when the original note on which it was issued has 
been paid. 

The total capitalization of Houston banks and 
trust companies is $17,500,000 and their total re- 
sources $160,000,000. The total deposits are approx- 
imately $135,000,000. 

South's Greatest Cotton Market. 

Houston is the largest inland cotton port in the 
world. This is the shipping point for a million bales 
of cotton per year. This supply is drawn from 
Texas, Oklahoma and parts of Louisiana and Arkan- 
sas. There are eight large cotton compresses lo- 
cated here with a combine'' storage capacity of 
600,000 bales. Seventy local firms are engaged in 
the cotton trade and ship to all the cotton markets 
of the world. Storage facilities have been provided 
on the Ship Channel also, and the cotton is shipped 
from Houston's wharves to the world's leading mar- 
kets at a tremendous saving in rates over any other 
port. 

Enormous Lumber Trade. 

Houston has a lumber trade of more than three 
billion feet per year. This brings an annual revenue 
of $75,000,000. Lumber is shipped to all parts of 
the world. More than a score of large lumber yards 
are located here, drawing their supplies from their 
own mills, located in the interior of the state. Vast 
timber reserves are still available, and local dealers 
entered into competition with the lumber manufac- 
turers of Europe for building materials to be used 
in rebuilding cities of France and other countries 
of continental Europe. 

South American Trade. 

South and Central American Republics have evi- 
denced a desire to increase their trade relations with 
Texas, and an extension of foreign trade is one of 
the activities of the immediate future of Houston. 
Before the war, American merchants were handi- 
capped by lack of ships, but the new Merchant Ma- 
rine will meet their problem. The 56 vessels built 
on the Gulf Coast alone, when put into foreign trade 
service through the Houston Ship Channel, will build 
up vast shipping trade with Mexico and the Pan- 
American Republics. The vessels are suited to carry- 
ing all kinds of cargoes, except crude oil, which will 
continue to be shipped in tankers. With an abund- 
ance of raw materials, including fibers and hard- 
woods, from Mexico, South and Central America 
manufacturing plants will be built here to work them 
into finished products and merchandise cargoes sent 
back in exchange. Thus a vast volume of trade 
will be built up. Ships for carrying this trade are 
the first essential, and now the ships are available 
for the first time in our history. 

Growth of Industries. 

No other American city affords such splendid 
facilities for manufacturing. The Ship Channel 
offers cheap factory sites on deep water frontage. 
Fuel is cheap and abundant. There are now 514 
factories of different kinds located here, represent- 
ing an investment of $57,000,000. New factories 
are seeking locations here constantly and the already 
large list is being rapidly increased. The annual 
production of Houston's factories is $75,000,000. 



39 



HISTORY OF HOUSTON 



By the HOUSTON POST 



ITS site selected by its founder because of its 
strategic situation at the head of navigation 
on Buffalo Bayou. Houston was destined from 
its foundation to become a great commercial city 
and from the day of its birth it has steadily pro- 
gressed toward its present position as the metropolis 
of the Southern half of the state and second, if not 
indeed first, in population among the cities of 
Texas. 

From the little party of a half dozen men who 
occupied four days in laboriously navigating Buffalo 
Bayou from Harrisburg to the junction of that 
stream with White Oak Bayou at the point opposite 



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Houston Post-Dispatch Building, corner Texas Avenue and 
Fannin Street 

what is now the foot of Main Street and who laid 
out and settled Houston, to the present population 
of approximately 230,000, is far cry, but those men 
in that boat came with the definite purpose of 
establishing just such a city. They had visions of a 
city equal to what Houston is today, and they set 
about establishing and building that city with a 
faith and courage that was remarkable. 

Houston has a marvelous history in that it has 
followed very largely the plans of development laid 
out for it by its founders, A. C. and J. K. Allen, the 
two New York promoters who founded the city, saw 
the advantages of its location and their first ad- 
vertisement of town lots in Houston reads more like 
history than prophecy by realty promoters. For 
once, a promoter's dreams have come true. 

In that first advertisement of Houston, printed 
in the Columbia Telegraph on August 26, 1836, 



shortly after the town had been surveyed, the Allen 
brothers predicted that Houston would necessarily 
become a great trading and transportational center, 
because it had the advantages of communication 




Looking South on Main Street at Preston, 1883 

with foreign countries through the bayou and with 
the interior of the republic by means of the trails. 
They declared that Houston would become the great 
"commercial emporium of Texas," and suggested 
it as the seat of government for the republic. 

The Allen brothers bought the original site of 
Houston, which consisted of half a league granted to 
John Austin and comprised sixty blocks in what is 
now the business district, for the sum of $5,000, 
from Mrs. T. F. L. Parratt. They had tried to buy a 
site at Harrisburg, but were asked exorbitant 
prices, and decided to come further up the bayou 
for a site. 

Gail Borden, who later invented condensed milk, 
made the survey and drew the maps of the new 
townsite in 1836. The streets in the old part of the 




Main Street View Looking- North From McKinney 

town were given the names they bear now, with two 
or three exceptions, the original Milton street having 
been changed to LaBranch to honor Alcee LaBranch, 
United States Charge de Affairs, who was the first 



40 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



minister to announce the recognition of Texas as a 
republic, and Homer being changed to Austin in 
honor of Stephen F. Austin. 

John Allen, who selected the townsite right 
after the battle of San Jacinto, designated a certain 
street Railroad Street, with the expectation that 
some day a railroad would enter the new town. His 
prophecy was literally fulfilled, as the H. & T. C. 
tracks now traverse that street. 

The site for the capitol building was originally 
designated on the map as the block just across from 
the present Rice hotel, but the capitol was actually 
built in 1837, two years after founding of the town, 
on the corner occupied by the eighteen story Rice 
hotel building. The congress of Texas, in session 
at Columbia, December 15, 1836, voted to move the 
capital of the Republic to Houston and the seat of 
government was actually moved here May 1, 1837, 
and the county seat was moved from Harrisburg 
shortly afterwards. So from its beginning Houston 
has been an important seat of government. The 
capital was removed to Austin in 1839. 

The first settlers lived in tents and log shacks, 
but the town grew rapidly. The first hotel was a log 
structure at the corner of Travis and Franklin , the 
site now occupied by the Southern Pacific building, 
and formerly for many years by the Hutchens House, 
a famous hostelry. The Cherokee Indians lived on 
the north side, but never disturbed the Houston 
settlers, as General Houston had been a Cherokee 
chief and they were friendly toward the whites here. 
On occasion they came over from what is now the 
Fifth Ward to confer with the General and to trade. 

A dense forest covered the site and the Allen's 
marked the trees with their knives, which were to 
be felled to clear a path for Main Street, and later 
other streets were cleared. Stumps remained in 
them for years. Showing how Houston has grown 




First Capitol of Texas at Columbia, Brazoria County, Where 

October 3, 1836, Congress Met — October 22, 1836, Sam 

Houston Assumed Office as President, Mirabeau 

B. Lamar Vice-President and Stephen F. 

Austin, Secretary of State 

along original lines, the Allen's marked block 31 
for the Court House, and the present $500,000 edi- 
fice occupies that block today as have its prede- 
cessors, while the City Hall occupies the block 
marked on the original map as Congress Square. 
There was much fighting, drinking and carousing 
and much crime, but the town prospered and grew 
in spite of the fact that it was an isolated settle- 
ment in the midst of a dense wilderness hard to 
reach even by water. But being the seat of govern- 
ment, and a strategic trading point, people came 
in rapidly. In 1839 there were 3,000 people with 
property values of $2,405,865, which figures seem 



to have been padded, while in 1812 the population 
was 5,000 and in that year 2,400 bales of cotton were 
exported. In 1841 Houston was made a port and 
a long task of imprc-ing the bayou for navigation 
was begun. 

The first court house and jail was built in 1837, 
and were log structures and the first legal instru- 
ment recorded was a deed to the lot now occupied 








Sam Houston Monument, Located at the Entrance to Hermann 
Park 

by the store of, William D. Cleveland & Son. Hous- 
ton has had seven successive court houses. 

The city was incorporated in 1837 and the first 
mayor was Dr. Frances Moore, Jr., who was editor 
of the Telegraph, which had been moved to Houston 
from Columbia by the Bordens who had been pub- 
lishing it first at San Felipe and then at Columbia. 
Houston has had a long line of mayors who have 
advanced the interests of the city. The adoption 
of the commission form of government in 1903 under 
Mayor Rice was one of the most notable events in 
the history of the city government. 

The first marriage license issued in Houston was 
by Clark De Witt C. Harris to Hugh McCrory and 
Miss Mary Smith. After Mr. McCrory's death, Mrs. 
McCrory married Dr. Anson Jones, last president of 
the republic, and she died in Houston in 1907. 
Although it was dangerous to be a Mason in terri- 
tory belong-ing to or adjacent to Mexico, Masonry 
preceded even the churches to Houston and in 1S37 
Holland Lodge, the mother of Masonic Lodges in 
Texas, was organized in Houston, and was followed 
in 1839 by the formation of a Temple Lodge. From 
that beginning the Masonic lodge has grown to its 
present great proportions in Texas. 

Preachers gave Houston a wide berth for some 
time after it was founded, no resident minister hav- 
ing been in the city until it had 3,000 population. 
Rev. Littletown Fowler, the noted Methodist pioneer, 



41 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



was elected chaplain of the senate in 1837 and paid 
visits to the city frequently. He obtained a gift 
from the Aliens of lots on Texas Avenue between 
Travis and Milam for a church site, and it became 
the location of the Shearn Methodist Church, the 
original Methodist Church in Houston, the forerun- 
ner* of the present First Methodist Church and the 
mother of all Houston Methodist churches, of which 
there are now seventeen. The old site is now oc- 
cupied by the Chronicle Building and Palace Theatre. 

The Aliens also gave the Presbyterians a site at 
Capitol and Main upon which lot the first Presby- 
terian Church was built, which was the forerunner 
of the Presbyterian churches in the city. 

Christ Episcopal Church was founded in 1839 and 
occupied the site occupied by the present building 
at Texas and Fannin, the First Baptist Church 
was established in 1841 and the first Catholic Church, 
known as the Church of the Annunciation, in 1841. 
New churches have been built, until now there are 
75 churches for whites and a large number for 
negroes in the city. 

There was always a sentiment for education in 
Houston and various private schools were conducted 
until in 1877, when the Houston Academy was fail- 
ing, a public school system was established by the 
city, in spite of strong opposition from those who 
feared public schools would be used for political 
purposes. H. H. Smith was the first superintendent 
of public schools, and he was followed by Superin- 
tendents E. N. Clopper, E. E. Burnett, Foute, J. E. 
Down, W. S. Sutton, P. W. Horn, R. B. Cousins 
and E. E. Obenholtzer. In 1887 the public schools 
began with 617 white pupils and 618 negroes or a 
toal of 1,235 pupils, scattered in 14 small buildings. 
Today there are 35,000 pupils and 1,000 teachers, 
with "buildings valued at 8,000,000.00. A number of 
new buildings are now in course of construction. 

Rice Institute, the seventh richest educational in- 
stitution in America, and the gift of the late William 
Marsh Rice, was opened to students in 1912. It has 
an endowment of $14,000,000, which has grown from 
the original fund of $200,000 given by Mr. Rice in 
1891 for the establishment of the school. He grad- 
ually increased his gifts until at the time of his 
death he had placed at the disposal of the board of 
trustees over a million dollars. After the litigation 
over his fortune, the Institute received in all about 
$5,000,000 which has increased its value to its pres- 
ent figure. Work on the buildings which occupy a 
campus of 300 acres three miles west of the Rice Ho- 
tel, was begun in 1910 and the corner stone of the ad- 
ministration building was laid in 1911 on March 2, 
the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Independence of 
Texas. 

Mr. Rice, the founder, came to Houston in 1838, 
conducted a store in a tent, and from that beginning 
built up his enormous fortune by business and in- 
vesting in Texas real estate. 

Houston has a score or more of newspapers in its 
life, the Telegraph running, with a few interruptions, 
from 1837 to 1878 in the city. The two principal pa- 
pers now the Post-Dispatch and the Chronicle, the 
Post having been established in 1885, by the late 
J. L. Watson, who had associated with him, Col. R. M. 
Johnston. A paper called the Post had been printed 
from 1880 to 1884, but had suspended before the 



present Post was established. The Chronicle was 
established in 1902 by Marcellus E. Foster. Both 
papers are now housed in magnificent buildings and 
are magnificently equipped. 

Railroads early sought to enter Houston, The Gal- 
veston, Harnsburg and San Antonio having been 
planned as early as 1842. The road was completed 
from Harrisburg through Houston to Brazos, a dis- 
tance of 32 miles, by 1852. The G. H. & H. and the 
H & T. C. were next to come into the city and the 
development continued until Houston has seventeen 
lines of railway and an interurban to Galveston. 
Houston is now one of the greatest railway centers 
of the South, with connections with roads to all 
parts of the continent. 

Street car traffic by means of mule drawn cars 
was inaugurated in Houston in 1870 and in 1890 the 
lines were electrified. Before taking over the Hous- 
ton Heights Line in 1892, the system consisted of 28 
miles of track, which was increased to 35 miles with 
the Heights line. In 1901, Stone & Webster secured 
control and rebuilt the system. There are now more 
than 60 miles of trackage, hundreds of employees 
and a pay roll of half a million annually. In 1911 
Stone & Webster completed the interurban line from 
Houston to Galveston at a cost of $2,000,000, and its 
trains are in operation hourly between the cities. 

In addition to being a cotton center, the exploita- 
tion of Texas forests has pushed Houston to the 
front as the great lumber center of the Southwest, 
with an annual business of $75,000,000. 

The first bank in Texas was established in Hous- 
ton, the Commercial and Agricultural Bank of Texas 
having been chartered by the Congress of Coahuila 
and Texas to S. M. Williams and associates in 1835. 
Its authorized capital was $1,000,000 and $100,000 
was paid up. No more chartered banks operated in 
Texas until after 1870, as there was opposition to 
banks in those days, and the Williams bank finally 
had its charter annulled in 1859. T. W. House and 
B. A. Shepherd as early as 1850 had begun private 
banking in Houston and their institutions were the 
forerunners of some of the great banks of today. 
Houston today is one of the the largest banking 
centers in the state, with eight National banks with a 
combined capital of $9,000,000, and six State Banks 
with a number of trust companies, the total deposits 
on January 1, of this year, reaching approxi- 
mately $135,000,000, and the clearings for the first 
eight months of 1918 totalling $574,438,033.00. The 
Federal Land Bank for the district is here and it has 
made loans of $132,000,000 since it was established, 
while the Houston branch of the Federal Reserve 
Bank of the Eleventh District was opened in lt*19. 
Replacing the tents and log huts in which business 
was done in the early days, there are today many 
magnificent and commodious business houses, some 
2,600 retail firms doing an annual business of nearly 
$100,000,000, while the annual wholesale trade of the 
city reaches almost $150,000^000. 

The era of sky scraper building began in 1907, and 
continues, with contracts now pending for several 
new buildings. The Rice hotel of 18 stories, the 
Second National building of 22 stories, the Union Na- 
tional Bank building of 13 stories, the Scanlan Build- 
ing of 11 stories, the Texas Company's building of 13 
stories are among the tallest structures built within 
the last ten years, but there are numerous other 
buildings ranging from six to ten stories in height. 

42 



HISTORY OF THE HOUSTON BENCH AND BAR 

By JUDGE H. M. GARWOOD 




H 



OUSTON may well be 
proud of the high 
standard of its bench 
and bar. Such men as Hen- 
derson, Manley, Campbell, 
Thompson, Tomkins, Gray, 
Palmer, Riley, Tankersley, 
Bak^er and a number of 
others were its founders who 
established the high ideals of 
the profession for other gen- 
erations. 

In the beginning Harris 
County was known as Har- 
risburg County and court has 
been held here since 1837. 
The county court was first 
constituted as follows: Hon. 
Andrew Briscow, chief jus- 
tice; C. C. Dyre, John Denton, M. Battle, Joel 
Wheatin, Isaac Batterson, Abram Roberts, and John 
S. McGahey, commissioners. D. W. Clinton Harris, 
county clerk. Mr. Harris belonged to the family 
that gave the county its name. The first judicial 
act in the municipality of Harrisburg as Harris 
County was first called, was in probate court. The 
court on petition of Richard Vince by the latter's 
attorney, Thomas J. Gazley, appointed Vince admin- 
istrator of the estate of Robert Vince, deceased. 

The first licenses to practice law in Harris County 
were issued to N. Bassett, Swift Austin, Francis 
W. Thornton, Robert Page, Henry Humphrey, and 
James Brown, on March 19, 1838. The above passed 
the examinations conducted by David G. Burnett, 
John Birdsall and A. M. Tompkins, a committee of 
examiners appointed by the court. Among the 
earliest cases tried was a criminal action against 
David S. Karkernot, who was - indicted March 2, 
1837, for stealing a mule belonging to the Republic 
of Texas, said act being "against the peace and 
dignity of said Republic". Another early document 
refers to a suit brought in 1839, by the city of 







; W**® 


tJz*^ 


k 




Ttejgfc!^. 


1 )^*j0*0- 

v|mJY 


lr • 




m 


11 


"Jlfr 


Hi H Halt ' t\li - 1 


*|ifc 




\)\ 


i V" 


1 


11 




*^^ 















Old State Capitol Building Which Occupied the Site at Corner 

. Main Street and Texas Avenue Where the Rice Hotel 

Now Stands 

Houston against Henry R. and Daniel J. Allen for 
taxes amounting to $1943.00. 

In the early days there were many brilliant law- 
yers, the majority of whom confined themselves to 
civil practice, but several won fame as criminal 
attorneys. Among the latter were such men as 
Manley, Henderson, Barziza, Riley, Cook and others. 



In these days ethics were of the highest and the 
criminal lawyer used no unfair means to win his 
case but depended entirely upon his knowledge of 
the law and his eloquence as a pleader before the 
juries. Col. John H. Manley was one of the really 
great criminal lawyers of the Houston Bar and his 
methods were above reproach. He had a profound 
knowledge of criminal law, and with this he was 
a powerful orator and pleader. Capt. D. U. Bar- 
ziza should be classed along with Col. Manley. His 
father was an Italian nobleman, a protestant, a 
Baptist, and a republican. He gave up his estate 
and title and came to America, in order to enjoy 
religious freedom. He settled in Texas. Capt. D. U. 



'# 




Harris County Court House 

Barziza, his youngest son, was educated at Baylor 
University and had just finished his courses when 
the civil war broke out. He volunteered and soon 
was made a captain. His company later became 
a part of Hood's Texas Brigade in the Northern 
Virginia Army. After the war he came to Houston 
and began the study of law. Another great crim- 
inal lawyer of this day was Hon. Charles Stewart. 
He handled many of the famous cases of the early 
times in Houston. Major Frank Spencer had the 
difficult task of facing these great criminal law- 
yers. Major Spencer for years served as criminal 
district attorney for the Houston-Galveston district 
and he died in Galveston in 1907. 

Governor J. W. Henderson was successful in both 
branches of the law, although he was more dis- 
tinguished as a civil lawyer than as a criminal one. 
He was a man of fine personal appearance and 
democratic in his bearing. His success before the 
bar was indeed great and his power before a jury 
was unusual. He was a secessionist but during 
the reconstruction days he was of great help to his 
home people in their struggle for self government. 
Among the leaders in the civil branch of law were 
Judge Peter Gray, and W. P. Hamblen. Both were 
profound students of the law, while neither were 
particularly outstanding for oratorical power. Judge 
Hamblen passed away in 1911 while serving as judge 
of the 55th district court. Other distinguished 
members of the bar as mentioned above were A. N. 



43 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Jordan. A. S. Richardson, Charles Jordan, and Arch- 
ibald Wynne. Some years later C. B. Sabine was 
a member of the bar. He became judge of the 
U. S. Federal Court in Galveston. 

After the war the following became prominent 
members of the bar: Major W. H. Crank, Capt. E. P. 
Turner, George Goldhwaite, the attorney for the 
H. & T. C. R. R.: Judge Wilson, Judge James Mas- 
terson. Judge C. Anson Jones, youngest son of the 
last president of the Republic of Texas; W. A. Car- 
rington, J. C. Hutcheson, Judge James Baker, father 
of^Capt. James A. Baker, and Col. W. B. Botts. 
They were men of great learning and ability and 
who' belonged to the old school of chivalry and 




Residence of Judge Edward A. Palmer, One of the Old South- 
ern Mansions Built in 1856, and Still in Good Condition 

ethics. They gave to the bar of Houston its high 
standards and lofty ethics and have preserved the 
good name of the bar. 

The first amended constitution of Texas created 
a criminal district court for Harris and Galveston 
Counties. Gustave Cook was appointed judge and 
held this position for fourteen years. The following 
served on this bench, in the order named: C. L. 
Cleveland, E. D. Cavin, J. K. P. Gillespie, E. R. 
Campbell and C. W. Robinson, the present in- 
cumbent. 

The Eleventh District Court was created in 1837 
and the following have served as its judges: From 
1837 to 1842, Benjamin C. Franklin. From 1842 to 
1849, Richard Morris. From 1849 to 1854, C. W. 
Buckley. From 1854 to 1862, Peter W. Gray. From 
1862 to 1866, James A. Baker. From 1866 to 1869 
there were no elections and the bar selected Geo. 
R. Scott, C. B. Sabin, and P. W. Gray to act as 
judges. From 1869 to 1870, Geo. R. Scott. From 
1870 to 1892, James R. Masterson. From 1892 to 
1896, S. H. Brashear. From 1896 to 1900, John G. 
Tod. From 1900 to date, Charles E. Ashe. 

On August 23, 1897, the 55th District was organ- 
ized and the following have served as judges: From 
1897 tc 1902, Wm. H. Wilson. From 1902 to 1911, 
W. P. Hamblen. From 1911 to 1918, Wm. Master- 
son. From 1918 to date, Ewing Boyd. 

In February, 1903, the 61st District Court was 
organized and the following have presided: From 
1903 to 1913, Norman G. Kittrell. From 1913 to 
1915, John Archer Reed. From 1915 to 1919, Henry 
J. Dannenbaum. From 1919 to date, W. E. Mon- 
teith. 

On September 1, 1915, the 80th District Court 
was organized and J. D. Harvey was appointed 
judge. He served as judge of this court until Jan- 
uary 1, 1925. Roy F. Campbell was elected to this 



office and has served as judge of the court from 
January 1st, 1925, to date. 

On February, 1867, the legislature passed an act 
creating Harris County. The following served as 
judges: From 1867 to 1869, John Brashear. From 
1869 to 1876, M. N. Brewster. From 1876 to 1882, 
C. Anson Jones. From 1882 to 1884, E. P. Hamb- 
len. From 1884 to 1892, W. C. Andrews. From 
1892 to 1896, John G. Tod. From 1896 to 1898, 
W. N. Shaw. From 1898 to 1902, E. H. Vasmer. 
From 1902 to 1906, Blake Dupree. From 1906 to 
1912, A. E. Amerman. From 1912 to 1916, W. H. 
Ward. From 1916 to date, Chester H. Bryan. 

In 1911 the County Courts at Law was created 
and the following have presided as judges: From 
1911 to 1916, Clark C. Wrenn. From 1916 to 1919, 
Walter E. Monteith. From 1919 to 1920, Geo. D. 
Sears. From 1920 to 1922, John W. Lewis. From 
April, 1922, to 1925, Murray B. Jones. From 1925 
to date, Ben F. Wilson. 

In 1915 the County Court at Law No. 2 was cre- 
ated and the following judges have served: From 
1915 to 1917, Murray B. Jones. From 1917 to 1925, 
Roy F. Campbell. From 1925 to date, W. Ray 
Scruggs. 

The Corporation Court was created by act of 
legislature in 1899 and the following judges have 
presided in this court: A. R. Railey, Judge Mar- 
mion, John H. Kirlicks, Elbert Roberts, O'Brien 
Stevens, T. W. Ford, J. H. Reeves, A. C. Winborn 
and Lucien Andler, the present incumbent. 

The following extracts were taken from an address 
delivered by the late Judge W. P. Hamblen at a 
banquet of the Houston Bar Association, on Jan- 
uary 20th, 1910. At that time Judge Hamblen was 
the oldest member of the bar and considered the 
best source of its history. He said: "I came to the 
bar when Judge Peter W. Gray was judge of the 
court. He was the distinguished uncle of Judge 
W. G. Sears, whose nephew is now a member of 
this bar, and he admitted me to the rights of our 




Residence of the Late Captain J. C. Hutcheson at 1417 
McKinney Avenue, Built in 1884 

profession. He was one of the chiefs among the 
intelligencers of that day. He was accomplished, 
educated in all the refinements as well as in all 
the substantials of the profession; so discriminating, 
so penetrating, that no proposition of law was pre- 
sented to him that he did not seize; so absolutely 
honest that his reputation could stand among a 
million without a scar. In those days an admission 
to the bar was not as it is today, the formal appear- 
ance before a committee almost as a school boy 
at a spelling match, but it was a procession of 



44 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



young men to the bar of the court, summoned by 
a committee appointed by the judge who participated 
in the examination. When the examination was 
through the judge descended from the bench and 
taking the hand of each applicant spoke words of 
encouragement. I can briefly mention men who 
were honorable members of our bar at the time I 
was admitted in 1855. There was E. A. Palmer, 
who was afterwards judge of the District Court 
of Harris County, and A. N. Jordan, both from 
Virginia, ranking high in their profession. The 
former died in 1864, and in 1866 the eyes of the 
latter I closed in death. Governor J. W. Henderson, 
from Tennessee, once lieutenant governor of our 
state and for six years its governor. He was the 
author of the verse: 

"Here is our old friend, John Doe; 

We have laid him down to sleep, 
Together with his companion, Richard Roe 
In one common, lonely heap, 
With none so bold as dare a vigil keep." 
"He passed away in 1886. Judge 
Algernon P. Thompson, an English- 
man, a most scholarly gentleman, 
who once declared that the author 
of the phrase 'to-wit' should be 
burned alive. Benjamin F. Tank- 
ersley, from Mississippi, I believe, 
father of our distinguished towns- 
man, Marshal Tankersley, a most 
highly esteemed and worthy lawyer 
who died during the Civil War. 
C. B. Sabin, long a practitioner in 
this city, who died in 1890, while 
occupying the bench of the United 
States District Court. Judge 
George Goldthwaite, so widely 
known for his erudition and legal 
acumen that he was considered 
competent to write a book on con- 
tinuations without a ground. He 
died about 1886. Col. J. T. Brady, 
from Maryland, once prominent 
and foremost in all that upbuilds 
a state, once a senator from this 
district in our state legislature, 
died about 1891. Hon. James H. 
Masterson, for more than twenty 
years distinguished on the bench 
of the district court; Judge E. P. 
Hamblen, my worthy relative, who 
the county court bench, the two 
now dwellers with us 



In November, 1870, the Houston Bar Association 
was organized with Judge Peter W. Gray as pres- 
ident, George Goldthwaite, vice president; J. T. 
Whitfield, recording secretary; H. P. Turner, cor- 
responding secretary, and W. C. Watson, treasurer. 
The objects of the association were the elevation 
of the profession and to arrange for the acquisition 
of a law library. The organization at this time 
was not strong in numbers, but it was composed 
of some of the great lawyers of the day. Today the 
Houston Bar Association will compare favorably, 
numerically, mentally, or in any other way with 
other like organizations in the country. 

Judge R. S. Lovett, a former member of this bar 
and of the firm of Baker, Botts, Parker and Gar- 
wood, was for years at the head of the Southern 
Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads. Gov. Stephen 
S. Hogg moved to Houston after his two terms of 
office had expired and practiced law here until his 
death. It would require a long list to set out the 
names of the Houston Bar who have achieved not- 








Gulf Building-, Foster Building, Mason Building, Kress Building on Main Street 
Between Rusk and Capitol Avenues 



once graced 
latter being 
Judge A. R. Masterson, who 
has the proud distinction of having surrendered with 
Lee at Appomattox. We will not forget that old 
commoner, Charles Stewart, so long your represent- 
ative in congress, a powerful democratic expounder 
and able advocate. He located in Marlin and re- 
turned here after the war. His 'praises have been 
sung by loftier harps than mine'. 

"Those who have gone before stood in the front 
of the battle for judicial propriety and integrity, 
and for a construction of laws that preserved the 
constitutional liberties without flaw or blemish. 
R. K. Cage, father of our worthy citizen, Rufus 
Cage, and grandfather of Elliott Cage, died a few 
years ago. That soul of wit, John Manley, a son 
of North Carolina, died in 1874." 



able success. The list would be very little short 
of the Houston Bar Association's Roll. 

The Houston bar today includes a great many men 
who stand as high in the profession as many of the 
foregoing persons who have left an enduring place in 
the chronicles of men of attainment. It is not a pur- 
pose of this history's review to enumerate the names 
of those still living who will have attained a note- 
worthy place in the records that may be tabulated in 
the future. Their histories are now in the process 
of making and many of those still young in the 
profession will eventually be beacon lights that will 
shine on the pages of future history. Be this as it 
may, it can be truthfully stated that the standards 
of the profession today equal those of the past, and 
the present generation will contribute its quota of 
noteworthy men who will be given merited credit 
by historians of the future. 



45 



THE OIL INDUSTRY OF SOUTH TEXAS 



By W. S. FARISH 

President of American Petroleum Institute 




I 



NSTEAD of considering 
the query "Why is Hous- 
ton the Center of the Oil 
Industry of Texas." I believe 
it more correct and more just 
to enlarge the scope of its 
activities to include certain 
adjoining states and give 
Houston the title of "The 
Oil Center of the SOUTH- 
WEST." Houston's geograph- 
ic position, transportation 
facilities and other assets 
vital to the operation of the 
various branches of the oil 
industry, which I intend to 
set forth later, justify this 
classification, in my judg- 
ment. 

Several cities of the Southwest claim distinction 
as oil centers of the first magnitude, and it is not 
my intention to detract from their prominence in 
the least, but I do think, and believe statistics will 
show, that Houston is the CHIEF oil center of the 
Southwest. Their claim to importance is based 
upon the fact that they, through their natural ad- 
vantages, become the chief center of operations for 
some particular field or district, but Houston, en- 
tirely surrounded by production, "where 17 rail- 
roads meet the sea" offering outlet by rail to all 
parts of the continent and by water to the very 
outposts of civilization, its inland harbor easily 
accessible to the largest steamers, and offering a 
refuge from storms, its large number of industries 
upon which the oil operator is dependent for the 
successful carrying on of operations, is the logical 
hub of the Southwest, even drawing its quota of 
business from the aforementioned district centers. 
Houston's importance as a producting center may 




Humble Oil Refinery, Bay Town 

be realized from the fact that of the world's pro- 
duction for the year 1922, which was roughly 
840,000,000 barrels; 525,000,000 barrels, or 62% 
per cent was produced within a radius of 600 miles 
of this city. 

In addition to its importance so far as present 
production is concerned, geologists are agreed that 



Houston is in the center of the known oil reserve, 
or future production. It has been estimated that in 
the partially developed and undiscovered salt 
domes within a radius of one hundred and fifty 
miles of Houston there is in reserve 2,250,000,000 
barrels, or over one-fourth of the known oil re- 
serve of the entire United States. 

The almost unlimited possibilities of this area 
have attracted a number of producing companies- 
and there are today thirty-eight (38) companies 
with general headquarters in Houston. These thir- 
ty-eight companies produce one-eighth of the 
world's production and employ in the State of 




Humble Building Home of the Humble Oil Company and the 

San Jacinto Trust Company, Corner of Main and 

Polk Avenue 

Texas alone twenty-six thousand (26,000) persons, 
constituting an annual payroll of approximately 
$46,000,000.00. 

Houston for the past twenty years has been 
recognized as a center for the production of oil, 
but it is only beginning to come into its own as- 
a refining factor. Unfortunately, Houston's ship 
channel has only recently reached the stage that 
offers the best shipping service. Had this source 
of transportation been available in the beginning 
there isn't the slightest doubt but what large re- 
fineries located elsewhere would have been Hous- 
ton's own, but of the two prime factors in the re- 
fining and distribution end of the game, raw ma- 
terials and outlet for the products, Houston was 
lacking in one. Such is not the case now, however, 
for the cycle has been completed and in the near 
future I venture the prediction that Houston will 
refine as great a percentage of crude as any local- 
ity in the Southwest. 

The same situation obtained so far as pipe lines- 
are concerned. However, the tide has changed, 
and when this deep water outlet, coupled with the 
fact that Houston is fifty to seventy miles nearer 
production than other seaports is fully realized 
Houston will become the terminus of all major pipe 
lines. 

There is no doubt but what Houston has all of 
the advantages the oil industry could desire and it 
is destined to become even greater than at present 
as a production, refining and distributing center. 



46 



HOUSTON THE COTTON MARKET 



By K. E. WOMACK 

Ex-President Houston Cotton Exchange 




T 



HE statement given 
below shows the 
gross and net receipts 
of cotton at Houston for the 
past six years. The constant 
increase in "net" receipts in- 
dicates the ever increasing 
importance of Houston as 
the largest cotton market in 
the United States as well as 
the great importance of 
Houston as a cotton concen- 
trating center. By a steady 
increase in handling facilities 
in the way of compresses, 
warehouses and wharves, we 
have storage capacity for 
about 1,000,000 bales of cot- 
ton at one time and these 
facilities are being added to continuously. Ten com- 
presses are located here, actively engaged in com- 
pressing cotton, which is loaded on steamships 
berthed at wharves in the Houston Ship Channel 
at the Turning Basin, and exported direct to all 
ports of the world. As an example, during the 
season 1919-20 there were 69,839 bales exported 
direct from Houston to Liverpool. These exports 
have increased in volume and destinations from 
year to year and now amount to 1,821,828 bales 
for the 1924-1925 season, while the cotton is being 
exported direct to all Continental Europe, Great 
Britain, and the Orient. With a nominal cotton crop 
in Texas our exports should aggregate two million 
bales with an increasing tendency. There are more 
than seventy firms located here • actively engaged 
in the buying and selling of cotton. The many 
ship channel improvements will give us much needed 
additional wharfage facilities at the Turning Basin 
and enable this port and market properly to care 
for new business which is constantly being offered. 

The great development of Houston the cotton 
center is not the result of accident, nor of artificial 




Houston Compress Company Docks, Long Reach 

building, but it is due to the railroad facilities, 
combined with the harbor and ships. Although 
Four-ton handles many other commodities other than 
cotton, it is cotton, however, that has really built 



the port. It is a fact that Houston is the largest 
Spot Cotton Market in the world, there being more 
cotton in warehouses here than any other Spot 
Cotton Market. The opening of the Cotton Future 
Market in Chicago a year ago has materially helped 
Houston. No actual cotton is handled in Chicago, 
but deliveries are made in Houston and Galveston 
port areas. A Cotton Classification Bureau has 
recently been established here by the Department 
of Agriculture. This makes it possible for traders 



f 




Cotton Exchange Building, Corner Prairie Avenue and Caroline 
Street 

in cotton to deliver or receive cotton on contract 
locally without the requirement of shipping the same 
cotton either to the New Orleans or New York 
markets. The sixteen-story Houston Cotton Ex- 
change Building recently completed is the finest 
exchange building in the South, and has contributed 
to the development of Houston as a great cotton 
market. 

The following statistics of gross and net receipts 
of bales of cotton and exports of cotton will give 
an insight into the rapid and tremendous growth 
of Houston as a cotton market and port: 1919-1920, 
gross— 2,002,846; net— 1,080,564; exports— 69,839. 
1920-1921, gross— 3,045,962; net— 1,567,749; exports 
—466,185. 1921-1922, gross— 2,659,590; net— 1,163,- 
673; exports— 478,141. 1922-1923, gross— 2,691,168; 
net— 1,377,557 exports — 719,942. 1923-1924, gross — 
3,495,994; net— 1,816,883; exports— 1,065,612. 1924- 
1925, gross— 4,784,025; net— 2,668,265; exports— 
1,821,828. 



47 



THE RICE INDUSTRY OF TEXAS 

By W. K. MORROW 

President Standard Ri:e Milling: Company 




R 



ICE was first grown 
in India and China 
about 2800 B. C. and 
was first planted in the 
United States on the James 
River in Virginia in 1646 
A. D. About the close of the 
17th century rice was first 
raised in South Carolina and 
after proving 
successful 
other states 
began cultivat- 
ing rice in 
small quanti- 
ties. In 1870 
South Carolina 
and Geo r g i a 

produced three-fourths of the total 

crop of the United States. 

The development of the rice indus- 
try on the coast prairie of South- 
west Louisiana and Southeast Tex- 
as began about 1885, when settlers 
found that they could apply mod- 
ern agricultural implements and har- 
vesting machinery which were used 
in the wheat fields to rice culture. 
From the year 1908 to the present 
time Louisiana, Texas and Arkansas 
produced practically 90 per cent of 
the total crop. In the past four years 
California has devoted a part of its 
lands to rice cultivation. From the 
year 1908 gigantic strides were made 
in the raising of rice; large irrigation 
and pumping plants were erected, ex- 
tensive systems of overland canals 
and laterals were built and the once 
waste and worthless prairie lands 
sprung into verdant rice fields. 

Rice is the chief sustenance of 
over one-half of the world's popula- 
tion. Nearly eight hundred million 
persons in China, Japan, India and 
other countries of the Eastern hemis- 
phere practically exist on rice. In 
this great country of ours, rice in its 
more modern manufacture is regarded 
as a luxury, a re-inforcement for the 
invalid, or a vehicle for the exploita- 
tion of desserts, its great food value 
as a staple diet being disregarded 
and its competitive value as compared 
to other grains or cereals are un- 
known. 

Report of Miscellaneous Series, U. 
S. Department of Agriculture, refers 
to rice as a food as follows: 



Rice 86 per cent, corn 82.97 per cent, oats 74.02 
per cent, fat beef 46.03 per cent, potatoes 23.24 per 
cent. 

There are large areas of fertile land in South- 
ern Texas which with the proper irrigation can be 
made profitable for rice cultivation. This area 
could be made profitable for rice farmers which 
would add greatly to the wealth and prosperity of 
the people in the available rice raising districts. 




Houston Buildings. The Building at the Top is the Scanlan Building; the one 
in the Center is the Administration Building of Rice Institute. Lower Left 
Is the Texas Company Building and the Lower Right Is the Second Nation- 
al Bank 



48 



FUTURE OUTLOOK OF HOUSTON 

By THE HOUSTON CHRONICLE 



NO Houston essayist has turned out a New 
Zealand prophet to come back and moralize 
over the ruins of the city in the dim future, 
but every Houstonian has a vivid conception of Hous- 
ton as it is going to be. This conception may not be 
expressed in the language of the classics but it is a 
conception founded in the sincerity of Houston's ex- 
pectations. 

The Houstonian, once started, will paint glorious 
pictures of a great seaport, where mighty railroad 



I ■ 









.'-." 




The New Rice Hotel, the Largest and Most Luxuriant Hostelry 
in South Texas 

lines connect with ocean steamships; of a vast indus- 
trial community stretching for 30 miles down each 
side of its ship channel, acquired after years of la- 
bor and great expense, and a channel already famous 
nationally; for a background of tremendous oil re- 
fineries and great producing plants, and finally, 
of a city which, in its civic pride and its responsive- 
ness to the demands of progress, will be a fitting 
home for hundreds of thousands of workers who will 
profit by its great industrial development. 

This vision of the future of Houston has its basis 
in fact, not in the perfervid dreams of some rabid 
press agent. Houston is dealing in facts, generally, 
and in futures, only insofar as they can be seen 
from the present day facts. 

The city is served by a great waterway. It is the 
logical railroad center of the state. Its renown as a 
cotton market is a byword throughout the world. 
Its oil industries are attracting wide spread atten- 
tion. It is building rapidly on what it has already, 
and a recital of the achievements of the last ten 
years alone would be enough to indicate what it 
will do in the future. 

Already its ship channel is in service. For four 
years coastwise steamers have plied the stream. In 
the fall of 1919 the first Trans-Atlantic vessel is 
scheduled to steam out of the city with a cargo of 
cotton for Liverpool. 

Wherein lies a magical forshadowing of the dayo 
to come. Houston has already boasted being the 
greatest inland cotton market in the world. Now it 
is ceasing to be "inland." It is sending its own cot- 



ton out through its own port to the four corners of 
the earth. 

On this one staple alone, this crop which means 
more to the hundreds of thousands of farmers of the 
state of Texas than any other single item, Houston 
has enough to build a future. Houston is the natural 
center of distribution for this commodity. From 
the farthest reaches of the state, direct rail lines 
will rush into port, and from this port it can go to 
the mills of the East, to England, to the Continent. 

The future that is already unfolding in the cotton 
industry is indicative of what Houston may expect in 
other lines. Already, trade commissioners from 
Nicaragua, Porto Rico, and other South and Central 
American Countries, have been dickering with local 
interests with an eye to "getting in on the ground 
floor" or the port of this city. 

Armed with this channel as an entering wedge 
to the commerce of other great nations and the far 
coasts of this country, Houston has an equally pow- 
erful weapon of distinction in its rail lines. It is 
admittedly the headquarters of the railroad life of 
the state. The best systems are entered here, sys- 
tems which tap the Brownsville country with its cot- 
ton, its great fruit and truck garden plots, that 
reach into the cotton fields of the central part of 
the state, that connect up directly with the oil pro- 
ducing territory. With admirable freight rates, 
based on a 50 mile inland seaport's advantages, 
Houston can take her place easily as the distribut- 




San Jacinto Hotel. Corner Rusk and Fannin Streets. Houston's 
Latest Addition to the City's Hotel Accommodations 

ing center of the state. She claims that place now. 
Future years will demonstrate her right to it still 
more. Houston, will, therefore, reap all the benefits 
of a rapidly growing state with a magnificently ex- 
panding commerce. 

In the coastal oil fields spread out from Houston, 



49 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Goose Creek. Blue Ridge, West Columbia, the prin- 
cipal hope of this section in petroleum, are only a 
short automobile ride away. Great refineries are cen- 
tering on the channel. Pipe lines are being run to the 
great storage plants which follow each other down the 
lines of communication from Houston. Oil tankers 
ply the channel, bringing crude oil from Mexico 
to the refineries here. 

Within 30 days, two new companies have pur- 
chased land along the channel for the purpose of es- 
tablishing refineries. Hardly a company but what 



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Museum of Fine Arts on the Circle at the Junction of South 
Main and Montrose Boulevard 

i> represented either in a big refinery or in a land 
option. 

Oil and cotton are not the only household goods 
of the Houstonian. The channel frontage is not 
limited to these industries alone. 

Houston — or rather the port of Houston, has a 
prospective channel frontage 60 miles, about 30 
miles along each bank of the stream that is the main 
artery of its future growth. On his frontage al- 
ready have been built a great cement plant, many 
oil refineries and numerous other manufactories. 

Hardly a month passes but some industry, small, 
perhaps, but destined to grow, crowds its way in. 
Drugs, clothing, food products, all of these essentials 
of life are manufactured here. Only a few miles 
away is one of the largest sugar refineries in the 
United States. 

The first step that Houston has taken that shows 
the farsighted manner in which it views its future 
has been to acquire a large frontage on the channel 
for the municipality and begin the construction for 
a vast unity of municipally controlled docks and 
cotton warehouses, to be open to all on equal terms. 

In the same characteristic way, it has involved 
a comprehensive city building plan. It has made 
arrangements for parks, boulevards, residence sec- 
tions, industrial communities. 

As a chic entity Houston is working to meet its 
growth. It has developed a public school system 
that serves as the model for systems in cities much 
larger. It has become a convention center. It is 
the amusement center of this territory, and each 
year it is able to back more pretentious musical and 
theatrical offerings. 

Along with this progress, it is rapidly developing 
into one of the real intellectual centers of the Union. 
The Rice Institute, magnificent gift of a former 
Houstonian, in seven years has leaped into the 
front rank of colleges and with practically unlimited 
funds will make this city the cultural center for this 
entire section of the south. 

Houston's fire department is giving efficient serv- 
ice, and there is very little loss from fires. Very few 
fires have occurred during the last year which en- 



tailed any considerable loss. This has been due in 
large measure to the prompt action of the fire de- 
partment in meeting every emergency. 

The city owns 10 public parks, ranging in area 
from a few acres each to 250 each. Hermann Park 
is the largest and is beautifully located for park 
purposes. All parks have been improved with build- 
ings and playgrounds and are the centers of much 
out door life during the summer months. The series 
of outdoor amusements, games and contests is a 
feature of the outdoor program provided by the city 
government during each summer.. Municipal band 
concerts have been given in the past, and have 
proven a popular attraction for outdoor gatherings 
in our city parks. 

The health of the city is good. It is the custom 
for the citizens of Houston, under the direction of 
the City Health Board each year to hold "clean 
up" campaigns, in which all refuse and decayed mat- 
ter is removed from premises and destroyed. Every 
civic organization in the city takes part in these 
campaigns and the results have been very satis- 
factory. No epidemics of any kind have visited 
Houston the past year. 

The city owns and operates a municipal market 
where it sells fruit and produce at from 12 to 20 
per cent below prevailing retail prices. After charg- 
ing itself with all overhead expenses paid by other 
dealers, it clears from $100 to $200 per week. 

Houston's population is growing very rapidly, the 
estimated increase during the past 10 years being 
120 per cent. Of course the population was swelled 
slightly by the taking in of Houston Heights, but 
the great demand for housing facilities is a sure 
index to a rapid and permanent growth. Notwith- 
standing the fact that the value of building permits 
totaled $35,000,000 for the year 1925, and a large 




Warwick Apartments at the Circle on South Main Boulevard 

part of these were for residence buildings; one 
of the most difficult tasks in Houston today is the 
finding of living quarters for newcomers. Of course 
building operations were practically suspended dur- 
ing the war, which accounts, in part, for the short- 
age in housing facilities. 

Improvement has been made in transportation and 
traffic and a noticeable falling off in accidents is 
the result. Safety zones for the accommodation 
of passengers boarding and alighting from street 
cars have been placed on the principal street inter- 
sections and have proved very successful in handling 
passenger traffic. An ordinance has been passed 
regulating the parking of automobiles in the con- 
gested districts, which will help the situation also. 



50 



HOUSTON— THE RAILROAD CENTER 

By W. R. SCOTT 

President of Texas and Louisiana Division of Southern Pacific Railway Company 







N 1837 the only means of 
transportation from Buf- 
falo Bayou northward in- 
to the Republic of Texas was 
a plank turnpike, over which 
moved the humble ox team. 
By the construction of this 
turnpike, the pioneers of 
those days recognized the 
waterway as a means of 
transportation, but the busi- 
ness thus developed soon out- 
grew the facilities, and in 
1840 there was begun the 
construction of the first rail- 
road in Texas. This, too, 
began at Buffalo Bayou, at 
the town of Harrisburg, and 
in 1847, when General Sid- 
ney Sherman associated himself with a number of 
prominent Texas people, the railroad was pushed 
westward, under the name of the Buffalo Bayou, 
Brazos and Colorado Railroad Company. That rail- 
road afterwards became the Galveston, Harrisburg 
& San Antonio Railroad of today. Before the end 
of 1852 the road was completed as far as the 
Brazos, thirty-two miles; and in 1860 Aleyton, 
seventy-nine miles from Harrisburg, was reached. 
From that humble beginning has been developed 
the magnificent system of railroad transportation 
facilities that have their center in the city of Hous- 
ton. And today the following railroads operate 
from Houston, reaching all parts of the United 
States : 

The Southern Pacific Lines. 

Texas and New Orleans Railroad comes into 
Houston from the East, being direct main line 
connection with the Southern Pacific Louisiana 
Lines from New Orleans and the East, and connects 
in Houston with the Galveston, Harrisburg & San 
Antonio Railway. 

The Galveston, Harrisburg and San Antonio 
Railway comes into Houston from the west, having 
its initial point at El Paso, Texas, and passing 
through San Antonio, Texas, being the main line 
and direct connection with the Southern Pacific 
Company lines extending from El Paso to Los An- 
geles, San Francisco and Portland. The G. H. & 
S. A. Ry. also reaches Houston from Galveston 
where direct connection is made with the Southern 
Pacific Company's Atlantic Steamship Line. 

Houston & Texas Central Railroad reaches Hous- 
ton from North Texas points, including Denison, 
Dallas, Fort Worth, Waco, and also from Llano 
and Austin in the west central part of the state. 



Through connection at north Texas points with 
various trunk lines including the Missouri, Kansas 
& Texas, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Rail- 
way and Fort Worth & Denver City Railway. 

The Houston East and West Texas Railway and 
Houston and Shreveport Railroad reaches Houston 
from Shreveport, Louisiana, and makes through 
connection with the Cotton Belt and other lines to 
and from St. Louis. 

Other railroads entering Houston are: 
Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railway, which are 
the gulf lines of the Santa Fe system. This rail- 
road has its own line into Houston from connec- 
tion with main line at Alvin and operates its 




Airplane View of Houston's Lower Business District — Union 
Depot in Foreground 

through passenger trains through Houston over 
the Southern Pacific Lines between Rosenberg and 
Houston. 

Gulf Coast Lines reach Houston from the east 
and also from the south, having through lines be- 
tween New Orleans, Louisiana, and Brownsville, 
Texas. The line entering Houston from the east 
being the Beaumont, Sour Lake & Western Railway 
and from the south the St. Louis, Brownsville & 
Mexico Railway. 

The Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway of Tex- 
as reaches Houston from the north and also op- 
erates trains over the Galveston, Houston & Hen- 
derson Railroad between Houston and Galveston 
This is a part of the M.-K.-T. system lines which 
extend north to St. Louis. 

International-Great Northern Railroad reaches 
Houston from the north and also operates trains 
between Houston and Galveston over the Galveston, 
Houston & Henderson Railroad. 

San Antonio & Aransas Pass Railway reaches 
Houston from the west, having initial points at 
Waco on the north, Kerrville on the west and Cor- 
pus Christi and Falfurrias on the South. 

Trinity and Brazos Valley Railroad reaches 
Houston from the north, having its initial points 




Sylvan Beach Park, Houston's Popular Sea-si* 1 '* Playjr-ound 

51 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



at Cleburne and Waxahachie, with dh-ect connec- 
tions for Dallas and Fort Worth, and operating- 
trains between the latter point and Waxahachie 
over the Houston & Texas Central Railroad. 

Sugar Land Railway enters Houston from the 
southwest, having its initial point at Anchor, 
Texas. 

Galveston. Houston & Henderson reaches Hous- 
ton from the south, having its initial point at Gal- 
veston. 

Galveston-Houston Electric Railway reaches 
Houston from the south, having its initial point at 
Galveston, Texas. 

Houston Belt & Terminal Railway extends around 
part of Houston and operates union station and 
freight and passenger terminals of the Gulf Coast 
Lines, Santa Fe and T. & B. V. roads and the pas- 
senger terminals of the I-G.N. and G. H. & H. 
lines. 

Dayton & Goose Creek Railway. 

The Municipal Belt Railway, controlled by the 
City of Houston and operates switching service to 
Manchester and other plants around the Turning 
Basin. 

No better system of railway distribution from 
any commercial community is to be found in the 
United States today than that which exists at Hous- 
ton. Package cars move daily to all nearby and to 
many distant points. Hundreds of freight and pas- 
senger trains daily arrive at, and leave, the termi- 
nals at Houston. All of these connect directly with 
the facilities on the Ship Channel. 

The volume of traffic and the value to Hous- 
ton of these railway lines is partially reflected in 
the following statistics: 
Average number of freight trains arriving 

and departing daily 73 

Average number of passenger trains arriv- 
ing and departing daily 84 



Average number of loaded freight cars per 

month into Houston 9,313 

Average number of loaded freight cars out of 

Houston per month 15,310 

Average number of package cars out of 

Houston daily 114 

Freight tonnage in and out of Houtson per 

month, tons 389,865 

Number of passengers handled in and out of 

Houston per month 201,063 

Total number of railway employes living in 

Houston 7,318 

More than 100,000 cars are handled monthly in 
Houston's railway terminals. 

In addition to the seventeen railways, Houston 
is headquarters for express and Pullman car com- 
panies, also for shops and general terminals of 
some of the railroad groups. 

The Southern Pacific Lines maintain general of- 
fices at Houston, occupying a modern nine-story 
building. This system serves all private industries, 
operating on the north side of the Ship Channel, 
which is part of their switching system, and with 
tariff charges no greater than other lines on the 
south side for similar distances. 

Their shops are the largest in the Southwest. They 
build everything entering into railway equipment 
from cars to the most powerful Mikado locomotives. 

General average number of monthly repair jobs 
are 3000 freight cars, 30 passenger cars and 75 
locomotives. These shops employ 2200 men with 
a monthly payroll approximating $350,000.00. 

The total number of employees of the Southern 
Pacific, Houston's largest industry are some 4,500 
persons with an annual expenditure of approxi- 
mately nine million dollars. 

Total payroll for railway employees living in 
Houston exceeds $1,000,000.00 per month. 



THE CITY AND PORT OF TEXAS CITY 

By THE TEXAS CITY TERMINAL RAILWAY CO. 



TEXAS CITY, located on Galveston Bay, five 
miles northwest of the City of Galveston, is 
one of the important and growing ports of 
Texas. The present population, based on the best 
information at hand since the 1920 census, is be- 
tween 4,000 and 4,500. 

Texas City has attained its present rank as an 
industrial center and as a shipping point by its 
favorable location as a Gulf port. It is located on 
the shore of Galveston Bay, on the mainland, just op- 
posite the island on which the City of Gaveston is 
situated. From the open sea, through Bolivar Roads 
and the Texas City Channel, to the Texas City Docks, 
the average steaming time for an ocean going 
vessel is 45 minutes. The minimum depth of water 
through the roads, through the channel, and in the 
harbor and slips at Texas City, is 30 feet, render- 
ing the port conveniently accessible to large ocean 
steamers to and from the ports of the world. 

The railroads are the G. H. and S. A., the Santa 
Fe, the I.-G.-N., the M.-K.-T., the G. H. and H. and 
T. Ct. Ry. Co., the latter being the connecting termi- 
nal link between the five trunk lines and the port 
facilities A joint railroad agency is maintained at 
the docks by the six railroads mentioned, so that 



from an industrial and traffic standpoint the port 
has direct rail connections with five trunk line rail- 
roads. All rail rates to and from Texas City are 
the same as those to and from Galveston, and 
ocean freight rates are the same as those applying at 
other Gulf ports. The shipping facilities at the 
water front consist of three main slips, all hav- 
ing a water-depth of 30 feet at mean low tide, with 
berthing space sufficient to accommodate 22 ves- 
sels 300 feet long; six shipside storage warehouses, 
near but not on the water front, with total floor 
space of 350,000 square feet; grain elevator of 
500,000 bushels capacity; cotton sheds and ware- 
houses; high-density cotton compresses at ship- 
side; bins and equipment for storing and handling 
bulk sulphur; oil docks, pipe lines and storage tanks 
for handling oil in bulk, inbound and outbound; ma- 
chine shops, light and power plant, and water sup- 
ply, for serving industries and ships. 

The volume of traffic passing through the port 
is indicated by the following figures covering some 
of the activities during the calendar year 1922: 

The import, export and coastwise movement of 
traffic by water amounted to 3,318,779 tons, of an es- 
timated value of $47,000,000, carried by 601 vessels. 



52 






HOUSTON'S MUNICIPAL PROGRESS 

By JUDGE A. E. AMERMAN 



Ex-Mayor 



HOUSTON has the commission form of govern- 
ment. The mayor and four city commis- 
sioners are elected by the people and are 
responsible for the City's administration. The Com- 
missioners administer the Fire, Water, Tax and 
Street and Bridge departments, Each Commissioner 
is responsible for the conduct of affairs in his own 
department. The Mayor and four commissioners con- 
stitute the City Council Board and are empowered 
by law to pass and repeal ordinances. 

Houston is growing so rapidly that it is difficult to 
keep up with the municipal needs. Every year we 
must revise our budgets and the call is always for 
more money for taking care of the ever expanding 
needs of the mu- 
nicipality. 

Progress in all 
departments has 
been exceeding- 
ly grat i f y i n g . 
While all calls for 
impro v e m e n t s 
cannot poss i b 1 y 
be met, we have 
every reason to 
feel optimistic. 
There is sound 
satisfaction in the 
knowledge that 
the city is in- 
creasing in 
wealth and popu- 
lation so rapidly 
that it requires 
constant revision 
of statistics. It 
requires expert figuring to be able to plan for im- 
mediate future requirements. It is a source of satis- 
faction, however, that heretofore the garment has 
never been cut too large. Houston has outgrown her 
small garment days, and the budgets that the various 
departments of the city are now placing before the 
Mayor would have staggered him a few years ago, 
yet the increase is necessary. 

During the past few years Houston has realized her 
dream of half a century. Since November, 1919, 
ocean-going vessels have been sailing from Hous- 
ton's municipal wharves direct for Liverpool and 
other European ports. This marks the beginning 
of an extensive overseas trade through our port, 
which is municipally owned and controlled. New 
shipping lines are constantly being added to those 
already touching here. 

For more than six years regular service has been 
in effect between Houston and Philadelphia. Ves- 
sels of the Southern Steamship Company have been 
making the port regularly, bringing merchandise 
and carrying back to Atlantic seaboard points the 
products of Texas and other southwestern States. 

Improvements of the Houston Ship Channel began 
in 1870, and since that time $10,000,000 have been 
spent in deepening and widening the waterway. 
In May, 1919, the Harris County Navigation District, 
which includes the City of Houston, voted a bond 
issue of $1,500,000 for further improvements. The 
Federal Government also made an appropriation in- 




The Federal Building, Houston 



creasing the amount of available funds to $3,850,000. 
This fund provided a minimum depth of 30 feet and a 
minimum width of 200 feet, and provided sufficient 
water for accomodation of the larger type of ocean 
going vessels, according to estimates of the Board of 
United States Engineers. 

There are now located on the Ship Channel and in 
progress of location 18 oil refineries which will have 
a daily capacity when completed of 200,000 barrels 
of refined products per day. This will make Hous- 
ton the greatest oil refining center in the world. 
Supplies of crude oil are drawn from the Gulf 
Coastal fields and from the North Texas, Louisiana 
and Oklahoma through pipe lines which converge on 

the channel. All 
' refining and in- 
dustrial plants 
will eventually be 
connected with 
the eighteen main 
line railways 
which enter Hous- 
ton from all in- 
land points. Work 
on the municipal 
Belt Line Rail- 
way has been pro- 
gressing steadily 
and 18 miles of 
trackage have 
been laid on the 
south side of the 
channel. The city 
owns and controls 
not only its port 
facilities but its 
rail facilities as well. We own the 70-ton locomo- 
tives, a round house, and other facilities and rail- 
way equipage. 

The ship channel extends from the Gulf of Mexico 
to Houston, a distance of 50 miles. It is 25 miles 
from the municipal port to Galveston bay. The 
channel is built through the bay and on to the Gulf. 

The city has built six wharves. They cover a 
total water frontage of 3,649 lineal feet and have a 
total area of 303,634 square feet. All wharves have 
railway trackag-e connections and cargo is easily 
discharged for loading on vessels. Municipal freight 
sheds have been built also and cover 150,000 square 
feet. There are also a number of private wharves 
owned by various oil companies. Storage sheds for 
freight have also been provided. The total storage 
capacity for cotton by both municipal and private 
warehouses is 600,000 bales. 

The imperative need at present is greater wharf 
facilities. In addition to the steamship lines now 
operating vessels between our port and other cities, 
many more companies are seeking admission. The 
rapidity of the future growth of the port is limited 
only by the extension of present facilities, according 
to the direction of the port. 

Sentiment in favor of port commission created 
under authority of law to administer all harbor af- 
fairs resulted in the creation of the Port Commis- 
sion of five members in 1922, who serve without pay. 



53 






RICE INSTITUTE 

By DR. EDGAR ODELL LOVETT, President. 




T 



,HE Rice Institute has 
been characterized as 
a university of liberal 
and technical learning. It 
was founded in the city of 
Houston, Texas, by the late 
William Marsh Rice, and ded- 
icated by him to the advance- 
ment of letters, science and 
art. It was incorporated un- 
der the laws of the state of 
Texas in 1891 as a private 
educational foundation for 
the public good, to be admin- 
istered by a self -perpetuating 
board of trustees consisting 
of seven members elected for 
life, restrained by no form 
of sectarian or political con- 
trol, and given great freedom for the future organ- 
ization and development of the institution. To this 
board the founder made over from time to time 
during his lifetime certain of his properties, and 
by his last well and testament bequeathed the bulk 
of his fortune to the new foundation. Following 
the tragic circumstances surrounding his death in 
1900, his estate was involved in long years of liti- 
gation, so it was not until the autumn of 1912 that 
the trustees were finally in position to open the 
doors of the Rice Institute. 

The original resources of the foundation are con- 
servatively estimated at ten million dollars. Under 
the terms of the gifts, approximately half of this 
amount might have been spent outright initially. 
The trustees determined, however, to build, equip, 
and maintain the institution out of the income alone, 
keeping all the funds intact, not only those which 
had been designated by the founder for endowment, 
but also those which had been designated for equip- 
ment and maintenance. The annual income from 
these sources has in the last few years gone beyond 
seven hundred thousand dollars. Expenditures al- 
ready made out of the income for buildings and 
equipment have reached an amount in excess of 
three million. 

Several other early determinations on the part 
of the trustees have played an important role in 
making the good name which the institution now 



bears. They determined not only to build and main- 
tain out of the income, but also to house the Rice 
Institute in architecture of distinction, to do a few 
things well at the hands of an able faculty, and to 
give the president not only responsibility, but also 
freedom and time. They proposed that in the first 
period of its growth the institution should realize 
in the following manner its three-fold dedication 
to the advancement of letters, science, and art: it 
should enter on a university programme beginning 
at the science end both in research and in instruc- 
tion; it should, as speedily as circumstances might 
permit, offer facilities for general and liberal edu- 
cation preparatory to any higher specialization; it 
should take care of the art end of that three-fold 
dedication once for all in its early years by taking 
architecture seriously in the preparation of all of 




Houston Public Library, New Main Building, Completed in 
1925— Cost §500,000.00— Miss Julia Ideson, Librarian 

its plans, thus seeking to secure for the new uni- 
versity a physical setting of great beauty as well 
as of more immediate utility. 

In accordance with this original programme thus 
briefly outlined, the institution is being built under 
an elaborate and comprehensive architectural plan, 
in buildings of extraordinary beauty, on a campus 
of three hundred acres, situated four miles from 
the municipal centre of the city, and facing an open 
public park of another five hundred acres. Its edu- 
cational programme was inaugurated, as has 
been already intimated, in the fall of 1912, by the 
reception of the first freshman class and a small 
group of graduate students, and by an academic 




The Student Body and Campus of Rice Institute, Houston's Leading Educational Institution 

54 






NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



festival to which twelve foreign scientists and 
scholars, and representatives of many American 
colleges and universities contributed. The institu- 
tion has a carefully selected faculty of able men, 
and a hand-picked student body. It has from the 
start maintained high standards for admission and 
for graduation. Under its present selective plan 
of admission it receives but four hundred freshmen, 
and is obliged to turn away as many as it accepts. 
It is also compelled to restrict the number of trans- 
fers applying for advanced standing from other 
colleges and universities. At present it has some 




Carnegie Branch of the Houston Public Library 

twelve hundred students, who come from a hundred 
and fifty towns in Texas, as many as five and 
twenty states of the Union, and several foreign 
countries. There are no students with conditions 
and no special students are received. 

The Rice Institute offers a variety of courses of 
study, carefully coordinated, in the liberal arts, pure 
science, architecture, and engineering. Of these 
courses the year is the academic unit, and the 
failure of a course can only be removed by the 
repetition of that course or the substitution of an 
acceptable one. These courses lead after four years 
or more of study to bachelors' and masters' degrees 
in arts and in science. Rice has also conferred a 
few earned degrees of Doctor of Philosophy in math- 
ematics, physics, and chemistry, respectively. Five 
of its graduates have come into National Research 
Fellowships, one has been awarded a Rhodes Schol- 
arship, and many others have proceeded to grad- 
uate with professional degrees at other institutions 
in this country and abroad. Though its first class 
was not graduated until June, 1916, more than seven 
hundred members of the Rice Institute appear in 
the Rice record of war service at home and abroad 
during the great war. 

Undergraduate life at the Rice Institute is highly 
organized and on a thoroughly democratic basis. 
There are no fraternities or sororities. Every en- 
couragement is given to outdoor sports of all sorts. 
On the academic side these undergraduates have 
unusual advantages in individual instruction in small 
classes and sections, in a library which already has 
extensive collections of American and foreign lit- 
erary and scientific periodicals, in scientific equip- 
ment for instruction and investigation in mathe- 
matics, physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, and 
architecture, which is not excelled in the South, and 



in independent laboratory establishments already 
built, for physics and chemistry which are compar- 
able with any in the country. Moreover, the orig- 
inal facilities offered the students so generously 
out of the founder's philanthropy have already been 
supplemented by private benefactions on the part 
of friends of the new institution providing lecture- 
ships in public affairs, in civics and philanthropy, 
in music, a number of endowed scholarships, and 
a loan fund for promising students in need of finan- 
cial assistance. 

The Rice Institute has already made substantial 
contributions to the material, intellectual, and spir- 
itual welfare of Texas and the Southwest. These 
contributions it has been able to make through the 
men and money and freedom so generously provided 
originally by the founder. By virtue of the trustees' 
sound and conservative financial policy, and equally 
sound and progressive educational programme, 
commensurate high standards of requirement and 
achievement on the part of the professors and stu- 
dents, and an altogether gratifying justification of 
the institution in the place already attained by its 
graduates in public service and private enterprise, 
the Rice Institute has early reached such a success- 
ful stage in its development that with some confi- 
dence it may begin to expect further private and 
perhaps public support towards the fuller realization 
of its far-reaching plans. Though initially hand- 
somely endowed, its resources are far from adequate 
to the building of anything Lke a complete, modern 
university. It needs money, and a great deal of 
money, money for the endowment of new professor- 
ships and in particular traveling fellowships; money 
for a library building; money for a chapel; money 
for a great public hall; money for a gymnasium; 
money for more residential halls for men; money 
for its college for women; money for its school of 
fine arts; money for its graduate schools, of law, 
medicine, engineering, education, business adminis- 




Houston Heights Branch of the Public Library 

tration, and for all the other brain-working pro- 
fessions of our time which are steadily being ele- 
vated to foundations on college training. Millions 
for men, and millions for the construction and en- 
dowment of buildings. Indeed, the Rice Institute 
is prepared wisely to administer tomorrow another 
additional gift of ten million, and such a gift would 
multiply ten-fold the original ten million of the 
founder. 



55 



HISTORY OF THE HOUSTON HARBOR 



By COL. THOS. H. BALL, 

Counsel Port Commission 




A 



S early as 1825, what 
is known today as the 
Houston Ship Channel 
was used as a water way by 
the early settlers of this 
section. Sail boats worked 
their way up the tide water 
stream of Buffalo Bayou, 
and in the sixties the steam 
boat traffic began. The 
steamship line between Hous- 
ton and New York was es- 
tablished by Commodore 
Chas. Morgan, and shallow 
draft side-wheel steamers 
were used. When the cotton 
warehouses and compresses 
were built at Houston a large 
barge traffic handling cotton 
was built up between the warehouses and Galveston. 
The River and Harbor Act passed by Congress 
March 3, 1899, provided for the construction of the 
Houston Ship Channel to the depth of twenty-five 
feet, and a few years thereafter the actual dredging 
commenced. The progress made was slow until 1910, 
when the local interests proposed to provide for 
one-half of the cost of the building of the twenty- 
five foot channel. Thereafter Congress appropriated 
one million two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, 
and the Navigation District comprising Harris 
County issued bonds in the same amount and the 
contracts were let for the project. The channel 
to a depth of twenty-five feet was completed on 
September 7th, 1914. 

It was soon apparent that the channel was inad- 
equate for the traffic and on March 2nd, 1919, Con- 
gress approved the project to deepen the channel 
to thirty feet, and to widen it from one hundred 
and fifty to two hundred and fifty feet across the 
bay and from one hundred to one hundred and fifty 
feet from Morgan's Point to the Turning Basin. The 
local interests were asked to provide the sum of 
one million three hundred and sixty-five thousand 
dollars towards this cost, which was est : mated at 




Houston Harbor 

about four million dollars. In September, 1925, 
the thirty-foot channel was completed. 

When the twenty-five-foot channel was completed 
the city of Houston under a three million dollar 
bond issue had terminals constructed at the Turning 
Basin providing 3,649 feet of wharf space with tran- 
sit sheds and supporting warehouses and sections 



of Public Belt Railroad to connect with other lines 
and serve the oil refineries and other port industries, 
and a large traffic was soon built up. In November, 
1919, the United States Shipping Board Steamer 
"Merry Mount" carried the first cargo of cotton, 
consisting of 23,319 bales and from that time on 
the movement of this commodity has increased 
steadily and on April 3rd, 1924, on the Steamship 
"Ida Zo" of the Odera Line, (Italian) the millionth 
bale was loaded for the cotton season beginning 
August 1, 1923. A total of 1,868,440 bales were 
shipped during season 1924 and 1925, and 447,969 
for the first two months of 1925-1926 season. 

Along with the movement of cotton, shipments 
of other commodities have kept pace, and during 
1924 a total of 949,923 tons of fuel, gas and lubri- 
cating oils and gasoline were exported, while 627,572 
tons of crude and fuel oil were imported and 2,631,- 
248 tons were moved coastwise. Large shipments 
of scrap iron, iron and steel articles, structural 




Loading Cargo at Houston Harbor on Sea-going Vessels 
Destined to Foreign Ports 

steel, canned goods, groceries, cotton seed cake and 
meal, fuel, lime and cement, and approximately one 
million tons of sand and shell are handled locally 
on the channel. The story of the ship movements 
is briefly told in the increase of arrivals and de- 
partures from 425 in 1920 to 1907 in 1924, and 
1686 vessels for the first nine months of 1925. 

The terminal facilities have been added to and 
improved by the city of Houston, and by the Nav- 
igation District, which on October 1, 1922, took over, 
under a lease agreement with the city of Houston, 
all the latter's wharf facilities. On January 1, 1925, 
the new facilities were completed. Several wharves 
have been completed by private enterprises and 
others are under construction, these private facil- 
ities such as the Houston Compress Company plant, 
while primarily for the handling of cotton will handle 
other commodities as well. At present there are 
45 industries located on the main channel with an 
estimated capital investment of over One Hundred 
Million Dollars and a daily payroll of about Thirty 
Thousand Dollars. There are twenty-two industries, 
in addition to the above, located on the light draft 



56 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



channel above the Turning Basin, with an estimated 
capital investment of Twelve Million Dollars and 
a daily payroll of about Five Thousand Dollars. 

The Houston Lighting and Power Company has 
constructed the first unit of a huge electric power 
plant which will cost complete approximately Ten 
Million Dollars, in order to provide adequate power 
for these industries on the channel. There was put 
in operation on July 1st, 1924, the Port Terminal 
Railroad Association that operates all the facilities 
of the Public Belt Railroad, connecting with the 
main trunk lines entering the city and providing 
for a neutral switching organization to handle all 
traffic to and from the Port Terminals and indus- 
tries with equal dispatch and without discrimination 
to all of the 17 railroads reaching the city. The 
arrangement is proving a very satisfactory solution 
of the railroad and port terminal problem, and with 
the extension of the Public Belt Railroad and this 
service along each side of the channel every indus- 
try is guaranteed the maximum of rail and water 
service. 

The port is operated by the Navigation and Canal 
Commission, made up of five members, who serve 
without pay. They are appointed, two by the city 



and two by the county commissioners and the chair- 
man by the city and county commissioners in joint 
session. The period of service is two years, the 
terms expiring alternate years. The director of 
the port handles the affairs under this board. The 
board controls the commercial activities of the port 
and the construction and maintenance of the termi- 
nal facilities, and through co-operation with the 
Federal Government the construction and improve- 
ment of the waterway. All wharves and railroad 
facilities constructed and operated by the city of 
Houston in 1915 and 1918 were transferred to the 
Port Commission under a lease agreement on Octo- 
ber 1st, 1922, for a period of thirty years. The city 
is to be paid the net revenue after operation and 
maintenance charges were deducted from the gross 
receipts. The Navigation District will have the di- 
rection of all further construction. 

The Port Commission are made up of the follow- 
ing men: R. S. Sterling, chairman; D. S. Cage, vice 
chairman; R. J. Cummins, Ben Campbell, \V. T. 
Carter, Jr.; B. C. Allin, director of the port; Charles 
Crotty, assistant; J. A. Schiller, chief engineer; E. 
T. Davis, assistant chief engineer; H. H. Rose, chief 
clerk; H. J. Scott, superintendent wharves; Thos. 
H. Ball, counsel, and H. L. Washburn, auditor. 



HISTORY OF HOTEL ACTIVITIES IN TEXAS 

By R. E. PELLOW 

Chairman Board of Directors Texas Hotel Keepers' Association 



THE hotel industry has more than kept pace 
with the industrial and commercial develop- 
ment of Texas, and there is no question that 
the far-seeing men who have invested upwards of 
$150,000,000 in hotels in this state have done their 
full share in the general advancement. The fact 
that Texas has now a large number of absolutely 
first-class hotels that have a national reputation 
among hotel men, as well as goodly sprinkling of 
good hotels in the smaller cities and towns has been 
an important factor in bringing the opportunities for 
profitable investment in the state to the attention 
of men of wealth and influence in other states. The 
fame of the character of entertainment to be se- 
cured in any of the larger cities of the state has 
become widespread, assuring tourists that to what- 
ever section of the state their urge of the moment 
may take them they will find all of comfort and of 
luxury that the hotels of the metropolitan cities have 
accustomed them to. The result of this reputation 
is more farreaching than is recognized by many of 
the citizens themselves. 

A retrospective glance does not need to go so very 
many years back to reveal a condition with regard to 
hotel accommodations in Texas that bears a strik- 
ing contrast to present-day conditions. The delight- 
ful winter climate of San Antonio, the wonderful 
beach at Galveston and at Corpus Christi brought a 
limited number of seasonal visitors regardless of the 
equally limited accommodations afforded, and when 
men of courage and vision ventured upon the con- 
struction and equipment of hotels in keeping with 
the demand for the best that had been created by 
the splendid hostelries of the northern cities, local 
wiseacres shook their heads and predicted disaster. 
But the outcome of the early ventures proved the 
wisdom of the pioneers, and the cities of the state, 

57 



one after the other, took up the idea, and each new 
hotel built outshone the last. Tourists who were 
attracted by the appeal of climate remained to in- 
vest in business and in manufacturing, homes were 
established and the cities grew in wealth and ad- 
vanced in culture, creating demands for more and 
better hotels, which added their appeal in turn, at- 
tracting constantly widening streams of homeseek- 
ers in this favored land, new additions to the in- 
vestors of their wealth in productive enterprises, un- 
til Texas has taken her place among the leaders 
of the states, not only in the value of her primary 
products, but in the volume of her manufactured 
products, and in the splendid public improvements 
which mark her many cities. 

In every city of the state, among those which 
have passed the hundred thousand mark, and in not 
a few of these of lesser population, are to be found 
hostelries that represent investments which put them 
in the category of the much aligned "big business." 
Million dollar hotel plants fail to excite more than 
passing mention in the news columns, and along with 
this evidence of an advanced civilization are to be 
found all the facilities for outdoor sports w T hich have 
come to be a necessary adjunct of any city which 
attempts to make appeal to the growing class of 
wealthy people who seek a warm climate in winter 
and a cool climate in summer. 

In short, probably the most influential factor in 
upbuilding of the cities of the state have been the 
splendid caravansaries which are in every center of 
population the rallying point of the business life of 
the community, the scene of the most elegant social 
functions, and the sure reflection of the stage of 
progress, financially, socially and intellectually that 
the city has made. 



HISTORY OF GALVESTON 

By ALEXANDER RUSSELL 

Galveston Tribune 



AS many as half a dozen more or less authentic 
records of the beginning of Galveston have 
been written and after perusing all of them, 
the reader is permitted the liberty of exercising his 
option as to the one he prefers, for after all, it makes 
little difference as to which of the narratives one 
follows, all of them agree that some time between the 
year lt'>So* and 1S1G the island upon which the city 
is now located, was used by Indians as r. hunting and 



In 1820 Lafitte seized an American ship in Mat- 
agorda Bay and for that act the United States gov- 
ernment sent an armed vessel to break up the ren- 
dezvous. Later in that year Lafitte quit the island 
and made his headquarters at one place or another 
until 18 26 when he is said to have died in Yucatan. 
When Lafitte left Galveston island, it was occupied 
by General Long, who, with a small body of adven- 
turers, had been camped on the Bolivar peninsular, 




Hotel, the Popular Hostelry of Galveston, Open Throughout the Year. This Hotel is 
Well and Favorably Known to Tourists all Over the World 



fishing resort and designated as rattlesnake island, 
because of the number of these reptiles found here. 
In 1816, supposedly on Sept. 12, Don Jose Man- 
uel Herrera, commissioner of the Mexican revolu- 
tionary, or Morelos government, to the United States 
together with Don Luis Aury, a gallant naval of- 
ficer, landed on Galveston island with the purpose 
of making this place their headquarters in their en- 
deavor to wrest Mexico from the Spanish yoke. 
In November the same year, General Francisco Za- 
vier Mena, with 200 men and a few small ships 
joined the forces at Galveston and laid out an en- 
campment. Because of disagreements between the 
two leaders, Galveston was abandoned early in 1817, 
being shortly afterwards occupied by the Pirate 
Lafitte whose headquarters at Barrataria Louisi- 
ana, had become untenable. Lafitte held a commis- 
sion as Governor of Texas from the revolutionary 
government of Mexico, and under the flag of that 
government he carried out his piratical practices 
upon Spanish shirs, fought with the neighboring 
Indians and added from time to time to the pop- 
ulation of the island. 



the bay from Galveston, and many of the houses 
which had been destroyed by Lafitte were rebuilt 
and occupied. Long became involved in trouble 
with a band of Indians occupying the western end 
of the island and failing in his effort to enlist a suf- 
ficient number of men to assume active operations 
against the Mexican government, the Island was 
gradually abandoned and until 183 2 again became 
a hunting and fishing resort for neighboring tribes 
of red men. 

In the year mentioned, Juan N. Seguin, a Mexi- 
can citizen of the State of Coahuila, was granted a 
league and labor of land on the eastern end of Gal- 
veston island, but did nothing with his grant. In 
the year 1824, Colonel Michael B. Menard, agent and 
purchaser of the grant of Seguin, petitioned the 
Alcade of Liberty Territory to put him in posses 
sion of the one league and labor of land on the 
eastern extremity of Galveston island, and the pe- 
tition was granted. 

After Texas had gained its independence and set 
up business as a republic, Colonel Menard offered 



58 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



the Texas congress $50,000 to make good his grant, 
his offer was accepted and from that hour began the 
history of what is now one of the greatest seaports 
•of the United States. The city was incorporated 
in March 1836, John M. Allen being its first mayor. 
The city was planned and ample provision made for 
schools, churches, public buildings and parks. Just 
prior to the battle of San Jacinto, which battle gave 
to Texas her independence, the government of the 
republic, forced to flee from its capital at Washing- 
ton by the approach of Santa Anna, made Galveston 
its temporary abiding place. During the time the 
young republic was struggling against Mexico for 
independence, Galveston was the headquarters for 
the Texas Navy, consisting of half a dozen small 
vessels. This navy gave a splendid account of its 
self when ever a Mexican vessel could be found 
willing to engage in battle. 

Galveston furnished adequate complements of men 
and finances to the Texas war for independence and 
to the Southern side in the war between the states 
At the close of the latter war, the population of the 
city was approximately 10,000. The city boasted of 
one railroad 45 miles in length and half a dozen 
wharves at which numerous light draft vessels 
loaded and unloaded, the bar at the entrance of 
the harbor did not permit of vessels drawing more 
than fifteen feet of water to enter. 



have been coming into the harbor and an effort is 
now being made for the government to undertake 
the deepening of the channel and ?>ar to thirty-five 
feet. Illustrative of the wide appreciation of Gal- 
veston as a port, on one day recently there were 
vessels flying fourteen different flags loading or 
unloading at the wharves. 

Galveston's present population is about 40,000 
and everything points to a rapid increase over these 
figures. The storm of 1900, while it gave the city 
a temporary set back, in reality proved to be a 
blessing in disguise for it taught the people a much 
needed lesson and measures were at once taken to 
surround the city with a protecting wall while the 
city itself was elevated, in some place? to a height 
of seventeen feet above its old elevation. Then, too 
from the storm and its toll of heavy repair expenses 
came the commission form of government by which 
not only Galveston but numerous other communities 
throughout the nation have been able to carry 
on at a much reduced expense and wider satis- 
faction. 

Galveston today holds first place as a cotton ex- 
porting gateway and has entered the field for a 
new record in grain exportation. Elevator facilities 
and side track provisions are ample and if the port 
is supplied with adequate tonnage, Galveston will 
be as noted for handling export grain as she is for 




Seagoing Vessels at Wharves in the Gal.eston Harbor Taking Cargo Enroute to 
Various American and European Ports 

In the year 1896, after an extended campaign of handling outward bound cotton. The taxable val- 



education conducted throughout the west and the 
Middle west, congress made an appropriation for 
the deepening of the harbor and the work was im- 
mediately started. By 1875 vessels drawing twen- 
ty-five feet of water could enter the harbor and 
year by year since that time deeper draft vessels 



uation of the city is given at $41,000,000.00 This 
city went over the top in every Liberty bond, Eed 
Cross and War Work Activities drive launched dur- 
ing the recent war, though, by the war, deprived 
of her shipping and a large portion of her popu- 
lation. 



50 



GALVESTON, THE TEXAS PORT, GATEWAY OF THE SOUTHWEST 

By EDWIN GHEESBOROUGH 




G 



A L V E S T N is the 
chief seaport of Texas, 
the largest cotton ex- 
porting port in the world, a 
wholesale distributing point 
and a winter and summer re- 
sort. It has a beautiful, well 
fortified harbor 32 to 50 feet 
deep, thirty up-to-date piers 
and birth room at the docks 
for 100 ocean going vessels. 
It has a modern 10,000 ton 
dry dock, fuel oil station, coal 
elevators and floating bunker 
plants, a powerful wireless 
station, cable communication 
direct with Mexico, four large 
grain elevators and nine high 
density cotton compresses. Galveston's population 
is around 40,000. 

Deep water was procured at Galveston by the 
National Government at the cost of $10,000,000. 
The average yearly business passing over Galves- 
ton's docks in from $300,000,000 to $450,000,000. 
Exports in 1918-19 were $301,166,702. 

In December 1835 M. B. Menard, recognized as 
the founder of Galveston, purchased of the Repub- 
lic of Texas for the sum of $50,000 one league and 
one labor of land on the East end of Galveston Island 
the site of the present city of Galveston, He organ- 
ized the Galveston City Company, April 13, 1836 
ana immediately laid out the city. On April 3 
183 8 a public sale of town lots was held. The city 



was incorporated and elected its first mayor and 
Board of Aldermen in March 1839. 

Up to October 1902 the City was located on an 
unprotected flat sandy surface with a grade running 
from four to seven feet above mean low tide. On 
an average of once every eleven years the City was 
inundated by storm water from the Gulf of Mexico, 
but the result and damage was always very small. 
The building of a seawall along the Gulf front to 
protect the city from storm wave action was fre- 
quently suggested, but no active steps were taken 
to bring about the desired results. 

On Sept. 8, 1900, at a time when Galveston pos- 
sessed a population of 40,000, a great tropical 
storm, originating in the West Indies, struck the 
city with a fury hitherto unbelievable. Approxi- 
mately 5,300 lives and $17,000,000 in property val- 
ues were destroyed. This disaster left the city gov- 
ernment practically bankrupt and many of its mu- 
nicipal improvements in ruins. A grave situation 
faced the city. The people realized fully, that in 
order to restore confidence and to make Galveston 
a safe place in which to reside herculean efforts and 
wise planning was absolutely necessary. Under the 
law, no city or county in Texas can sell or dispose 
of their lands at less than par. Galveston was 
facing a question of civic life or death. 
Four Noted Achievements 

Galveston is credited with having accomplished 
four noted achievements. The Commission Plan of 
City Government, the building of a great Seawall 
and boulevard, the raising of the grade of a large 
part of the city and the erection of a magnificent 




Galveston ifi the Gateway to the Great Southwest Empire. The Greatest Cotton Shipping Port of the South, 
are Shipped through this Harhor to all Parts of the World. The Giant Causeway in 
the Center is the Longest Viaduct in the World. 

60 



Texas Products 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



all-arched re-inforced concrete causeway two miles 
in length connecting the city with the mainland. 
The Commission Plan of City 
Government 

After the great storm of Sept. 8th, 1900, it was 
suggested that the first step necessary to a com- 
plete rehabilitation of Galveston, was through re- 
organization of the City government. It was gen- 
erally recognized that an efficiently managed mu- 
nicipal government has a direct bearing upon the 
growth, development and prosperity of a city, be- 
cause it encourages the people, invites capital and 
stimulates activity. 

The Galveston Deep Water Committee 

An organization composed of twelve of the lead- 
ing business men of the city, and whose original 
purpose was to work for National aid in securing 
deep water for the port, decided that an application 



Sewerage; Commissioner of Streets an'l Public Prop- 
erty, and Commissioner of Police and Fire Depts. 
The Mayor or any Commissioner can be removed 
from the office for official misconduct, drunken- 
ness or incompetency by a district judge upon a 
proved charge. 

What the new system of City government accom- 
plished for Galveston was indeed remarkable. Its 
success was so marked, that hundreds of cities all 
over the United States have adopted the Commis- 
sion Plan. 

Sea Wall 

One of the first acts of the Board of City Com- 
missioners, was the employment of an engineering 
board composed of General Henry M. Robert, Alfred 
Noble and H. C. Ripley, their duty being to devise 
plans for the protection of the city from the force 
of the waves and currents in the several storms 




Bathing: in the Surf at Galveston, the Atlantic City of the South, the Gulf Water is Delightfully Warm, 
and Bathers May Stay in the Surf all Day and Late into the Night Without Becoming Chilled 



should be made to the state legislature for a new 
charter, designed to benefit the people rather than 
to provide sinecures for politicians: Mr. R. Waverly 
Smith, President of the First National Bank of 
Galveston, a lawyer by training, and who, for four 
years prior to that time has held the office of City 
Attorney, and who was a member of the Deep 
Water Committee, and now its chairman, suggested 
the appointment of a committee from that organ- 
ization to thoroughly revise and rewrite the city 
charter. Accordingly a sub committee of three 
from said organization was appointed, consisting 
of Mr. Smith, Col. Walter Gresham, a lawyer and 
a former member of Congress, and Mr F. D. Minor, 
a lawyer of high character and splendid ability. 
This subcommittee procured copies of the charters 
of a number of cities, including the law governing 
the city of Washington, D. C, a copy of the act cre- 
ating the taxing commission for Memphis, Tenn., 
and after the great yellow fever epidemic in 1878, 
and a copy of the so-called model charter of Balti- 
more, Md. 

The commission features of the new charter were 
suggested and drawn by Mr. Smith, and the controll- 
ing was the creation of a governing body which 
should conform, as near as possible, to the organ- 
ization of a great business corporation providing the 
duties, sharply defining the responsibilities, and 
through the heads of the various departments, con- 
centrating both power and responsibility. 
Commission Plan in Brief 

The Board of Commissioners of the City of Gal- 
veston is composed of a Mayor-President and four 
Commissioners, all elected to their respective posi- 
tions by the qualified voters of the city at large 
every two years. 

The Mayor or President is the executive head of 
the City Government. The four Commissioners are 
designated as follows: Commissioner of Finances 
and Reserve; Commissioner of Water Works and 



known to occur in the Gulf, and to prevent storm 
water from ever reaching a depth in the city, dan- 
gerous to life and property. To accomplish this ob- 
ject the Board of Engineers proposed the building 
of a solid concrete wall and the raising of the city 
grade to eight feet at Avenue "A", 10 feet at Broad 
way, 12 feet at Avenue "P" and continuing this slop<> 
upward to the seawall seventeen feet above mean 
low tide. 

The county of Galveston, of which the city contri- 
butes about 85% of the taxes, agreed to build the 
Seawall at a cost of $1,500,000, issuing 4% bonds 
being purchased by the citizens of Galveston and 
the city, with aid extended by the State of Texas, 
agreed to raise the grade at a cost of $2,000,000, 
the people to pay the expenses incident to the rais- 
ing of their building and other improvements cost- 
ing about $1,000,000 additional. Galveston county 
built 17,592 feet of the Seawall and the United 
States Government built in front of Fort Crockett, 
joining the county seawall, 5 50 6 feet, making a to- 
tal of 2 3,098 feet, or a little over 4 1-3 miles. Woi'k 
on the wall started Oct. 1902 and was completed 
Oct. 18, 1905. The cost of the wall and filling be- 
hind same to the Government was $67 8,424.00. The 
wall proper is 16 feet wide at the base, is 17 feet 
above mean low tide and is five feet across the top 
It is backed up by sand filling. Adjacent to the 
wall and flush with its top is a cement sidewalk 16 
feet wide, next to the sidewalk is a brick pavement, 
6 8 feet wide, and adjacent to that is another cement 
sidewalk. These two cement sidewalks with brick 
pavement in the center is called the "Seawall Boule 
vard." At a point 200 feet from the wall proper, 
or 100 feet north of the seawall boulevard, a cement 
wall is sunk into the earth five feet deep, its top 
which is 21 feet above mean low tide being even 
with the ground surface, or four feet higher than 
the seawall. This upward slope of four feet for a 
distance of 200 feet from the seawall causes all 



61 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



storm spray dashing over the seawall on to the 
boulevard to drain back into the Gulf. 

The wall proper is built upon four round 
piling at intervals of four feet. The piling is driven 
down from 40 to 44 feet, penetrating a solid clay 
foundation. A double row of lapper and groved 
sheet piling 2 4 feet in length extends the entire 
length of the wall under the part nearest the Gulf. 
In front of the wall is an apron of granite and sand- 
stone rip rap 27 feet wide. 

Eastern Extension of Seawall 

The United States Government and Galveston 
County jointly at a cost of $18,000,000 have extended 
the seawall from the Gulf at Sixth street to Fort 
San Jacinto a distance of 10,30 feet, the County 
paying the cost of 3,3 00 feet and the Government 
paying for 7,000 feet. The Government's part of 
the wall is in front of its own land, some 7 00 acres 
comprising the Fort and the sand flats adjacent 
thereto. This seawall extension not only protects 
the channel of Galveston bay from filling during a 
storm, but also reclaims for commercial purposes 
about 5000 feet of channel frontages which is 
suitable for docks and terminals, also a large acre- 
age of sand flats, also gives the Government a mag- 
nificent site adjacent to Fort San Jacinto for use 
as a camp and drill grounds. 

Raising the City Grade 

Acting under the terms of the new city charter 
on May 15, 1903, Governor S. W. T. Lanham ap- 
pointed J. P. Alvey, John Sealy and E. R. Cheese- 
brough, as a grade raising board, they to manage, 
control and direct the work of filling and raising 
the area east of Thirteenth Street and also south 
of Broadway as far west as Fortieth street. The 
total sum available for this work was $2,000,000 
represented by 5 per cent City bonds. In order 
to care for the interest and sinking fund on this 



six years. The contractors received $1,961,259, the 
engineering and incidental expenses being less than 
two per cent of the contract price. The contractors 
lost between $300,000 and $400,000 on their con- 
tract. The surface elevation due to the raising of 
the city grade ranges from a few inches to eleven 
feet. The highest known storm water at Galveston 
was a fraction under 12 feet above mean low tide, 
Broadway as raised is 10 feet and the sidewalks 11 
feet and the slope towards the Seawall is upward at 
the rate of one foot in 1500. The downtown sec- 
tion of the city from Broadway north has never 
been raised. This is however in active contemplation. 
The present grade in that area ranges from 6y 2 to 
8 feet above mean low tide. During a storm, since 
the building of the seawall, the water appearing on 
the downtown streets backs in from the bay and has 
no damaging force. 

Due to the grade raising all bayous, lakes and 
low places in the western part of the City have 
been filled. Since the beginning of the grade rais- 
ing operations a total of 16,321,400 cubic yards of 
filling has been placed in the city, at the cost of ap- 
proximately $3,000,000. 

The Galveston Causeway 

The Galveston Causeway as completed repre- 
sents an outlay of $3,000,000 or more. It is 
10,642 feet in length and of which 7 858 is re-in- 
forced concrete arches resting upon a concrete piling 
foundation. Each arch had a clear span of sixty 
feet. The causeway is sixty-three feet, three inches 
wide, and is devoted to a county roadway, interurban 
and steam railway tracks. It is 14 feet above mean 
tide. The lift bridge has a clear span of 100 feet, 
Galveston County, the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Co., Gal- 
veston-Houston Electric Interurban Co., G. H. & 
H. Ry. Co., and the Southern Pacific Railway- 
Company, in various proportions, have contributed 




Along the Walk at Galveston. Murdock Bath House, Bathing Surf and Pier on the Right, 
the Left is the Crystal Bath House, Plunge and Casino 



bond issue the State of Texas through legislative 
enactment, contributed the State's part of all taxes 
collected in Galveston County for a period of 17 
years and later on increased it to 27 years. The 
Grade raising Board secured the services of Col. 
C. S. Richie, U. S. Engineer, as its consulting en- 
gineer, he to prepare plans, specifications and form 
of contract. The successful bidder was Messrs. 
Goehardt & Bates, the price being I8V2 cents per cu- 
bic yard, to include grading, they to dredge a service 
canal through the residence section of the city three 
miles long, eighteen feet deep and two hundrert 
feet wide. They to use foreign built, self loading, 
self propelling and discharging hopper dredges to 
take filling from the bay and transport it througn 
the canal and discharge it through pipe lines. They 
to remove all buildings in the canal right-of-way, 
and restore them to their original location, after re- 
filling the canal. The raising of the grade started 
July 1904 and was completed in July 1910 or witHr. 



to meet the cost of this structure. The causeway 
was constructed under two contracts. The initial 
contract was let to the A. M. Bladgett Construction 
Company of Kansas City, Mo., July 6, 19 09 and on 
August 30 of the same year, the first work was 
actually started, Mr. Linton W. Stubbs, construction 
engineer, supervised the work. The Arch bridge 
portion was 2,358 feet and lift bridge 100 feet. 
The balance of the structure was a cement slab, 
protected sand roadway, surfaced with shell. Du- 
ring the storm of August 16, 17, 1915, a large part 
of the sand roadway washed out and the cement slabs 
fell in. In rebuilding, it was decided to construct 
the destroyed portion of arches, thus making the en- 
tire causeway an all arched structure. About 5,5 00- 
feet of arch construction, being 79 acres, comprised- 
the second contract which was awarded to Larkin & 
Sangster (Inc.) This is one of the largest, if not 
the very largest re-inforced arched concrete struc- 
ture in the world. 



62 



HISTORY OF BEAUMONT 



By J. L. MAPES 

Vice-President and General Manager Beaumont Enterprise 




B 



EAUMONT was found- 
ed in July, 1837, when 
its boundary lines were 
established and when agree- 
ment between Nancy Tevis 
and the heirs of Noah Tevis, 
and the Joseph P. Pulsifer 
Company, which was com- 
posed of Henry Millard, 
Joseph Pulsifer and Thomas 
P. Huling, and Joseph Grigs- 
by. The original town in- 
cluded only two hundred 
acres. In 1839, the town 
site company divided the 
property into boundary lines; 
certain tracts being set aside 
as public roads and commons. 
The lots or commons were 
designated in the earliest maps. These commons in- 
clude the present court house property, Keith Park, 
Millard school grounds, the high school campus, and 
the city hall site. Jefferson County, of which 
Beaumont is the county seat, originally included 
Orange County and part of Hardin County and was 
in the period of its first settlement a part of the 
Lorenza de Zavalla colony under the government of 
the States of Coahuila and Texas, with headquarters 
at Nacogdoches, and first called Liberty County. 
The section of the colony which formed the first 
Jefferson County had settlers prior to 1834. The 



first application for any of the land in the present 
townsite of Beaumont was made by Noah Tevis in 
December, 1834. The Tevis family had, however, 
lived here prior to that date. From this modest be- 
ginning the town grew as all other communities in 
a pioneer country develops. The people made their 
livelihood in agriculture, cattle, lumber and shingle 
manufacturing and trading by steamboat up and 
down the Neches River. When railroads were built 
and modern methods of lumber manufacturing were 
introduced the growth was more rapid. The develop- 
ment of a deep water port and the development of 
rice as a major crop gave the city a further im- 
petus. This briefly outlines the history of the com- 
munity up until 1900. 

Beaumont in 1900 was a town of eight thousand 
inhabitants. Its principal industry at that time was 
the manufacture of lumber. The rice milling in- 
dustry had become important and in time might 
have brought about some of the growth attained 
later on, but in 1901 there came a sudden change 
in the prosperity of the town. 

On January 11, the famous Lucas oil well was 
brought in, a short distance from Beaumont. The 
incident attracted the attention of all those who 
were interested in the development of oil. Within a 
few weeks after the discovery of oil, the popula- 
tion of Beaumont had increased from eight thou- 
sand to twenty-five thousand. This influx of new 
people brought into town a flood of capital, which 
could not have been secured under normal condi- 
tions in many years. 




Some of Beaumont's Public Buildings. Reading From Left to Right Top Row — New Beaumont Hotel. Y. W. C. A. Build- 
ing, Central Fire Station; Lower Row — San Jacinto Life Insurance Company Building and the Beaumont Postoffice. 

63 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Beaumont had in 1920, a population of 40,422, 
which since then has greatly increased. The govern- 
ment estimate for 1924, was 52,548. The popula- 
tion is composed of 12,343 families occupying 10,- 
277 homes: 31,630 adults and 20,918 children of 
whom 70 per cent were native whites. The new 
city directory, issued September 10, gives the pop- 
ulation for 1925 at 57,963. The city's assessed 
valuation for 1925 is $49,500,000; altitude above sea 
level, 23 feet, and average annual rainfall, 47.61 
inches. 

Beaumont has more than a hundred manufac- 
turing establishments in operation, covering many 
lines, but the largest industrial units are the oil 
refining, shipbuilding, iron and steel industries. The 
Magnolia Petroleum Company refining plant is lo- 
cated on the outskirts of the city, owns its wharves 
and docks, and is one of the six among the largest 
oil refineries in the world. From this district goes 
25 per cent of the oil exported from the United 
States together with the by-products. 

The monthly payroll of the manufacturing estab- 
lishments within the city is S650,000. The payrolls 
of the six oil refineries per month is given at 
83,800,000; of the lumber manufacturing industry 
SI, 300,000 per annum, the iron industry of Beaumont 
alone has an annual payroll of 81,000,000 and the rice 



and Orange, Texas, with the new port of Lake 
Charles to be opened to sea-going vessels early in 
1926. Besides these there are the subports of Port 
Neches, Magpetco, Smith's Bluff, Sabine and Sabine 
Pass. The exports and imports handled in the 
district in 1924 amounted to approximately 
15,000,000 tons. 

Beaumont has the following: A city tax rate of 
S2.36. Manager-commission government. Assessed 
valuation of $49,500,000.00. Bonded indebtedness, 
84,944,900.00. Sixty-five miles of sewer mains and 
connections. Ninety miles of concrete sidewalks. 
Eighty-seven miles of shelled and paved streets. 
Municipally owned and operated abattoir. Munic- 
ipally owned and operated Wharf and Dock System, 
valued at $1,250,000.00. Six large fire stations, all 
well equipped, and one of the most efficient fire 
fighting organizations in any city of the United 
States of similar size. A well organized and ef- 
ficient health department, with health board, 
bacteriologist, sanitary inspectors of foods, meats, 
drugs, dairy products, etc., together with garbage 
collection system, incinerating plant, etc. Munic- 
ipally owned and operated water system, furnishing 
4,500,000 gallons of pure and wholesome water daily, 
with a maximum capacity of 24,000,000 gallons 
every 24 hours, thirteen railway outlets. Sixty trains 
in and out daily. Six steamship lines with dated 




Old Spindle-top Oil Field Near Beaumont, Where Deep Oil Was First Discovered in Paying Quantities in Texas 



milling and other industries will run into the mil- 
lion annually. 

Rice growing is the outstanding agricultural 
production. Some 30,000 or 40,000 acres are devoted 
to rice in Jefferson County, but large quantities are 
sent to Beaumont for milling and distribution. 
Since 1920 when practically no cotton was raised in 
Jefferson County, there are over 4000 acres planted 
to this staple. Figs, Satsuma oranges, pecans and 
poultry are becoming more important in this sec- 
tion each year. Beaumont is a great lumber center. 
A total of over 100,000,000 feet of lumber was 
shipped out of the port of Beaumont the first nine 
months of 1925. It is estimated that the Beaumont 
district produces about 840,000,000 in lumber, giv- 
ing employment to about fifteen thousand people. 

The extension of the Port Arthur ship canal to 
Beaumont and Orange made possible the develop- 
ment of a great maritime traffic in the Sabine 
district. Some eight years ago the city began to 
build wharves, docks and warehouses and at an 
expense of $1,250,000 built a harbor for sea-going 
vessels. From nothing the maritime traffic de- 
veloped to 674,058 tons in 1917, 1,066,310 tons in 
1918, 1,100,047 tons in 1919, 2,167,801 tons in 1920, 
2,960,525 tons in 1921, 3,041,747 tons in 1922, 3,357,- 
237 tons in 1923 and 4,803,150 tons in 1924. 

Beaumont is the largest city in the Sabine district 
which comprises the ports of Beaumont, Port Arthur, 



sailings. Southwestern Bell Telephone Company 
with 7,903 city telephones. The Southwestern Gas 
and Electric Company supplies the city with gas for 
domestic and manufacturing purposes. The com- 
pany has 84.9 miles of gas mains, and a modern 
plant in every particular. The Eastern Texas Elec- 
tric Company supplies the city with lights, power, 
16 miles of street railway track, and 16 miles of 
interurban track, modern cars and equipment, and 
service as nearly perfect as to be found anywhere. A 
public school system second to none in Texas, com- 
posed of 20 school buildings, including three high 
schools, three junior high schools, one junior col- 
lege, and thirteen grade school buildings, represent- 
ing an investment of approximately $2,500,000.00. 
Beaumont has two daily newspapers up to metrop- 
olitan standards, the Beaumont Enterprise, a morn- 
ing paper with about 22,500 daily circulation, 
32,000 Sundays, and the Beaumont Journal, an after- 
noon paper with about 11,000 daily circulation. 

In social and civic development the city has kept 
pace with the most advanced. Its school system is 
equal to the best in any state, the church buildings 
as fine as anywhere; clubs, lodges, civic, social and 
fraternal associations abound and its millions of 
bank deposits, school buildings, industrial plants, 
parks, play grounds, the chamber of commerce in 
its composition and activities indicate the presence 
of a prosperous and contented people. 

64 



BEAUMONT, METROPOLIS OF SOUTHEAST TEXAS 

By IJEAUMONT CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



BEAUMONT is a typical southern city of fifty 
thousand inhabitants and has all the con- 
veniences and modern improvements of the 
large cities of the country. Its climate is on a 
parity with that of southern coast resorts with the 
exception that none of the coast storms ever reach 
Beaumont or its environs due to its location. Fifty 




Scene on One of the Principal Business 
Streets of Beaumont 

miles in land on the Neches River, which is the 
fourth largest river in the United States. 

Approximately one-fifth of the water-borne ton- 
nage of the United States annually passes over the 
Neches-Sabine outlet. Beaumont therefore offers a 
wonderful industrial as well as favorable climate 
opportunity to the tourists or business man who is 
seeking pleasure and business opportunity. 

Business. Beaumont became nationally famous in 
1900 when oil gushers ranging from 500 to 20,000 
barrels were discovered at Spindle Top Field and 
thousands of the country's speculating public came 
and made fortunes. Many hundreds of the pros- 
pectors settled in Beaumont and have since con- 
tributed their part in making it one of the largest 
cities of Texas. 

Outstanding industrial and agricultural enter- 
prises are: Oil, lumber, rice and shipping. One of 
the largest oil refineries in the world is located 
here besides three other large refineries which are 
located in this vicinity, and contribute much to 
Beaumont's daily business. This is the center of the 
lumber and rice industry of Texas and Louisiana. 
The port of Beaumont is firmly established. The 
city owns and operates municipal wharf and dock 
facilities which forever guarantee the shipper, either 
local or foreign, fair port charges. During the fiscal 



year ending June 30th, 3G1 ships from all parts of 
the world had loaded and unloaded at Port Beaumont. 

Pleasure. Fishing, boating, hunting, motoring, 
golf and surf bathing are available to the pleasure 
seeker in and around Beaumont. On account of the 
extremely pleasant winter climate it is possible for 
one to spend practically every day following his own 
choice of the above named past-times. Ducks, 
geese, quail and other game birds abound in plenty. 
Due to the desire of the rice farmers to limit the 
depredations of these birds, there is no objection to 
any hunter bagging the legal limit each and every 
day he chooses to hunt. In the Big Thicket, within 
twenty miles of Beaumont, famous for bear, turkeys 
and other large game, the old time hunter can find 
plenty of excitement, amusement and exercise. 

Good automobile roads lead in the several direc- 
tions out of Beaumont, there being more than 100 
miles of hard surfaced roads available. One wishing 
to fish can be readily accommodated. The Neches 
River is famous for its fresh water fish and a fifty 
minute ride on the interurban takes one to the open 
sea where tarpon and other big fish can be angled 
for. A splendid country club with first-class golf 
course, where arrangements may be made for the 
visitor and tourist for the use of its facilities, has 
been the means of pleasant past-time to many 
travelers of this section. 




,:. -a 



At the Beaumont Docks, Loading Ships for 
Distant Markets 

Beaumont's citizenship is hospitable, obliging and 
always ready to render any assistance to its visitors. 
The Chamber of Commerce maintains an especially 
equipped information bureau and offers its entire 
service free to any who ask for it. While Beaumont 
has not generally advertised in the past as a stop- 
ping place for tourists, they nevertheless are coming 
this way in ever increasing numbers. A week or 
several weeks can be both pleasantly and profitably 
spent here. 




Beaumont Harbor, one of the Principal Lumber and Oil Shipping Points of the South 

65 



THE BEAUMONT AND PORT ARTHUR SHIP CHANNEL 



By HARVEY W. GILBERT 

Member Waterway Committee 




fnp^HE most unparalleled 



success in the history 
of waterway develop- 
ment and shipping expansion 
has taken place on the Beau- 
mont and Port Arthur Ship 
Channel, which is only ten 
years old since completion 
and is now just entering up- 
on a broader expansion and 
development which will un- 
doubtedly surpass New York 
within the next forty or fif- 
ty years. 

The channel has now tak- 
en first place over New York 
as the world's oil refining 
center, having the great es- 
tablishments of the Magno- 
lia Petroleum Company, The 
Texas Company, the Humphreys-Pure Oil Company, 
The Gulf Oil Corporation, the Sun Company, Union 
Sulphur Company, the Atlantic Refining Company, 
the Pennsylvania Ship Yards and Car Works, and 
other large industries in the lumber, rice, cotton, 
grain and general shipping interests. 

The waterway is exceptionally blessed in the fact 
that it is dug throughout in clay, which assures no 
liability as to "sanding up" troubles, which has 
sadly afflicted our waterways. 

The amount of tonnage produced ranks along with 
the world's greatest ports and waterways. 

The channel is served by the following great rail 



systems: The Santa Fe, the Kansas City Southern, 
the Southern Pacific, The Frisco, and the Beaumont 
and Waco short line now building. 

Steam and electric railway service are available 
from one end of the waterway to the other, and 
with cheap fuel oil and close proximity to the cot- 
ton fields, Beaumont and Port Arthur are bidding 
welcome to the cotton mills of the New England 
States now looking to the South for expansion. 

The Beaumont-Port Arthur district has become 
the South's greatest industrial center due largely 
to the oil refining industry, which employs many 
thousand men. 

The cities on the waterway are favored with a 
citizenship who are broad and liberal and progres- 
sive, Beaumont being the first and original Open 
Shop City in America and has maintained it ever 
since. This City of Beaumont also originated the 
idea of putting up one-half the money against the 
United States government's other half to dig the 
Ship Channel and did it "QUICK" without any hitch, 
which goes to show how the citizenship pulls to- 
gether. In many respects it is a wonder city be- 
cause she withstood the world's great oil boom, 
"Spindletop" and came out on top and now has 
become the world's oil refining center with numerous 
pipe line terminals here from Kansas, Oklahoma, 
Texas, Arkansas and Louisiana. In fact it is now 
possible to pump oil all the way from Pearl Street 
in Beaumont to Broadway in New York, but is 
cheaper to ship up the Atlantic seaboard by tanker, 
so the finished refined product employs a vast fleet 
of ships from the waterway to New York, the 
Orient, Europe and all ports throughout the world. 




A Few Scenes of Activity at Beaumont Deep-Water Harbor 

66 



THE FOUNDING OF PORT ARTHUR 



By GEORGE M. CRAIG 



THE present site of Port Arthur was a vast ex- 
panse of dismal marsh in the days preceding 
its selection as the southern terminal of the 
Kansas City Southern Railway. It was then the 
favorite rendezvous of wild ducks, geese and mos- 
quitoes. There was no vegetation other than the 
wild weeds and marsh grasses. There were no per- 
ceptible physical advantages that would induce an 
explorer or pioneer to found a settlement, and there 
was nothing to indicate that in the near future this 
very place would be one of the nation's important 
shipping points. 

Port Arthur's founding is an interesting story. 
The credit for its founding goes entirely to Mr. 




Airplane View Texas Company Refinery at Port Arthur, Texas 

Arthur Edward Stilwell, in whose honor the port 
was named. Mr. Stilwell, at the time he became 
interested in the project, was president of the 
M. K. & T. Trust Company in Kansas City, Missouri, 
Another company had started out to build a rail- 
road from Kansas City to the coast, but intended to 
locate elsewhere than at this place. Their road was 
completed only as far as Hume, Missouri, when the 
company failed. Mr. Stilwell was a very honest, 
unselfish promoter, and as president of the Trust 
Company had financed several railroads and other 
institutions. When this railroad company appealed 
to him he immediately became interested and 
bought it. 

Mr. Stilwell, when he bought the railroad, decided 
to make a road as direct from Kansas City to the 
tide-waters of the gulf as possible. He was a man 
of vision, of dreams, and it seems that he had a 
dream in which his Brownies, in whom he had great 
faith, told him to locate his port at Sabine, a place 
on the gulf twelve miles from Port Arthur. He 
sent some agents to this section of the gulf to in- 
vestigate conditions relative to the building of his 
city. These agents did not bring back very encour- 
aging reports. But this did not dampen Mr. Stil- 
well's spirit. In 1895 he came down to Sabine, 
believing in his Brownies, and personally investi- 
gated the conditions. At Sabine he found that town 
had been visited by several severe storms in the 
past, and each time everything had practically been 
washed away, including the tracks of the Southern 
Pacific Railway, which had been running to that 
place for some time. Mr. Stilwell did not wish to 
place his road in any danger if it could be avoided. 



The same objections applied to Galveston, also a 
possibility for the Kansas City Southern Terminal. 

Mr. Stilwell then got on a horse, after visiting 
Sabine, and rode around over the country. He came 
upon the present site of the city and realized that 
this was the place to build his great port. Surely 
he must have been a man of great vision and fore- 
sight, for here he found only a pleasant cow-pasture 
and nothing more. He inquired and found that 
fourteen miles on the north shore of the Sabine Lake 
had not been touched, the storm waters having 
spread over the great lake had lost their power be- 
fore the north shore was reached. He then and there 
conceived the idea of constructing a ship canal from 
actual deep water at Sabine, through to Taylor's 
Bayou, thus bringing deep water up far enough so 
as to be safe from storms and still afford an excel- 
lent port. 

Mr. Stilwell went back to Kansas City and be- 
gan to make plans for the building of the town. 
Several companies were organized, all financed by 
the M. K. & T. Trust Company. The Port Arthur 
Dock & Channel Company was immediately organ- 
ized for the purpose of building the proposed canal; 
also the Port Arthur Land and Townsite Company, 
of which Mr. Stilwell was president, was formed. 
This company purchased a tract of fifty-three thou- 
sand (53,000) acres of land from the McFaddin, 
Kyle and Wiess Land Company. This extended 
from Taylor's Bayou to the Neches River and from 
the Sabine Lake back two miles beyond Nederland. 
His land company then deeded four thousand acres 
to the Port Arthur Townsite Company (which had 
been organized about the same time as the other 
at a cost of twelve dollars [$12.00] per acre, totaling 
$48,000.00). The total sum paid for the whole four 
thousand acres would today purchase only a few 




Gulf Refining Company Docks at Port Arthur as Seen From 
Airplane 

lots on our main street. This is convincing proof of 
the success of Mr. Stilwell's conscientious investi- 
gation and accurate foresight. 

The building of our city has not been by the 
magic wish of some god. It was through the con- 
stant effort of Mr. Stilwell, who wanted to see a 
great port here and the earnestness of those who 
wanted to make this their home that made the 
scheme go. 

In 1895 the town was surveyed and platted under 
the supervision of Mr. Robert Gilham, civil engineer. 
The first plans were laid out over about one-fourth 



67 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



the present townsite. Work was immediately begun 
OH the railroad. A spur of the line had been com- 
pleted to Beaumont for a while before; then in Sep- 
tember. 1897, the last spike was driven in the road 
some place above and near Beaumont, thus com- 
pleting a line from Kansas City straight through to 
the coast. This was an occasion long looked for- 
ward to. At last the way had been completed! A 
great excursion was run from Kansas City to the 
coast. Hundreds of people came pouring into this 
section. Now at last success as a shipping point 
was practically assured to Port Arthur. That part 
of the country through which the Kansas City 
Southern Railway would run was through the abun- 
dant cotton fields and timber belts of Louisiana and 
Arkansas. Cities would rise in the path of indus- 
try. As a direct result of this railroad, a great 
many towns have been established, which soon grew 
to cities, and all to the advantage of Port Arthur. 
Where traffic passes there is work to do and pop- 
ulation gives value to land which otherwise has none. 
This situation of Port Arthur would lie directly in 
the path of traffic, from the fertile valleys of the 
Mississippi and Missouri Rivers and from the mills 
and factories of the great central west to the Pan- 
ama Canal, South America, the Orient and other 
markets of the world. 

But even before and long after the railroad had 
been completed, Mr. Stilwell and others of the M. 
K. & T. Company interested in Port Arthur, de- 
termined to sound the name of the nation's new port 
in every state in the Union. In accordance with 
their plan of advertising, the states which would 
directly be benefitted by this new road were divided 
up into districts with an advertising agent placed 
over each district. These agents had many sub- 
agents scattered about over their districts. These 
men were paid to tell of the new port. Page after 
page appeared in the leading papers of the middle 
states crying the story of what might be called a 
new land. The country was pictured as a perfect 
haven. To induce people to come to Port Arthur, 
excursions were run every two weeks, after the rail- 
road was completed, to the Golden Gate of the Gulf 
Coast. The railway company itself paid the trans- 
portation fare of a great many people in an effort to 
get them interested. In fact one million dollars 
($1,000,000.00) was spent in advertising. The land 
around Beaumont and Sabine, the only two inha- 
bit d spots in this immediate section, had proven its 
worth as land for farming and grazing, so this land 
around Port Arthur claimed the same merits and 
was the reason for a great many people coming 
here. 

The first people who came were the engineers and 
carpenters. They put up several temporary build- 
ings such as were necessary for the business district 
of any village, including a railroad station, stores 
and shacks for housing the scant and early popula- 
tion. The first principal and permanent structure 
put up was the Sabine Hotel. It was built in 1896 
and was destroyed by fire in 1901. 

Some of her first inhabitants were in Port Arthur 
because they did not have the necessary means of 
procuring passage away. A great many had heard 



of the wonderful climate and productive soil and 
believed it to be as advertised. They came with the 
intention of staying and had only enough money to 
come here. Mosquitoes were almost unbearable. The 
marsh land had been the home of such insects and 
pests a great many years before the human animal 
thought of coming to disturb them. But the inhabi- 
tants determined not to run away; so stayed on with 
people who later came to make this their home also. 
Even in spite of the mosquitoes and other hard- 
ships they had to endure, those first settlers, who 
thought themselves so unfortunate as to have to 
stay, began to love the place. They realized its com- 
ing importance and were willing to stay and share 
in its struggle for mere existence. There seemed to 
be something that made them love it. Their in- 
terest in Port Arthur was something similar to that 
of an older person in a child; for did it not have 
help, love and co-operation it would not amount to 
much. Interest makes the world go round. The 
pioneer's interest was solely in helping Port 
Arthur grow. A day or so before an excursion was 
due, some parties would go out to the woods near 
Beaumont and elsewhere and get trees and shrubs 
of all kinds, and others would hunt up garden stuff 
and products of the soil. They would bring the trees 
in to town and set them out very attractively and 
in a natural way, and wagon load after wagon load 
of vegetables would appear on the streets and in the 
stores, claimed to have been produced from the fer- 
tile soil of Port Arthur, which had actually been 
raised at Sabine or Beaumont. 

But there was much work to do. It was already 
a very busy port. Train loads of lumber and cotton 
from the fertile fields of agriculture along the road 
and from the interior, came pouring down to the exit 
which Port Arthur afforded. A great many men 
were able to get work. They endured the hardships 
with a smile and soon the hardships began to disap- 
pear and were forgotten. 

Every excursion brought some new residents. In 
1896 there were only about fifty permanent settlers, 
but new ones kept coming. The ship canal had not 
yet been completed, but to take care of the shipping 
business a pier was built 2,500 feet out into Sabine 
Lake. This is known as the old Export Pier, only 
ruins of which remain to date. Barges were brought 
up to the pier from Sabine, loaded and then returned 
to deep water to reload on the waiting vessel. In 
1899 the ship canal was completed. It was started 
in 1897, but due to complications caused by the land 
owners of Sabine, work was detained several 
months. A great fight was waged between Mr. 
Stilwell and the Sabine land owners in the courts of 
our state and also at Washington. Mr. Stilwell won 
out and was allowed to construct his canal which 
has made Port Arthur possible. 

The canal was first dug nine feet deep, then re- 
dredged to twenty-five feet. The first vessel to 
sail up the canal, as soon as the last shovelfull of 
earth had been removed, was the St. Azwell, an 
English vessel. A general holiday and excursion 
was given in honor of it. Speeches and other holi- 
day activities were indulged in. A very interesting 
event was the christening of the second baby born 
in Port Arthur, Edith St. Azwell Carr, by the mas- 



68 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



ter of the vessel, the ceremony taking place on 
board the vessel. Hundreds of people watched the 
vessel ply its way easily up to the dock which had 
been provided for by the Port Arthur Canal and 
Dock Company. Thus deep water was brought to 
Port Arthur, and she has many times proven her- 
self a safe port from storms and a very busy one at 
all times. 

Gradually the little village grew. More and more 
people heard of Port Arthur, due to the systematic 
method of advertising. Then, as it is now, many 
of those who came to see, lingered or left to return 
shortly. In the spring of 1897 there were hardly 
fifty people permanently located here. In the 
spring of 1898 the town was incorporated as a town 
of one thousand inhabitants. The first election was 
held on Saturday, May 21st, 1898 and Mr. N. R. 
Strong was elected as the first mayor of Port 
Arthur. Our first government provided for a mayor 
and a council. It was after incorporation that one 
might say the city's growth began. Other in- 
dustries began to see the advantages the new port 
offered and did not hesitate long in coming in. 

Mr. John Warne Gates, a multi-millionaire who 
became interested in Port Arthur through Mr. Stil- 
well, saw the opportunities Port Arthur offered and 
did not, until his death, cease to use his money 
and influence to help Port Arthur to be a greater 
Port Arthur. He was instrumental in bringing 
practically all the early enterprises to Port Arthur. 
Among the first to be established was the Port 
Arthur Rice Mill. The soil had proven to be ex- 
cellent for rice production. The same buildings 
stand today near the docks, unused except as ware- 
houses perhaps, due to the failure of crops in recent 
years. 

Port Arthur was recognized as a coming city, and 
the most essential enterprises were established im- 
mediately. The first bank was established in 1898 
or 1899. It was simply organized by a company, 
then immediately taken over by Smith and Cum- 
mings. It later merged into the First National 
Bank and was backed by Mr. Gates. Another bank 
was started but did not succeed. This was the Port 
Arthur Banking Company. 

In 1900 conditions seemed to be in a state of coma. 
Shipping, the most important industry, had fal- 
len down somewhat. A little excitement made its 
appearance in the form of a terrible gulf hurricane, 
sweeping along the coast. Galveston and Sabine 
were almost totally destroyed and Port Arthur 
witnessed a full canal and backflow in the marshes. 
The water went down the next day. Port Arthur's 
port survived, the fittest of the fit. The first aid 
to reach both Sabine and Galveston was a boat 
load of provisions from Port Arthur. This depres- 
sion in industry proved, however, to be a calm 
before a storm, for on January 10, 1901, oil was 
discovered in the famous oil fields at Spindle Top, 
fifteen miles north of Port Arthur. This whole 
section turned into chaos. Millions were made and 
lost over night. Thousands of people flocked to the 
oil fields and to Beaumont. 

From then on Port Arthur's growth was nothing 
short of marvelous. Due to the discovery of oil, 
and because of Port Arthur's nearness to deep 
water, two oil refineries established themselves 



here. The Gulf Refinery, put up by financiers from 
Pittsburgh, located here in the fall of 1901, fol- 
lowed in the spring of 1902 by the Texas Company, 
financed by John Gates and associates. A thousand 
or so laborers were employed to build these great re- 
fineries. Today they are two of the largest oil 
refineries in the world. They were the cause of 
a phenomenal growth in population, and largely due 
to them Port Arthur's founding has been permanent. 

There is a doubt if there is another city in the 
United States that has made the wonderful progress 
which Port Arthur has made. In 1910 the United 
States census showed a population of 7,763 and in 
1920 a population of 22,851. The Chamber of Com- 
merce now gives the population of Port Arthur in 
1923 as 42,000. Because of its superiority over 
Sabine as a port, Port Arthur has been made a 
port of entry. This is a history of another long 
hard-fought legal battle, in which Port Arthur won 
out. 

To take care of the enormous shipping, resident 
steamship agents, marine insurance agents, ship 
brokers, stevedores and others have located here. 
Port Arthur has every modern convenience to offer. 
Water plant, electric light plant, gas plant, tele- 
phone and street cars and an Interurban Railway 
connecting it with Beaumont are some of the con- 
veniences. The first street cars were run on June 
10th, 1910. Practically every street is either shelled 
or paved. The drainage system is extraordinary 
efficient. The water and sewer company, known 
as the Port Arthur Water Company, was incorpor- 
ated February 25th, 1903. 

There are many fine buildings, including the 
Mary Gates Hospital, a gift from Mr. Gates to the 
city in honor of his mother; the Gates Memorial 
Library, a gift of Dellora R. Gates in memory of 
her husband and son. A pleasure pier is built out 
into Sabine Lake, which affords a place of amuse- 
ment for the people as do also the numerous 
theatres, a country club and others. 

The Franklin School, completed at a cost of 
$450,000.00 is second to none in the state. The sys- 
tem of education used in each of the five schools of 
Port Arthur is considered one of the finest. There 
is also a business college of high standing located 
here. The first school was erected in 1897. It was a 
small wooden free offering structure; the lumber- 
men gave the lumber and the carpenters volunteered 
their services. The building was erectd in one day. 
There were only a very few students. Today there 
is a scholastic population of over 7,000. This same 
building is in use at the present day, being a part 
of the Farm School at Griffing, but was then lo- 
cated on Proctor Street near Shreveport Avenue. 
The first church was the Lutheran, the next a 
Congregational Church and so on until at the pres- 
ent time there are thirty-three different church con- 
gregations in the city, about half of which have 
their own church buildings. 

The climate is mild and delightful, and many are 
attracted by this, together with the genial hospital- 
ity of the people. It is an old saying that if any- 
one comes to Port Arthur, drinks its "polly-wog" 
water and is stung by its mosquitoes he comes un- 
der a magic spell which causes him to want to 
stay, or if he leaves it causes him to want to re- 
turn. 



69 



PORT ARTHUR WHERE OIL AND WATER MIX 

By THE PORT ARTHUR CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



OIL and water, typified by the vast refineries 
here and the strategic position in the world 
of commerce, meet and actually mix, and 
have built the great city of Port Arthur. 

Port Arthur — Port Entry of Sabine District. 

Port Arthur. Texas, is the port of entry and 
chief port of the U. S. Customs District of Sabine, 
the district including the four ports of Port Arthur, 
Beaumont. Orange and Sabine, the three latter 
named ports being sub-ports of Port Arthur. 

Port Arthur came into existence with the com- 
pletion of the Port Arthur Ship Channel from Sa- 
bine Pass to the present Port Arthur harbor in 
1897, and since then has constantly expanded the 
volume of her shipping industry. 

Beaumont and Orange did not become deep-water 
ports until 1916, with the completion of the Sabine- 
Neches canal to a 25-foot depth. They, however, 
handled lumber cargoes in light draft vessels before 
that time. 

At Port Arthur there are two harbors, the lower 
harbor giving dock space to the Port Arthur Canal 
& Dock Company and The Texas Company. The 
upper harbor, a mile above the lower harbor, is 
used altogether by the Gulf Refining Company, 
which created it. 

The docks of the Port Arthur Canal & Dock 
Company and the ocean terminals of the Kansas 
City Southern Railway Company, of which the 
Canal & Dock Company is a subsidiary, and are 
operated for the handling of the export traffic of 
that road. 

The docks of the Gulf Refining Company are 
designed for the handling of bulk oil cargoes, and 
with the new 1,000-foot unit just completed, can 
accommodate sixteen vessels loading and discharg- 
ing at one time. The docks are all concrete, and 
front on the private harbor created by the Gulf 
Company at its plant. Recently the harbor was 
increased about 50 per cent in area by extensive 
excavation work on the west side. The Gulf Com- 
pany has considerable unimproved water frontage 
below its present wharf system, capable of develop- 
ment as the business of the company requires. 

The docks of The Texas Company are located 
on what is termed "The Island", on the main Port 
Arthur harbor, opposite the docks of the Port Arthur 
Canal & Dock Company. The plant includes bulk 
oil docks capable of accommodating six vessels at 
one time, and case oil docks with space for three 
vessels, with an additional bulk oil wharf at the 
juncture of the Port Arthur Ship Canal and the 
harbor where three more vessels can be accommo- 
dated. The case oil dock is equipped with Link-Belt 
conveyor and spiral loading devices which make 
the dock one of the fastest in the country, having a 
capacity of 40,000 cases per eight-hour day. 

Waterfront Facilities of Port Arthur Canal & Dock 
Company. 

Two slips, Nos. 2 and 3, open from the north 
Bide of the ship basin, both of which have been 
improved by the construction of docks, warehouses, 
elevator, cotton seed cake mill, etc. Each slip has 
a depth of 26 feet. 



Cotton Pier. 

Length 2300 feet. Warehouse equipped with 
sprinkler system. Warehouse floors 11 feet above 
m. 1. t. 

Coastwise Merchandise and Grain Elevator Pier. 

Length 2300 feet. Warehouse floors 11 feet above 
m. 1. t. Clearance inside warehouse 16 feet. 

Elevator — Capacity 500,000 bushels. Plans now 
being prepared to add 700,000 bushels storage to 
present elevator. 

General Export Pier. 

Length 1500 feet. Warehouse floors 11 feet above 
m. 1. t. 

Cotton Seed Cake Mill — Capacity 400 tons daily. 

The Port Arthur port is second only to New York 
in foreign imports, and fifth in United States in 
total foreign trade. 

Lumber Pier. 

Length 1760 feet. Warehouse floors 8 feet above 
m. 1. t. All warehouses protected by 6-foot fire 
walls 350 feet apart, and entire water front prop- 
erty protected by high pressure mains. 

Terminal Yards of the Kansas City Southern 
Railway have 46.25 miles of trackage, comprising 




Proctor Street, One of the Busy Streets of Port Arthur 

dock service tracks, storage yards, industry tracks, 
etc. 

The following countries are represented by con- 
suls in Port Arthur: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, 
Denmark, England, Haiti, Holland, Italy, Mexico, 
Norway, Panama, Spain and Uruguay. 

Hospitals, Etc. 

U. S. Public Health Service Clinic, Federal Build- 
ing. 

U. S. Public Health Service Wards, Mary Gates 
Hospital, 150 Lake Shore Drive. 

Merchant Marine Hospital, Drs. Winter & Winter, 
Adams Building. 

Seamen's Church Institute, Rev. J. A. Frampton 
in charge, 136 Proctor Street. 

Public Improvements. 

The city and waterfront are connected by a mod- 
ern asphalt highway, and the city is modern and 
well equipped in every way. An extensive general 
program of improvement and building is rapidly 



70 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



bringing it to the front among the cities of the 
South. 

Steamship Service From Port Arthur. 

To Alaska, Antwerp, Arabia and Levant, Aus- 
tralia, Black Sea ports, Brazil, Uruguay and Argen- 
tina, Bremen, China, Copenhagen, Christobal and 
Canal Zone, Dutch East Indies, French Mediter- 
ranean ports, Ghent, Hamburg, India, Italian ports, 
Japan, Liverpool, Manchester, London, Mexican 
ports, Pacific Coast, New York, Philippines, Porto 
Rico, Rotterdam, South Africa, Tampico, Vera Cruz, 
Venezuela, Guiana, West Africa, Canary Islands, 
West Indies and Gulf ports of U. S. A. 
Unimproved Waterfrontage. 
Along the Sabine-Neches Canal, both above and 
below the city and for a considerable distance up 
the Neches River, there is extensive deep water 
frontage not as yet improved or in use for shipping 
and industrial purposes. Approximately sixteen 
miles of frontage is now available within five miles 
of the city, all fronting on a water depth of twenty- 
five feet. Beyond the five-mile radius, the Neches 
and Sabine Rivers, which empty into the Sabine- 
Neches Canal also have twenty-five foot depth. 
Within eight miles of the city, three new refining 
plants are now projected or in process of erection. 
They include the plant of the Humphreys Pure Oil 
Company and the new plant of the Magnolia Pe- 
troleum Company, both under construction a short 
distance above Port Neches, and the plant of the 
Atlantic Refining Company, to be built six miles 
north of Port Arthur. All three plants are on the 
Neches River, and are served by the tracks of the 
Kansas City Southern Railway, which has an indus- 
try track parallel to the water front above the 
city. 

Population. 
1898—421. 1900—765. 1910—7,663. 1920—22,251. 
1921—25,588. 1925—41,618. 1898, when the city 
was incorporated, estimated population. 1921 figure 
is Official Estimate of U. S. Census Bureau as of 
Jan. 1, 1921. 1925 figure is based on scholastic 
population. 

Port Arthur, Texas, came into being in 1896 when 
a townsite was laid on the present location of the 
city by surveyors of the old Kansas City, Pittsburg 
& Gulf Railway, which was built by Arthur E. Stil- 
well as the shortest possible line from Kansas City 
to tide water. For the first three or four years, 
the future port of entry of the Sabine district grew 
very slowly and its total population was less than 
800 in 1900. A year later with the discovery of 
oil at Spindletop, near Beaumont, the news was 
flashed to the world that Texas had become an 
important producer of oil. 

Following this discovery Port Arthur was chosen 
as the site for two of the largest oil concerns in the 
Southwest, namely, the Gulf Refining Company and 
The Texas Company. From that time on its progress 
was assured. Between 1910 and 1920 Port Arthur 
trebled in population. 

This growth is all the more remarkable in that 
it was made without the aid of any of the war indus- 
tries which were responsible for huge increases in 
the population of other places. As a matter of 
fact, the war operated to restrict the growth of 
the oil refining industry by preventing the securing 
of necessary materials for contemplated enlarge- 



ments of plants and the refineries made but slight 
increase in capacity during the war. Since then, 
however, there have been a number of enlargements 
made, until at this time the refining industry at 
Port Arthur is the largest in the world. 

Figures taken from the annual report of the 
United States Bureau of Mines show that on Jan- 
uary 1, 1922, the total daily capacity of the refin- 
eries in the Houston, Texas, district, including all 
plants between Houston and Galveston, was rated 
at 44,700 barrels. The total capacity of all plants 
on the Mississippi River in the New Orleans dis- 
trict, that is from Baton Rouge to the gulf, was 
98,900 barrels, while the capacity of the Port Arthur 
district was given at 170,000 barrels. 

The ocean movement of oils refined at Port Ar- 
thur is so great that in the past four years it has 
sent the Port Arthur total of cargoes moved by 
vessels to a higher total than that of either Gal- 
veston or New Orleans. The annual report of the 
chief of engineers of the United States Army for 
1921 showed the 1920 total for Port Arthur at 
11,575,742 tons; for New Orleans at 11,090,180 tons; 
and for Galveston, 10,447,831 tons. 

Port Arthur is keeping pace in all ways with her 
growth in population and business. There is a con- 
stant expansion of street paving, water, sewer and 
other public utilities, and of her school system, al- 
ready rated as among the finest in the Southwest. 
The future appears to promise even more of expan- 
sion for the city than has been achieved thus far, 
as the waterfront yet available for industrial use 
is now in great demand for manufacturing concerns. 

Port Arthur has unquestionably a great future be- 
fore it. It is the natural outlet of the Southwest 
which in barely twenty years has become the great- 
est oil producing region in the world. 

Climate. 

Neither California nor Florida has any climatic 
advantage over the immediate vicinity of Port Ar- 
thur. For the past eight years the annual average 
temperature has been 68.8, with 81.9 the highest 
average for July, and 51.2 the lowest average for 
January. The coldest day showed a temperature of 
12 above, while the hottest reached 100 but once. 
The rainfall is ample but not excessive, the annual 
average being 54.53 inches. 

Schools and Colleges. 

In this most important factor, Port Arthur stands 
far ahead of any other city of her size or class. 
Some years ago, it was realized that the rapid 
growth in population, reflected especially in the 
rapid increase in the scholastic census each year, 
made something more than a haphazard plan neces- 
sary. Briefly, this system is a rotation of study, 
recitation and play which holds the interest of the 
children without exhausting them by too lengthy 
work along any one line. 

Public Library. 

Architecturally one of the most perfect structures 
in the South, the Memorial Library, erected by Mrs. 
John W. Gates, meets the need of the city most 
thoroughly. Its shelves are already well filled with 
several thousand volumes, and these are constantly 
being added to by donations and purchases. The 
library is free to the public and is open throughout 
the year. 



71 



ORANGE 

By THE ORANGE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



ORANGE is located in Southeast Texas on the 
Sabine River about forty miles north of 
where it enters the Gulf of Mexico. Its 
geographical location is L. 93°45' W., L. 30°05' N. 
The Sabine River has been improved and the port 
has been developed along the most modern lines. 

The present City of Orange was originally settled 
about 1836, and was known as "Green's Bluff." 
Some time in the forties the name of the little vil- 
lage was changed to Jefferson, and about 1850 to 
that of Madison, which in turn gave way in 1856 to 
the present name of Orange, the latter being adopt- 
ed from the fact that there were large orange 




Orange Lutchcr Memorial Presbyterian Church 

groves in this locality at that time. Orange was 
first incorporated in 1858 and John Fielding was the 
first mayor. Due to conditions brought on by the 
war between the states, the incorporation was al- 
lowed to lapse in 1861, but it was again incorporated 
in 1881 and Mr. B. F. Norsworthy was elected 
mayor. The little city struggled along for several 
years. The lumbering and ship building industries 
finally attracted the attention of northern and 
eastern men of vision to the tremendous possibilities 
of these industries, backed by the apparent almost 
inexhaustible supply of timber. 

Navigation on the Sabine River, which serves as 
the boundary line between Texas and Louisiana, 
dates back many, many years. Even before a 
development program was launched, in its lower 
reaches an extensive schooner trade was carried 
on with the islands of the West Indies. Government 
aid has made possible a channel from the Gulf of 
Mexico to Orange with a minimum depth of 26 feet, 
and of sufficient width top and bottom to accom- 
modate the largest vessels. Under an act of con- 
gress passed September 22, 1922, sufficient money 
was appropriated to continue work on the channel 
and provide a minimum depth of 30 feet, which will 
insure a depth sufficient to care for the largest 
freight vessels plying the Gulf of Mexico. 

In the construction of the wharves and ware- 
houses creosoted timbers and piling have been used 
except in the case of one warehouse which has a 
steel frame. It was the desire of the Orange 
Wharf & Dock Commission to construct and pro- 



vide terminals of the finest character which were 
built after a careful survey of other ports to de- 
termine upon the best types of structures suitable 
for the class of freight predominating in this sec- 
tion. The docks and warehouses are located along- 
side a slip dredged in from the river 4,000 feet in 
length, 280 feet wide at the top, 200 feet bottom 
width, and 26 feet deep. 

The first warehouse constructed, an iron-clad 
building with steel frame, is 60 feet wide and 300 
feet long, designed to care principally for general 
cargo. When additional facilities were found nec- 
essary, a new type of construction was decided upon 
and all new units are of an improved type built 
so as to better accommodate lumber shipments, 
which forms the principal commodity moving 
through the port, but at the same time well adapted 
for general cargo needs. The second and third units 
are 90 feet by 400 feet and 90 feet by 200 feet 
respectively, separated by fire walls every 100 feet. 
The doors in the latter warehouses are directly 
opposite front and rear, and the railroad tracks 
on the land side are lowered so as to permit 
the floors of railroad cars to be on a level with 
the warehouse floor which permits of easy unload- 
ing and the trucking of freight directly through 
the warehouses to the dock apron for loading 
into vessels. The total covered area of all ware- 
houses amounts to 72,000 square feet, in addition to 
which there are two open platforms with a total 
of 15,840 square feet for the use of cargo which can 
be stored in the open. 

The dock apron is 1504 feet long and 38 feet wide, 
equipped with two rail tracks with cross-overs and 
a locomotive crane of twenty tons capacity for 
heavy lifts and which is also used for switching cars 
on the apron. As the slip is 4,000 feet long there 
is ample space for further enlarging the facilities 
when conditions warrant and plans are already 
drawn up to cover future expansion. 

The terminals are municipally owned and con- 




Frances Ann Luteher Hospital, Orange 

trolled, including the track connecting the docks and 
the two rail lines serving the port, the Gulf Coast 
Lines and the Southern Pacific Lines. The Gulf 
Coast Lines is under contract to perform all 
switching to and from the city docks. Both of these 
lines own or control valuable river front property 
which will probably be further improved as condi- 
tions warrant. 



72 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



For the handling of timbers, perhaps there is 
no port in the United States better equipped; cer- 
tainly not in the South. A timber skidway is lo- 
cated at the west end of the docking slip, and here 
timbers may be unloaded direct from cars into the 
slip for concentration and then loaded aboard ship 
from the water. If it is desired to hold timbers 
in storage they can be towed only a short distance 
to what is known as the "storage basin," a bend in 
the river long since eliminated for use of navigation 
by a cut-off dredged through a narrow neck of land 
to improve the channel, and there timbers may be 
stored in fresh water without danger of oil stain 
due to oil pollution of the water, as is the case in 
many other ports. It is in this basin that the United 
States Shipping Board has assembled one of its 
large fleets of idle vessels. 

Orange is one of the principal points for the im- 
portation of the natural lake asphalt from the Island 
of Trinidad, and large quantities of this material 
are received over the municipal docks for distri- 
bution to all parts of the United States west of the 
Mississippi River. It is used principally in road 
building. Fertilizer and canned goods are other im- 
portant import articles. Lumber and rice form the 
principal exports, and large quantities of both are 
handled over the docks. 

The figures here given indicate the volume of 
business passing over the municipal docks during 
the year 1923: Outbound — Lumber, 42,000,000 feet. 
Miscellaneous commodities, including rice, 2,890 
tons. Inbound — Asphalt 6,754 tons; fertilizer, 5,376 
tons. Canned goods and miscellaneous cargo 909 
tons. The exports went to various foreign coun- 
tries among them being Africa, South America, 
Mexico, Europe, West Indies, Central America, etc. 

The United States government has expended a 
very large sum of money in order to make possible 
the use of the Sabine River for ocean commerce, and 



for all industrial purposes. Excellent sites for in- 
dustrial purposes are available along the water 
front. Two of the best oil fields in the coastal re- 
gions are located within a few miles of Orange, hav- 
ing a combined production of about 26,000 bbls. 
daily. The pumping in these fields is done largely 
by electric power furnished by the power house at 
Orange. The industrial adaptability of Orange was 
very strikingly manifested in the ship building era 
during the world war when six companies were in 
operation here, and Orange became the greatest 
wooden ship building center east of the Pacific 




Orange County Court House 

Coast. One of the largest companies, the Southern 
Dry Dock & Shipbuilding Company, readjusted it- 
self to car building and repairing as well as the 
fabricating of all kinds of iron and steel articles. 
This plant is now constructing freight cars for 
a great many of the railroads of the southwest, as 
well as all kinds of bridge material and structural 
steel of every character and size. 

Orange is at present the western terminus of the 
Intracoastal Canal, which when completed will pro- 
vide an inland waterway connecting with the Mis- 
sissippi River at New Orleans and will serve as a 
means of water communication with Mississippi, 
Missouri, Illinois and Ohio River points by barge 




Oil Fields Near the City of Orange 



while Orange is a comparatively small place from 
a standpoint of population, estimated at 15,000 peo- 
ple, it has within its limits some of the largest in- 
dustries in the State of Texas including lumber 
mills, rice mill, car building plant, iron and steel 
foundry, paper mill, box factory, bag factory, etc., 
and a large creosoting plant. An exceptionally well 
equipped power plant furnishes ample electric power 



and light draft vessels, thus adding materially to the 
transportation facilities. 

The slogan by which Orange is known is one that 
truly fits the conditions and embodies in a few 
words all the advantages Orange possesses as a city. 
a port, an industrial center and a place in which 
to make a home— "INDUSTRY'S VANTAGE 
POINT." 



73 



GORSIGANA 

Bv CORSICAN A' CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



CORSICANA, located in the center of what is 
said to be the greatest oil field yet discovered 
in the mid-continent, offers an exceptionally 
fine opportunity for unprecedented growth at this 
time. The oil developments south, north, east and 
west, which extend for distance of thirty miles in 
each of these directions, can be conveniently reached 
from this center, and therefore, this city is fast 
becoming the recognized headquarters point of this 
territory. With many locations and drilling wells 
in Navarro County, and with practically all of the 
large mid-continent companies represented in the 
field, many pools are expected to be discovered. 

This city, with thirty-ono manufacturing plants, 
twenty-five wholesale houses, and seventy-five dis- 
trict agencies, offers an excellent opportunity for 
commercial and industrial development, for the 
reason that it is a recognized shipping point, being 
located on the main line of the Southern Pacific, 
north and south, Cotton Belt, east and west, T. & 
B. V., north and south, and a branch line of the 
Cotton Belt to Hillsboro, in addition to hourly in- 
terurban service north, both freight and passenger; 
and being on the main highways, north and south, 
and east and west, through the south. 

The annual factory output of Corsicana is $15,- 
000,000; goods sold at wholesale, $25,000,000; and 
a payroll from all sources of $4,780,000. These to- 
gether with the fifty oil companies located in this 
city make it an important commercial, industrial, 
agricultural and oil center. Bank deposits, Decem- 
ber call, 1921, show an increase of $307,000 over simi- 




Home of the Corsicana Chamber of Commerce, the Livcst 
i!" in'-- Organization of the City 

lar call 1920, and is within one hundred thousand 
dollars of the peak of general financial circum- 
stances, which was December, 1919. Postal receipts 
in 1921 were $52,000. 

It might be interesting to review a little of the oil 
development history of this section of the state. 
It may be recalled that it was at Nacogdoches that 



the first oil drilling experiment in Texas was made 
in 1889. Geologists had previously indicated oil 
deposits in that section. Those who put up the 
money and those that did the drilling of the first 
Texas oil well were untrained men, but were willing 




A View Looking Down Beacon Street on a Busy Day in 
Corsicana 

to take a chance. Of course, the people ridiculed 
this experiment. 

The next step in the history of oil development 
in Texas was in 1895, at the time Corsicana was 
suffering from an insufficient water supply. The 
local citizens organized a water developing project, 
the capital of the company being $30,000, and their 
only desire being to develop artesian water for the 
city's use. 

H. F. Johnston, of Corsicana, was at that time 
a successful artesian well driller. Jack Davidson, 
a practical well driller from Pennsylvania, was em- 
ployed to do the actual drilling. The well was 
spudded in on the outskirts of the town, and at a 
depth of 950 feet oil was struck. Davidson having 
had considerable experience in the drilling of oil 
wells in Pennsylvania, recognized the oil indications 
and possibilities and reported the same to Ralph 
Beaton and the other stockholders. The citizens of 
Corsicana were disappointed in the find, for they 
believed that the oil would injure the quality of the 
desired artesian water. The directors of the com- 
pany ordered the driller to go deeper. 

Ralph Beaton, Henry Damon and Jack Davidson 
became interested in the oil find and began plans to 
develop the field. They secured leases covering ten 
thousand acres in the neighborhood. Mr. Beaton 
then began a search for a practical oil man to assist 
in the development. Some time later he succeeded 
in interesting Colonel Guffey of Pennsylvania. At 
that time Guffey was one of the big oil men of 
Pennsylvania. Colonel Guffey and John Galey, his 
field man and business associate, visited Corsicana 
and made an examination of the oil indications here. 
It is now recalled that Guffey was not impressed 
with the prospects, but Galey stated at that time, 
twenty-seven years ago, that he believed he was 
standing within fifty miles of a great oil pool. Ar- 
rangements were made whereby Guffey and Galey 
agreed to test the field on a fifty-fifty basis, Beaton 
and his associates agreeing to secure an additional 
block of acreage. The land owners leased their 
farms then for one-tenth royalty. The first well 
drilled produced two and one-half barrels per day, 



74 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



the second one was dry and the third produced 
twenty-two barrels per day. 

It is interesting to note that the last well is still 
producing. At that time there were no refineries 
in Texas, nor were there any means by which oil 
products could be handled, so this oil was sold for 
fuel purposes to factories in Dallas, Waxahachie, 
Tyler and other places. 

Some time later, Messrs. Guffey and Galey made 
an offer to Beaton and his associates to buy or sell 
the entire Corsicana field for $30,000. Ralph Beaton, 
Henry Damon, H. W. White, S. W. Johnson, Aaron 
Ferguson and Fred Fleming bought the Guffey- 
Galey, interest. J. S. Cullinan, Pennsylvania oil man, 
was then interested in a plan of developing these 
fields. Beaton and his associates agreed to sell him 
five hundred thousand (500,000) barrels of oil at 
fifty cents (50c) per barrel, under the condition that 
he would erect the refinery at Corsicana. This re- 
finery was the first oil refinery built west of the 
Mississippi River, and was an outstanding factor 
in the oil development in Texas. 

The local men interested in the Corsicana fields, 
later sold their interests to the company whose 
properties were later secured by the Magnolia 
Petroleum Company. The Magnolia and the Texas 



Home of the Royall Coffee Co., One of the Leading Commercial 
Enterprises of Corsicana. 

Company were are outgrowth of the Corsicana oper- 
ations, and J. S. Cullinan was the leading spirit in 
these two organizations. 

The recent growth of Corsicana in the oil activities 
has been very large. The census of 1920 gave 
Corsicana a population of 11,356. The city now 
claims a population of approximately 20,000 people. 
The business activities, public utilities, educational 
facilities, etc., have increased pro rata with the 
growth of population. 

With the coming of people, additional hotel facili- 
ties and cafes have been established and are doing 
a flourishing business. The transfer facilities have 
also been provided by additional trains from Dallas 
and the oil fields and automobile service with a large 
number of cars has greatly increased. There are 
twenty-four steam trains and thirty interurban 
trains between Corsicana and Dallas. 

Corsicana has been a great freight exchange 
center, as the result of the growing service to and 
from the oil fields. Manufacturing plants have been 
crowded with work and additional ones built. The 
annual factory output is estimated over $15,000,- 
OOO.OOj while the wholesale business is estimated at 



over $25,000,000.00 annually and the payroll of the 
city is estimated between four and five millions dol- 
lars. 

Although the oil industry is one of the latest assets 
to Corsicanas business and progress, the city has 
had a conservative and substantial growth and is 





The Y. M. C. A. of Corsicana has a Splendid Building and is 
Liberally Supported by the Business Men of the City 

assured a permanent future as an agricultural and 
commercial center. 

Corsicana is the County Seat of Navarro County. 
The County was created from Robertson County in 
1846 and was named for Col. Jose Navarro, then a 
member of the State Senate. In 1849 a large section 
of the county was cut off, out of which the counties 
of Ellis and Tarrant were formed, reducing Navarro 
County to its present size. Before the sub-division, 
the County Seat was located at Forrest Store, 
twenty-five miles northwest of Corsicana on Cham- 
bers Creek and what is now Ellis County. 

The city of Corsicana was laid out in 1849 and is 
one of the oldest cities in the State of Texas. The 
Chamber of Commerce is one of the liveliest organi- 
zations of the city and has done much in advancing 
the interest of the town. Its membership includes 
virtually all of the progressive business men of the 
city. 

One notable fact about the growth and progress 
of Corsicana is that the city has not become the 
victim of confusion like most nearly all boom oil 
fields, but instead has had a sane and conservative 
growth. The city being the largest place in the 
vicinity of the Central Texas oil fields, it has not 
only become the commercial shipping center for this 
district, but a residence of a large number of oil 
men who have either rented or built homes and 




The American Well & Prospecting- Co., Manufacturing Plant, 
Corsicana 

commute to and from the oil fields daily. The city 
has a splendid library, fine schools and a splendid 
Young Men's Christian Association Building and 
other advantages which tend to make Corsicana an 
attractive place in which to live. 



75 



WACO, BUILT IN A PARK 

Bv WACO CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



WACO, the sixth city in population in Texas, 
is situated in the "heart of Texas," and is 
often called "the city with a soul." Many 
years ago a tribe of Indians roaming the great 
Southwest came upon a spot so ideally beautiful 
that they established a village. In time these In- 
dians departed to their final Happy Hunting Ground, 
and they left a site for one of the most picturesque 
cities in Texas. Waco is surrounded on two sides 
by green covered hills and on the other two sides 
rich rolling plains and the Brazos River, spanned 
by five great bridges, that ripples toward the Gulf 
of Mexico in the shape of a great half-moon. 

Located geographically nearer the center of the 
great Empire of Texas than any other city, Waco 
has made for itself a place which no other city in 
Texas can fill and in consequence entertains an- 
nually many business and other assemblages. 

Over fifty thousand people make Waco their home. 
Seven railroads and one interurban assure all the 
conveniences of transportation and travel. Two in- 
terurban railroads are now almost ready for con- 
struction. 

Waco has many elegant homes, and miles of 
beautiful residence streets well paved and lined with 
thousands of pretty shade trees. The Bosque River, 
a small stream, flows into the larger Brazos just 
outside the city and furnishes many "old swimming 
holes" and fishing places, and the hundreds of miles 
of McLennan County's paved highway (probably 
the most famous good roads in Texas), make the 
beautiful scenery of the surrounding country easily 
accessible to the city. 

Commercially, Waco has many reasons to be 
proud. Located in the very heart of the great cotton 
producing area of Texas, the greatest cotton state 
in the world, many of the industries of the city 
are naturally akin to cotton and its products. Dur- 
ing the cotton season hundreds of thousands of bales 
of cotton are marketed in and through Waco; cotton 
gins dot the county; in the city is an immense cotton 
compress for making export bales, and cotton oil 
mills which manufacture the by-products of the 
cotton seed. 



Through the untiring efforts of J. M. Penland, 
president of the Waco Drug Company, E. W. 
Marshall of the E. W. Marshall Insurance Company, 
W. G. Lacy, president of the Citizens National 
Bank; W. W. Woodson, president of the First 
National Bank, J. B. Earle, president of the 
Liberty National Bank, and other prominent busi- 
ness men, the Waco Chamber of Commerce has 
been made one of the most thoroughly organ- 
ized and active Chambers of Commerce in the South- 
west. During the past four years through the ef- 
forts of these men, Waco has developed its indus- 
tries and wholesale houses and stands ready to wel- 
come more. A million dollar cotton mill and a hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollar cordage and twine 
mill are now in operation, all fire proof, modern 
buildings. These mills began operating in Janu- 
ary, 1920. 

The agricultural interests of the section are by no 
means confined to cotton, practically all of the crops 
common to the southern and central part of the 
country can be and are grown in Texas. Stock 
raising is becoming yearly a more important in- 
dustry here. There are within a few miles of Waco 
several of the largest fine stock farms in the state. 
Prominent among them are the famous Goodman 
Valley Farm with registered Hereford cattle, 
Shropshire sheep, etc., and Wild Ayre Stock Farm, 
owned by J. W. Mann. The county and city have a 
Chamber of Agriculture under the auspices of the 
Chamber of Commerce, and with a licensed federal 
grain inspector, a licensed cotton classer, cattle in- 
spector and several county agricultural and demon- 
stration agents; the agricultural interests are being 
handled by efficient men. 

A large part of the city's business includes many 
wholesale houses, the geographical location and ex- 
cellent transportation facilities making Waco an ad- 
vantageous location for jobbing houses. Wholesale 
grocery houses, dry goods, hardware, candy and 
many other lines do a large business out of Waco. 

Waco is headquarters for a large number of cor- 
porations in various lines of business, covering the 
Central Texas territory, and is also the home of a 




A View of the Prospermia City of Waco. Taken from an Airship in Flight Over the City 

76 






NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



number of manufacturing estab- 
lishments. Window sash and 
doors, tents and awnings, candies, 
pickles, rubber tires, overalls and 
numerous other articles are made 
here, including the bottling of a 
high grade ginger ale and other 
soft drinks of a nationwide popu- 
larity. The city is the home of 
several life insurance companies; 
the Amicable Life building is one 
of the prominent "skyscrapers" of 
the South. 

The city has an abundance of 
splendid, healthful artesian water, 
which is an item of importance in 
the Southwest. The climate is dry 
and healthful, and mild in winter; 
snow or severe weather is infre- 
quent; the summers, while long, 
are tempered by the refreshing 
"Gulf breeze" which rises regularly 
in the early evening and makes the 
summer nights pleasant and rest- 
ful. 

Waco's chief claim to distinc- 
tion as a center of Christian culture 
lies in the fact that this is the 
home of Baylor University. Bay- 
lor is the oldest school for higher 
education in Texas, having been 
chartered when Texas was still a 
Republic. Throughout her seventy- 
four years' romantic history she 
has stood four-square against 
all vagaries of political and ethical 
teaching. While progressing with 
the time and adopting the new 
whenever the new proved to 
have merit, she has main- 
tained her poise, and today * 
no higher standards of moral 
or intellectual thinking are 
held anywhere than at Bay- 
lor. Green and awkward 
boys and girls enter Baylor j 
aimlessly, . and after four 
years of the atmosphere 
of culture and refinement 
and altruistic ideals to be 
found there they go out 
as purposeful, well-balanced, 
determined men and women. 

Dr. Brooks, president of the Baylor University, 
is an educator and statesman favorably known 
throughout the United States, and a man who has 
contributed much to Waco's growth and develop- 
ment. Baylor University and the city of Waco are 
fortunate in having such a man at the head of this 
institution. 

Under Dr. Brooks' administration the University 
has enjoyed a healthy and continuous growth. 
Baylor is particularly fortunate in having an ex- 
ceedingly loyal alumni, both in the business and 
professional world. Many of the ablest and most 
worthy men of Texas received their education and 
had their characters moulded in the scholastic 
halls of Baylor. 

The public school system is one of the best in 



the state. All the grammar schools, 
as well as the high schools, are 
presided over by mature men and 
women who have had wide ex- 
perience in public school work. 
No novices control this most im- 
portant feature of our civic life 
and in the annual graduation from 
Baylor University of a large num- 
ber of splendidly equipped teachers 
give the Waco school board un- 
usual opportunity to select only 
the highest type of teachers for 
the city schools. 

For years Waco has had a shal- 
low oil field and now many deep 
test wells for heavy production are 
being drilled in different parts of 
the county and all within a few 
miles of the city. Many geologists 
are enthusiastic over the prospects, 
and feel assured that there is a 
great oil development future for 
Waco and McLennan County. 

In November of each year a 
unique festival, the Texas Cotton 
Palace Exposition, is opened in 
Waco and continues for two gala 
weeks. During this time Waco 
throws open her doors to entertain 
thousands of visitors from all parts 
of Texas and elsewhere. This past 
year over one hundred thousand 
people passed through the gates. 
The fame of the cotton modeling 
department has reached many 
places, and with agricultural and 
live stock interests in every form 
and with automobile and 
horse races and the so- 
cial activities, including 
the crowning of a queen 
and the presentation at 
court of over twenty 
duchesses and their maids 
and escorts, chosen from 
cities all over Texas, make 
the exposition a popular 
one, and is considered 
second only to the New 
Orleans Mardi Gras in the 
Southwest. 

This is a small attempt 
to describe Waco and 
a few of her advantages. It is a cordial invitation 
to visit this live, growing and prosperous city; 
to meet and mingle with its hospitable people; 
to establish a home in Waco if possible, and share 
in the great and growing prosperity of the south- 
west. A call or an inquiry addressed Secretary- 
Manager of the Waco Chamber of Commerce, will 
receive prompt and courteous attention. 

Under the direction of this live body of business 
men Waco has received much valuable publicity. 
The Chamber of Commerce not only looks after the 
interests of its members but is alert to serve the 
stranger within the city's gates. New interests 
seeking a location here find an invaluable source 
of information and encouragement from this public 
body. 




Amicable Life Building, for Many Years the Tallest 
Office Building in Texas 



77 



HISTORY OF WAGO 

By GEO. ROBINSON 

Proprietor of Waco Times-Herald 




F 



ROM an Indian village 
surrounded by buffa- 
loes and wild horses to 
a modern city with all the 
conveniences known to high- 
est civilization in seventy 
years is the proud boast of 
the city of Waco. 

Early in the year 1849 
Major Geo. B. Erath, who 
had for several years been 
engaged alternately in sur- 
veying land and fighting In- 
dians, was authorized to lay 
off what was then known as 
"Waco Village," which had 
been, prior to the advance 
of white settlers, the home 
of the Waco tribe of Indians, 
a townsite to be called "Lamartine." Major Erath 
protested against the name, insisting that the new 
town be christened "Waco." His wishes prevailed. 
The land was a part of the Chambers grant and 
was the property of Jacob de Cordova and J. S. 
Sydnor, who yielded to the repeated representations 
of Major Erath concerning its location as being 
ideal, topographically, for the building of a great 
city. Accordingly in March, 1849, Major Erath, 
beginning at Waco Springs, on the west bank of 
the Brazos River surveyed Bridge Street and began 
the sale of lots at five dollars each. 

Captain Shapley P. Ross had removed from Cam- 
eron and was one of the first purchasers of Waco 
property. The territory was then included in Milam 
County, which extended from the old Bexar and 
Nacogdoches road north between the Brazos and 
Colorado RiVers. East Waco was not included in 
the survey, the east side of the river being in what 



was then Robertson County, and belonging to an- 
other land grant. In the year 1850 the county of 
McLennan was organized as it now stands. Major 
Erath furnished the outline of the bill to Colonel 
Geo. E. Burney, then a member of the state legis- 





A Glimpse of the Brazos River Near the City of Waco 

78 



Remarkable View of an Airship Circling the Amicable Life 
Building of Waco 

lature from Milam County, planning the boundaries 
with a view of Waco, in its center, being the county 
seat. 

The Indians had been driven north, immigration 
was pouring into the state, and Waco's rapid growth 
soon demonstrated its importance as a trade center. 
The town was incorporated under the general law, 
East Waco being included. Flourishing with the 
tide of immigration and the growth of farming and 
stock raising, Waco was preparing to don the 
habiliments of a city when the war between the 
states temporarily checked its progress. That con- 
flict over and its evil con- 
sequences erased, her peo- 
ple took up the task of 
making Waco the Queen 
City of central Texas. 
Steady progress was made, 
patriotic citizens gave 
their time and money in a 
joint effort to attain that 
position of ascendency to 
which she aspired and 
which seemed assured by 
superior advantages. 

Reorganization of the 
city under a special char- 
ter gave promise of more 
rapid development, and 
for a time the dreams of 
a patriotic citizenship 
seemed certain of realiza- 
tion. But, notwithstand- 
ing the public spirit of the 
people and determined ef- 
forts of those who directed 
public affairs, there was a 
halt, and for a time the big- 
town stood practically still, 
powerless to divest itself 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



of an environment that apparently had paralyzed the 
energy and pride of the citizens. 

Then in 1909 the people of the city arose en 
masse and threw off the antiquated system of alder- 
manic government and adopted the commission form. 
The new system worked like a charm. Four busi- 
ness men. were drafted by a committee of citizens 
appointed at a mass meeting and announced as can- 
didates for commissioners. They were elected with- 
out opposition. 

Politics adjourned for the time being. Public 
improvements were started and the city soon as- 
sumed a prosperous appearance. Demand for public 
parks became urgent and Mrs. Flora B. Cameron 
and her children presented the city with a tract of 
one hundred acres adjoining the city which was im- 
mediately improved and is now one of the most 
beautiful parks in the South. It was named Cam- 
eron Park. Other parks followed and the city now 
has twelve and most of them are supplied with play 
ground equipment. 

Lots sold, when the town of Waco was founded, 
for $5.00 each are now worth $2,500 a front foot 
and few of them can be bought for that price. 

The Advent of the Railroad. Waco made no pre- 
tense to rank as a city until she had secured at 
least one railroad. Indeed the town had hardly 
doffed village attire when the Waco and North- 
western, a branch of the Houston and Texas Central, 
was built from Bremond, forty miles south. That 
was in 1871 and from that time the rapid growth of 
the town soon advanced it to the city class. Ten 
years later the Missouri, Kansas and Texas entered 
the state and built through the city giving Waco 
two lines. A few years thereafter the Cotton Belt 
built in from the east and during the early nineties 
the San Antonio and Aransas Pass pushed its way 
up the Brazos Valley on the west side of the river 
and the International and Great Northern, some 
years later came up the valley on the east side. 
Meantime the Texas Central, an- extension of the 
Waco and Northwestern, built its line west to Stam- 
ford and later to Rotan, 225 miles from Waco, thus 
giving the city six separate railroads, all except two 
extending through it and making ten railway out- 
lets. 

Waco's Water Supply. One of the important 
achievements of the city in recent years is the 
acquisition of a water supply which insures an 
abundance of water of purest kind for all time. 
Waco has never suffered for water for all purposes 
and for years her reservoirs have been drawn on 
from other points. The railroads haul water from 
this city by the train load in times of drouth, yet 
there has always been plenty. For years the city 
was supplied from surface wells but later drills 
penetrated a subterranean lake and thermal streams 
of purest water gushed from the earth. As the city 
grew the supply from the artesian wells was in- 
sufficient and resort to surface wells followed but 
to be sure of its purity a $400,000 filter plant was 
erected and is in operation. Thus pure filtered sur- 
face water supplements the artesian supply during 
the dry periods. A decided test of the capacity of 
the Waco water plant came when the army came. 
McArthur was located here and forty thousand 
soldiers were stationed in the outskirts of the city. 
Connections with the city plant was made and abund- 
ance of water was furnished without any appreciable 
diminution of the supply. Not only did the city 
furnish all the water needed by Camp McArthur 



but also supplied Rich field, the big aviation field 
and this water stood the test of government experts 
who pronounced it pure. In addition to maintaining 
a bounteous supply of water for domestic purposes 
and street sprinkling the water plant has installed 
a huge reservoir for emergency in the event a 
conflagration threatens. The fire department in 
Waco is one of the best in the state. 

The Rebecca Sparks co-operative home is a most 
commendable institution. It is a comfortable home 
for working girls whose salaries do not permit them 
to pay regular board and maintain themselves in 
clothing, etc. This home is under the supervision 
of Miss Black, who is a deaconess of the Methodist 
church. When this home is in need of finance all 
the churches of the city join in taking care of its 
needs. 

The Texas Methodist Orphanage is the pride of 
Waco. It is located on Herring Avenue, one of the 
most attractive paved streets in the city, and occu- 
pies with its buildings and farm thirty-eight acres. 
At present the orphanage is managed by Mr. W. F. 
Barnett and is caring for two hundred children in 
a most excellent way. It is a pleasure to visit there 
and witness the system and co-operation among the 
children and their work. The children are faithfully 
trained in nearly all of the occupations of life so 
that they will know how to begin life as producers 
when they leave the institution. This institution 
is the property of the Methodist Church and was 
promoted and built largely through the labors of 
Rev. W. H. Vaughan and Abe Mulkey. 

Some Political History. Waco is entitled to dis- 
tinction as being the only city in the state that 
has furnished three governors. These are: Richard 
Coke, Lawrence Sullivan Ross and Patrick M. Neff. 
Coke, a leading attorney in the early days was 
elected governor in 1873. He was the first governor 
of Texas after the reconstruction period following 
the war between the states. He was re-elected in 
1876 and in May of that year was elected United 
States senator. He did not relinquish his guber- 
natorial duties, however, until the December follow- 
ing. He served eighteen years, three terms, and re- 
tired voluntarily. As governor, Coke had to contend 
with the bitter partisan spirit engendered by the 
war and reconstruction and displayed rare political 
acumen and executive ability during his term. His 
senatorial career was marked throughout by a high 
order of statesmanship. 

Ross was elected governor in 1886, assumed of- 
ficial duties in January, 1887, was re-elected in 1888 
and served until January, 1891. He was a son of 
Shapley P. Ross who bought the first lot sold after 
Waco was surveyed for a townsite. Trained from 
boyhood to fight Indians he manifested a desire and 
aptitude for a military career and was educated 
accordingly. He served with distinction in the Con- 
federate army and emerged with the rank of general. 
His administration as governor was characterized 
by rapid development of the state and remarkable 
improvement in civic conditions. It was during 
his administration that the three million dollar capi- 
tol was built at Austin. 

During the period from Coke's election as gov- 
ernor until Ross retired from the governorship, Waco 
was the center of political activities in the state 
and her leading citizens wielded a powerful in- 
fluence in state and national affairs. 

Neff was elected governor in November, 1920, and 
assumed official duties early in the year of 1921. 



79 



THE TEXAS COTTON PALACE 

By WALTER V. CRAWFORD 

President Texas Cotton Palace Exposition 




c 



OMMUNITIES, like in- 
dividuals, often get in 
a "rut." You have 
Known men, agreeable soci- 
ally and possessing grer.t 
business ability, who appar- 
ently had reached a stand- 
still. Their every effort, no 
matter how much hard work 
they put behind it, went for 
naught. 

Then you have seer, the 
tide turn with those" same 
men. They had hit on the 
right thing. The opportunity 
had presented itself for ef- 
fort in the right direction — 
the time when they were to 
reap the reward in propor- 
tion to their just deserts. 

You have seen towns and cities affected the same 
way. No matter how well located, no matter how 
superior the advantages over neighboring towns, no 
matter how much thought and effort was put into 
action, the results was the same — no progress and 
no development. 

I am revealing no secret when I say that Waco, 
Texas, was such a town fifteen years ago. Every 
person whom you met talked of Waco's natural ad- 
vantages, its central location, and excellent farming 
country; no one could understand why Waco did 
not grow and take its rightful place among the 
larger cities of Texas. 

It was in 1909 that Waco found itself. For many 
years the citizenship of Waco had endeavored to 
find the way out of the "rut"; they knew as well 
as outsiders that there was something wrong, but it 
was their lot to give conditions their best thought 
and effort to find the key to unlock the door of 
lethargy in city progress. 

The demand was insistent that "something ought 
to be done." 

When the sentiment was well crystallized that 
"something ought to be done," action came swift and 
sure. 

Young men who, up to this time, had been con- 
tent to let their elders take the lead in all matters 



of civic nature, began agitation for a young men's 
organization, where they could express their views 
and put into action their surplus energy. As a re- 
sult, about fifty young men of Waco assembled on 
March 9, 1909, and organized the Young Men's Busi- 




The Texas Cotton Palace Grounds 

ness League. Hundreds of others instantly caught 
the spirit of civic progress as manifested at the 
organization meeting, and soon the new organiza- 
tion had a flourishing membership in numbers only, 
but with an enthusiasm to meet the demand to "do 
something" that knew no bounds. 

This brings us to the starting point of how Waco 
was "pulled out of the rut." Leaders of the or- 
ganization knew that if it was to continue to exist 
and fulfill its mission that some one big project 
must be launched and carried to a successful con- 
clusion. 

A big fall exposition met with popular favor, one 
which all Central Texas would be proud to call its 
own. The Young Men's Business League, soon after 
organization, undertook to finance and build such 
an exposition, and by selling stock to the amount of 
$60,000 they opened the Texas Cotton Palace gates 
to the public in November of the same year. With 
the opening of the exposition gates in 1909 Waco 
was pulled out of the "rut" and has continued its 
onward march from that date until the present time. 

No one will deny but that the Cotton Palace has 
been the one outstanding factor in city development. 




The Main Building, Home of the Texas Cotton Palace, Waco, Texas 

80 



MASONRY: ITS OBJECTS AND INFLUENCES 



By SAM P. COCHRAN, 33° 

Sovereign Grand Inspector General of Texas 







THE practical object of 
Masonry has been de- 
fined as to be "the 
physical and moral ameliora- 
tion and the intellectual and 
spiritual improvement of in- 
dividuals and society." Prob- 
ably the latest definition of 
Free Masonry is that given 
in the "Declaration of Prin- 
ciples" of the International 
Masonic Association, viz: 
"Free Masonry, a traditional, 
philanthropic, philosophical 
and prog*ressive institution, 
being based upon the prin- 
ciple that all men are broth- 
ers, holds high in its purposes 
which are: The research of 
Verity, the study and the practice of Morality and of 
Solidarity. It exerts itself for material and moral 
improvements as well as for the intellectual and 
social perfection of mankind. Its chief duty is to 
extend to all mankind the brotherly ties which 
unite all Free Masons all over the Globe." Society 
can be improved only as the constituent individuals 
are made better; and Masonry seeks to accomplish 
this by inducing in each individual consciousness, 
a deeper and stronger sense of personal responsi- 
bility and a higher and keener appreciation of the 
things of moral and intellectual worth. This is 
character building, and this is the ultimate object 
and aim of Masonry. Therefore it is that our system 
of philosophy takes the homely and practical opera- 
tion of building a structure — a temple — as a symbol, 
by means of which to illustrate, to those who nave 
eyes to see and ears to hear, those great truths and 
virtues which, woven into the warp and woof of 
life by practice and experience, clothe man with a 
garment of beauty and honor, and polish and adorn 
his true character. The cornerstone of the Masonic 
structure is Truth, which is declared to be a divine 




The Scottish Rite Temple, Harwood and Young Streets, 
Dallas 

attribute and the foundation of every virtue. From 
this cornerstone extend the foundation walls, con- 
structed of the moral virtues and intellectual ex- 
cellencies, and like the foundation of the metaphoric 
City of Revelation "garnished with all manner of 
precious stones," chief among which are Temper- 



ance, Fortitude, Prudence, Justice, Brotherly Love, 
Relief, Toleration and Patriotism. And as the physi- 
cal structure rises secure and faultless on its founda- 
tion of solid stones, so Masonry undertakes to erect 
on the foundation of these great virtues, in each 
individual consciousness, the Temple of Character — 
that temple where in each must dwell and serve, until, 
perfected by the process of God's alchemy, sweetened 




il 



r rv 



I 



5 1 r "• ' J-J 

1 Uir 







The Dallas Athletic Club. The Finest Club Building in the 

South. From Architect's Drawing Lang & Witchell, 

Architects 

by suffering and sanctified by love, he is prepared 
to enter in, through the gate over which is in- 
scribed, "Holiness to the Lord," into that city, made 
without hands, eternal in the heavens, in which there 
is no temple, "for the Lord God Almighty and the 
Lamb are the temple of it." (Rev. 21:22). 

The world needs today, as much as at any period 
in its history heretofore, men of sound, solid char- 
acter, like the foundation stones of a well built 
structure, and based on the great principles of our 
Order, to direct and govern its affairs, that justice 
may be done in the earth and the people no longer 
be oppressed. Is there not need for such men to 
lead and govern? Look at Europe, where ambition, 
envy, hatred and greed, have drenched the earth 
with human blood, spreading devastation and woe 
everywhere, and almost proving the Brotherhood of 
Man to be a myth. If the Spirit of Masonry abode 
amidst those warring nations, human slaughter 
would cease and their differences would be readily 
composed on the Masonic basis of Justice, Right 
and Truth. Let us rejoice that in our own blessed 
land we enjoy the great right — which we should 
cherish and defend — of teaching- and practicing Free 
Masonry without political or pontifical interference 
or restraint. 

Let us rejoice that the foundations of our Craft- 
hood are co-extensive with our national domain, our 



81 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



asylums planted in every community, and our prin- 
ciples so pervading the public consciousness and 
gaining such foothold among increasing member- 
ship, that all distinctions of sections, of religions, 
or of races have been eliminated, the spirit of na- 
tional brotherhood born anew, and the possibility of 
civil strife forever banished. The Spirit of Masonry 
is making our nation great, and preparing it to play 
a great part in securing and maintaining an endur- 
ing peace among the nations of the world; and we 
need great men, inspired by the principles of 
Masonry, and possessing characters built upon its 
foundation stones, to successfully achieve this grand 
result of humanity. 

But look close at home: We see graft, bigotry 
and intolerance thriving and holding sway in our 
midst. Dishonesty in both high and low places goes 
unpunished because of fear and favoritism. Some 
churches, commissioned to teach and persuade alone, 
are insidiously or insistently thrusting themselves 
into public affairs, sometimes seeking to direct pub- 
lic or political actions, or control political patronage. 
Intolerance still blinds men as darkly as when perse- 
cution drove our hardy ancestors to settle a new 
continent, and seek to establish a land of religious 
liberty, or when the newcomers burned so-called 
witches at Salem. In our legislatures we find those 
sent to represent the people, who evince an entire 
willingness to imprison or expatriate others who 
have the temerity to differ with them in respect to 
political, religious or medical opinions or prefer- 
ences. 

We find the rule of the mob threatening our very 
political foundations, in the great strikes that keep 
the country in apprehension, when great bodies of 
men, in contempt or defiance of law and ignoring 
all legal processes — setting their own desires above 
all questions of legal restraint — seek to enforce their 
own demands by power of numbers, often in actual 
revolt and open rebellion against constituted, lawful 
authority; ruthlessly trampling upon the rights of 
others not co-operating with them, and openly — as 
well as secretly — resorting to violence against per- 
son and property. 

We find these great forces growing in aggressive- 
ness and fierceness because it frequently happens 
that the oT.cers of the law fail to restrain, or even 
attempt to restrain them, through sympathy or fear, 
or because of the political weight of their numbers, 
and of their influence boldly asserted and used. We 
find state courts failing to punish or restrain the 
participants in such cases, for like reasons of politi- 
cal fear or prejudice, and refusing to protect in their 
legal rights those who are mercilessly trodden upon 
or injured by the revolters. 

We see our legislatures quibbling over road laws, 
school districts and petty statutory offenses, or 
equally inconsequential matters, while the rights of 
the quiet, law-abiding and tax-paying element of our 
people are invaded. We see more laws enacted to 
hamper the law-abiding and the reins slackened on 



the vicious and turbulent; laws passed to favor 
classes of citizens large in number, and against the 
fewer. And we see our paid officials zealously prose- 
cuting for alleged statutory offenses small bodies or 
numbers of citizens of particular trades or occupa- 
tions, while those of other callings who number many 
voters in their ranks follow unlawful methods and 
practices in quiet security, seemingly unobserved 
by the official eye. In a hundred ways in less im- 
portant matters > but frequently to their great dis- 
comfort or annoyance, the rights of law-abiding peo- 
ple are invaded because no one individual has the 
courage or the time to protest. 

Do we not need great men, strong men — men with 
strong, firm characters, built up on the principles 
and virtues inculcated by our great Order — to help 
in the battle against wrong, vice, usurpation and 
oppression. 

I do not know whether J. G. Holland was a Mason 
or not, but he certainly has a very high concept of 
the principles and teachings of the Order, as beauti- 
fully expressed in the following poem, and which is 
worthy of every man's serious thought: 

"God give us men. The time demands 

Strong minds, great hearts, true faith and willing 

hands; 
Men whom the lust of office does not kill; 
Men whom the spoils of office can not buy; 
Men who possess opinions and a will; 
Men who have honor; men who will not lie; 
Men who can stand before a demagogue 
And dam his treacherous flatteries without winking; 
Tall men, sun-crowned, who live above the fog 
In public duty and private thinking. 

For while the rabble with their thumb-worn creeds, 
Their large professions and their little deeds 
Mingle in selfish strife; lo — freedom weeps — 
Wrong rules the land, and waiting justice sleeps — " 

A person only submits to wrong or injustice be- 
cause the individual has not the courage to stand 
forth alone; given trustworthy leaders the people 
will follow in every fight for liberty, justice and 
country. Masonry interferes with no religion, in- 
trudes into no political affairs, and claims no special 
favors for its votaries. It seeks to inculcate its 
great principles, that men may be made wiser and 
better, individually, and collectively, and that the 
welfare of humanity as a whole may be advanced 
through the agency of its teachings and practice. 

Men imbued with its principles are qualified to 
lead the people in their struggle upward, and those 
not appointed to lead know how to follow and serve- 
in every movement for Justice, Right and Truth. 

To build the Temple of Character in men, that 
they might be fit to serve the Great Architect of the 
Universe and their fellow men, and may reap the 
reward of right-doing, is, I believe, one of the legiti- 
mate and laudable, one of the foremost duties and! 
missions of Masonry. 



82 



HISTORY OF DALLAS 

By E. J. KIEST 

Proprietor of the Daily Times-Herald 




D 



ALLAS was named for 
th^ Vice-President of 
the United States, 
George Mifflin Dallas, under 
the president James K. Polk. 
It was formerly known as 
Peters Colony which was 
established under the instru- 
mentality of W. S. Peters, a 
colonizing agent who had a 
contract with the government 
as did a number of others for 
colonizing tracts of land in 
northern Texas. 

The first family to locate 
on the site of the present 
city of Dallas was John Neely 
Bryan, a bachelor who was 
a native of Kentucky. He came here in the fall 
of 1841 with no other companion than his indian 
pony that he had secured from the Oerokees and 
pitched his tent on a spot near the present site uf 
the County Court House. He was a man of sturdy 
physique and sterling character, he uved on bear 
and buffalo meat and such food as abounded in the 
forest and surrounding prairie. Six months later 
Captain Gilbert and wife arrived and a little later 
John Beeman with his family put in appearance. 
The lonely Mr. Bryan welcomed them with open 
arms and shared his provisions liberally with the new 
arrivals. Shortly afterwards the host was awarded 
for his hospitality by the gift of his former guests 
fair daughter, Margaret Beeman for a bride. This 
was the first wedding in Dallas. The three fam- 
ilies built rude huts of logs in which to live and 
W. H. Beeman was the first man to break the ground 
and start farming. The following year witnessed 




Courtesy of Mrs. Charles Capy 

First Brick Court House of Dallas, on Site of the Present 
Court House. Photograph Taken in 1857 

the emigration of several families, most of whom 
settled on the land around Dallas an^ engaged in 
farming. Dallas was then a part of Nacogdoches 
county with the town of Nacogdoches the county 
seat over fifty miles away. The nearest shipping 



paint to Dallas was at that time Jefferson, one 
hundred and seventy miles distant, over a very poor 
road through ^he wilderness. 

On March 20th, 1846 the Texas Legislature cre- 




iMain and Akard Streets, Looking East, Dallas, 1887 

A View Familiar to Many Dallas Citizens 

ated Dallas County with Dallas as the county seat 
Judge W. B. Ochiltree held the first court ever con- 
vened in Dallas; he was the father of Tom Ochiltree, 
who became a prominent figure in Texas history. 
The first grand jury found sixty-one indictments, one 
for murder, four for assault and battery and the 
remainder for minor offenses. 

The industries of Dallas grew rapidly, the first 
Bank established was that of Gaston and Camp. 
The first manufacturing plant was a carriage and 
wagon shop by Maxine Guillot. The first mercan- 
tile store was erected by J. W. Smith and J. M. Pat- 
terson. The first saloon was opened by Adam 
Haught. The first lawyer was John J. McCoy. The 
first man to navig'ate the Trinity river was Cap- 
tain Gilbert. The first Grist Mill, a hundred barrel 
a day plant was built by W. T. Overton. The first 
hotel or tavern was run by John Beeman. James 
A. Smith planted the first cotton seed in this dis- 
trict in 1851 and in the autumn of that same year 
built the first cotton gin that operated here. The 
following year a boat load of cotton was taken down 
the Trinity river as far as Porters Bluff. 

In 1848 Nat M. Buford, one of the historic char- 
acters of the early days of Dallas came to this 
city, two years later he became district attorney; in 
the succeeding years he served as District Judge and 
was one of the most prominent figures in the politi- 
cal life of northern Texas. 

The Dallas Herald the first newspaper, a weekly 
was established in 1849 with J. Wellington Lattimer 
and a Mr. Wallace as proprietors. Mr. Wallace 
shortly retired from the paper and Mr. Lattimer be- 
came sole proprietor and editor. The Herald pros- 
pered under the able pen and management of the 
latter and was a political power and potent influence 
for progress through the whole history of Dallas, 
In the early files of the Herald are found many of 
the interesting facts which have preserved for fu- 
ture generations the details of the city's history. 

The city of Dallas was incorporated February 22 r 
1856, Colonel Nat M. Buford drew up the charter. 



83 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



The city at that time had a population of between 
400 and 500 people. At the first election Dr. Sam- 
uel B. Pryor was elected mayor, Andrew Moore, 
Marshal, William Moore, Treasurer, and Samuel P. 
Jones. Recorder. The city of Dallas burned in 1860. 
The cause of the fire was never satisfactorily set- 
tled but it was generally believed to have been of 
incendiary origin by negroes, whom it was reported 
had started many fires in this region. Three negroes 
were found guilty of the crime and hanged and 
every negro in the county was given a flogging. 
There were about fifteen business buildings and a 
great many residences went up in flames. 

At the opening of the Civil War, Dallas, which 
had been strongly in sympathy with the Confed- 
eracy, recruited a company, taking away many of 
her leading citizens, and the city's progress was 
naturally for a time retarded. After the war things 
picked up and a new era began. In 1870 the pop- 
ulation of Dallas was 2,960 and the County boasted 
of 13,329 inhabitants. The transportation was the 
one great problem, the lack of which greatly hind- 
ered the development of the district. Throughout 
the history of the city there has been more or less 
agitation for the improvement of the Trinity 



first edition, this paper enjoyed an era of rapid 
growth. The same year the first State Fair was 
held at Dallas and met with such success that it 
became an annual event in the life of the city. 

On March 31, 1888 an election was held consoli- 
dating North, East and South Dallas in one enter- 
prising and progressive city. That same year the 
old City Hall was completed. In 1890 the census 
showed that the population of Dallas was 38,000 
The year of 1882 witnessed the completion of the 
present Court House. In 1894 the State Demo- 
cratic Convention was held in this city. In 1895 
the Oriental Hotel, then one of the finest hostelries 
of the south was completed and opened to the pub- 
lic. The arrival of the steamer H. A. Harvey, Jr. 
from Galveston in 1898 revived interest again in 
the navigation of the Trinity river. Three years 
later a Bill was passed in Congress appropriating 
$750,000 for the improvement of the channel. In 
1902 Dallas entertained the Confederate Union Sol- 
diers in a convention here. In 1904 the city became 
the owner of Fair Park. A company composed of 
local citizens who owned the tract of land was of- 
fered $125,000 by an improvement company for the 
purpose of dividing it into resident lots, this offer 





Panorama of the Business Section of Dallas, from the Roof of Butler Brothers Wholesale Company Building 



river to enable navigation. In 1868 a steamboat 
commanded by Captain McGarvey sailed up the 
river from Galveston and landed at Dallas loaded 
with supplies. In December of the same year the 
Sallie Haynes, the first boat built at Dallas, was 
launched. 

In 1871 the old court house was sold and the build- 
ing of a new one begun. It was completed in two 
years at a cost of seventy-five thousand dollars. In 
the Fall of 1872 the first iron bridge was com- 
pleted over the Trinity river at a cost of fifty-five 
thousand dollars. 

On July 17, 1872 the greatest event in the history 
of Dallas occurred. It was the arrival of the first 
rail-road train over the Houston and Texas Central 
Raihoad, which reached Dallas that year. A large 
barbecue was held to celebrate the event. Over 
fi"e thousand people from the surrounding country 
attended. An interesting incident of this historical 
event was an address by the venerable John Neely 
Bryan ; a pioneer citizen of Dallas, who arrived here 
on an Indian pony thirty-one years before. 

In 1876 the North Texas Fair Association was 
formed and annual fairs were subsequently held. 
That same year the Dallas County Medical Associa- 
tion was organized with Dr. A. A. Johnson as Pres- 
ident. In 1881 the population had increased tc 
19,000. In 1882 East Dallas was laid out and the 
city started. In 1884 the American Exchange Bank, 
now the largest financial institution in Texas, was 
organized with W. H. Gaston as President. On Oc- 
tober 1, 1885 The Dallas Morning News issued its 



was refused. At this time a number of public 
spirited citizens organized a movement which re- 
sulted in the city acquiring the tract, thus making 
the annual State Fair a public institution. 

In another article, the History of the Fair, from its 
beginning, telling the complete story of its progress 
up to the present time, is attractively told. Much 
can be said of what has been accomplished in Dallas 
during recent years. It has become the largest 
interurban center in the South, with more miles of 
electric line radiating from the city than any city of 
its size in the United States. The city has become 
a center for education in the South. It has as many 
fine hotels and office buildings as any city west of 
Chicago. The city has twenty-two parks covering 
thirty-five hundred acres, containing tennis courts 
and playground facilities. It has a Welfare Com- 
mission engaged to look after the needy, to provide 
work for the unemployed. There are no slums or 
tenements. The new City Hall is one of the finest 
Municipal Buildings in the South. There are one 
hundred and seventy churches, active Y. W. C. A. and 
Y. M. C. A., both up to date buildings. There are 
one hundred and twelve schools and colleges in the 
city and every facility for highest education is given. 

In the foregoing article the writer has endeav- 
ored to chronicle the most interesting events, the 
high lights as it were, of the history of Dallas from 
its beginning up to a little more than a decade 
ago. The recent progress of the city will be treated 
with other articles dealing with the later activities. 



84 



INDUSTRIES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF DALLAS 

By DALLAS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



HERE one beholds a city whose march is irre- 
sistible, whose spirit is real, destiny sure, 
and whose every department pulsates with 
Progress, Prosperity and Promise. Its growth from 
a single building which still stands, to a cosmopoli- 
tan metropolis, the skyscraper center of the South 
and the West, with sixty-two buildings six to thirty- 
one stories high either completed or under construc- 
tion, and all in the life of thel one man who built 
the first Dallas house, is ample justification for the 
name Dallas has won over the Nation as the "City 
where men are looking forward." The "forward 
look" is the look of "youth," and that means com- 
radeship, confidence, faith and team work. This is 
the spirit that has brought Dallas from a city of 
42,638 people (U. S. Census in 1900) to 158,976, ex- 
clusive of suburbs, which bring the total to 174,025, 
or from the 8 6th city in size in the Nation to the 
4 2nd, and that without any boom influence or 
artificial stimulus. Within a circle the radius of 
which extends one hundred miles from the city, ap- 
proximately one-third of the people of Texas live; 
there are 17,000 rated business concerns, and 686 
National and State banks with a combined capital 
of over $38,000,000.00; within the same territory 
there are 156,373 farms or 16.6% of the total num- 
ber of farms in all Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas and 
Louisiana combined, with 10,000,000 acres of land 
in cultivation yielding 17.75% of America's cotton 
crop and over 1,200 prosperous towns and villages 
from which Dallas commands a large whole-sale and 
jobbing trade as well as an extensive retail business. 

Financial and Banking Facts 

Dallas is the home of the Federal Reserve Bant: 



of the Eleventh District and has eight National Banks 
and 8 State Banks, besides individual institutions and 
Trust companies. In 1920, the bank deposits 
amounted to $140,000,000 and the bank clearings 
were $1,868,685,312. The wholesale business for 
the same year totaled $600,000,000. The wholesale 
business in all automotive lines is approximately 
$200,000,000, while the Federal Census of Manu- 
facturers for the Dallas Industrial District indicate 
the output of "made in Dallas" articles as over 
$100,000,000 a year. In Express business Dallas 
ranks first per capita of all the cities of the United 
States and is seventh city in the volume of express 
business. Dallas building permits for 1925, totaled 
$30,000,000, giving the city high rank among the 
nation's builders. While Dallas is 42nd city in 
size, the rank becomes 2 4th, in Postal Receipts 
which amounted to $2,363,380 for 1920 and only 
six cities in the union pay more money orders. Fire, 
Life and Casualty Insurance covering several states 
is an important factor in financial activity of Dallas. 
More than 100 fire insurance companies and 40 life 
insurance companies are represented by General 
Agents in Dallas. Four of these Life Insurance 
Companies have their palatial office building homes 
here and their income approximates $6,000,000 per 
annum. 

Dallas is the farm center of the southwest. Ac- 
cording to the census, 91.8% of the total farm 
mortgage loans of the state are held by Dallas com- 
panies. 

Distributing Center 

Because of its location and transportation facul- 
ties, Dallas is the logical jobbing and wholesale cen- 
ter for a territory, larger than the New England and 




(Photographe 1 by Ko-rrl K. Neal. A'rp'ane Photographer, Telephone C-0693) 
BUSINESS CENTER OF DALLAS AS SEEN FROM AN AIRSHIP 
The Federal Reserve Bank and Cotton Exchange are Seen in the Foreground. In the Center is the Magnolia Building- with 
group of Hotels and Office Buildings. The City Temple and the new Post Office Site are in the Background 

85 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



the Middle Atlantic states combined. Practically 
every important wholesale house in the United 
States has its southwestern headquarters in this 
Texas metropolis. There are 750 wholesalers and 
manufacturers, 256 of which are of national im- 
portance. Dallas leads the world in the manu- 
facture and distribution of cotton gin machinery, 
and in saddlery, harness and leather goods. This 
city ranks among the three largest distributing de- 
pots for farm implements and machinery in Amer- 
ica. Dallas ships more galvanized corrugated tanks 
to oil fields than any other city in the United 
States and is the geographical center of the oil 
territory of the Southwest. Dallas is also famed as 
the largest film distributing center in the world. 
Dallas is the largest inland cotton market in the 
world, having financed 1,500,000 bales in one 
season. 

Transportation Facilities 

Nine trunk line steam railroads enter the mag- 
nificent $6,500,000 Union Terminal Station, from 
which eighty-nine passenger trains are operated 
daily. A network of 282 miles of interurban elec- 
tric service operates out of Dallas in every direction, 
which fact makes this city rank with America's great- 
est interurban centers. The $1,600,000 Interurban 
Terminal Station handles 186 trains daily and has 
a yearly capacity for 4,000,000 people. Freight 
and Express are transported by steam, electric and 
automobile truck lines with a dispatch not equalled 
by any other city in the southwest. To the present 
existing system of good roads, a number of which 
are concrete highways, Dallas has voted an extra 
$6,500,000 to be appropriated for road construction. 





The New Home of the Dalian Chamber of Commerce 



Main Street "Canyon." Dallas Looking East from the Top of 
the Southland Hotel 

Other Public Utilities 

Dallas has more miles of direct service telephone 
and telegraph lines than any other city in the 
southwest and has the greatest telephone develop- 
ment per capita of any city in the world. 296 
telephone toll and long distance circuits lead out of 
the city to nearly 2,500 cities and towns. This 
places Dallas with the three leading metropolitan 
centers of the United States in the matter of tele- 
phone development and service. Dallas is the head- 
quarters of the entire Southwest in the telegraph- 
business. All the large telegraph companies have 
southwestern headquarters here, and there are only 
five cities in the Nation that do more telegraph 
business than Dallas. 351 telegraph circuits ter- 
minate here. Dallas has 160 miles of improved 
streets, many miles of boulevards, a million dollar 
concrete viaduct one and one-eighth miles long con- 
necting the city proper with Oak Cliff residential 
section, a big water filtration plant supplied thru 
a series of dams in the forks of the Trinity River 
and a reserve supply in the great White Rock Lake 
which forever dispell danger of water shortage or 
drought. 

In educational and religious advantages, Dallas is 
second to none. The Southern Methodist University 
with its magnificent buildings is situated north of 
town on 2,6 60 acre tract. To this seat of learning 
come hundreds of young men and women from all 
parts of the south. The University of Dallas, a pre- 
mier College in this section, Baylor Medical College 
and the Baylor Dental College, and three nurses' 
schools, besides many vocational, music and fine 
arts schools give to the youths of Dallas as choice 
opportunities as are afforded by any locality. 



86 



DALLAS BANKING HISTORY 

By E. M. REAR DON 

Former President American Exchange National Bank 




FROM the standpoint of 
Banking, Dallas has en- 
joyed an era of con- 
servative, yet continual pro- 
gress. The history of Dallas 
banks extends over a period 
of half a century and in the 
memory of a number of citi- 
zens still active in Dallas 
circles, the banking business 
of Dallas was born. 

Among the Beacon Lights 
of the banking history, who 
have been identified with the 
financial institutions of this 
city, is the venerable Royal 
A. Ferris, pioneer banker, 
who for half a century was 
actively associated with the 
banking business of the State, nearly forty years of 
which was with the Dallas Banking Institutions, 
having come to this city to live in 1884. Another 
pioneer banker still living is, William H. Gaston, 
who has been connected with the banking business 
here since 1870. 

The T. C. Jourdan & Companys institution was 
superseded by the firm of Gaston & Camp, a private 
concern also, in 1870. Three years later, 1873, 
marked the beginning of Dallas' oldest Bank now 
operating — the City National Bank. In 1884 the 
Exchange Bank, a State Bank in its affiliation, was 
chartered and began business. In 1887 it was 
nationalized by Royal A. Ferris, then its Vice-Presi- 
dent, with Col. John A. Simpson, President, and 
was then known as the National Exchange Bank. 
In 1898, Mr. Ferris was called to succeed Col. Simp- 
son as president of the institution which in 1905 
was consolidated with the American National Bank 
and the new name was taken by which it is now 
known to the public, The American Exchange 
National Bank. This is one of the most solid banks 

• ■•'.' 




City National Bank Building, Devoted Exclusively to the Uses 
of the Bank 

of the South. Mr. Ferris continued as its president 
until 1920, the year of his retirement. E. M. Reardon 
was chosen as his successor. Mr. Ferris had rounded 



out fifty years in active banking service at the date 
of his resignation, the longest term of active service 
enjoyed by any living banker in Texas. 




i«!j ,i«' Hut,, . 
$!mifli !!»•»• 

Ill 1111 11" 




The American Exchange National Bank Building, Dallas, Home 
of Texas' Largest Banking Institution 

The third oldest Dallas Bank is the National Bank 
of Commerce, chartered in 1889. As present 
charters run, next came the Dallas Trust & Savings 
Bank in 1903. In 1911 the Oak Cliff State Bank & 
Trust Company was organized. The Central State 
Bank and the Security National Bank in 1914 and 
the Dallas County State Bank in 1917. The year 

1920 marked the beginning of two banks, one in its 
present form — The Dallas National Bank and the 
Guaranty Bank & Trust Company. The Dallas 
National Bank had enjoyed a splendid previous 
history as The Banking House of E. O. Tennison. 
The Guaranty Bank & Trust Company marked a new 
departure in banking hours, being popularly known 
as the "Day and Night Bank," — the only one of its 
kind in the city. In 1919, the Liberty State Bank 
was organized. In 1919, the Security National Bank 
absorbed the First State Bank of this city and in 

1921 this institution took the name of the Southwest 
National Bank. It is now North Texas National and 
has quarters in the Magnolia Building. 



87 



DALLAS, MEDICAL CENTER OF THE SOUTHWEST 

By EDWIN H. CARY, M. D., F. A. C. S. 

Chairman, Staff Faculty and Advisory Board of Baylor University School of Medicine 
Ex-President, Southern Medical Association 




I 



N this article, I shall not 
take up the personnel 
of the Medical Profession 
here, altogether their his- 
tories would no doubt prove 
interesting - , for while some of 
our great men have already 
passed to their reward, many 
are yet living and laboring 
for us. So it is the movement 
and not the men back of it, 
that I shall review. 

In 1900, Dallas was a city 
of a p p r o x i m a tel y 40,000 
people; she had a very ener- 
getic Medical Profession, and 
some members of whom were 
ambitious enough to dream 
of a medical school here, 
thinking they could establish as good a one as were 
existing elsewhere Dr. Abraham Flexner had not at 
that time, investigated medical education, he had not 
written his book. And the people at large had not 
become alive to the fact that medical schools as 
such, were with few exceptions in the United States, 
owned by medical men, and were necessarily open 
to the charge of being run for professional aggrand- 
izement. This condition was entirely inconsistent 
with the high ideals of medical education now, which 
standards have been considerably raised. 

When we stop to think that in 19 04 there were 
approximately 160 medical schools in the United 
States with some 2 8,000 students, and know that 
at this time there are only about 7 5 medical schools 
and 13,000 students, some idea is gathered as to 
what had been happening to the schools in the past 
fifteen years. During this time of course, some 
20,0 00,0 00 people have been added to the popula- 
tion of the United States, yet the number of medi- 
cal schools and students have steadily decreased. 
In Dallas, in 19 04, there were four so-called medical 
schools, and the population had not materially in- 
creased beyond the figures given in the 1900 cen- 
sus. 

It is not the purpose of the article to show iust. 
what were the influences that rid the country of so 
many aspiring institutions which seemed to have 
the interest of the public at heart; but we CAN say 
that it was brought about by the expression of the 
great body of medical men, through their society, 
the American Medical Association, advocating pub- 
licity, improvement of standards and adherence to 
ideals. There was no pressure brought to bear from 
outside; the medical men themselves have led the 
fight, and eliminated those medical schools which 
needed to be done away with. 

The growth of Dallas in its population and wealth, 
with the gradual elimination of all medical schools 
except Baylor University School of Medicine, brought 
about two things: first, the members of the pro- 
fession found, with an enlarged clientele, that the 
personal element in the practice of medicine was 
being eliminated, and next that the profession seri- 
ously became interested in having a first class med- 
ical school in Dallas, regardless of whether or not 



the individual had any part in it, because he was 
made a better doctor by working in the medical 
center with all its advantages. In 1916, the med- 
ical department of Baylor was formally put in class 
"A" by the Council on Medical Education of the 
American Medical Association, and its graduates be- 
came recognized by every medical examining board 
throughout the United States. This classification, 
with the ever-growing requirements for entrance in 
to medical schools, made it difficult for the school 
in Ft. Worth to continue, and in 1918 that schcol 
was absorbed by Baylor University School of Medi- 
cine. This leaves but two medical colleges in Texas, 
this one at Dallas and the medical department of 
the University of Texas, which is situated in Galves- 
ton. Both colleges exact two years of University 
work, as a minimum entrance requirement, and both 
adhere to as high ideals in medical education as 
is found in any school in the country. 

The friends of Baylor University realizing more 
and more the great value of the medical department 
to the citizenship of Dallas, the great possibilities of 
service to humanity which this department gives to 
the parent University, a campaign was launched 
to bring about improvements, which campaign has 




l! 




The New Medical Arts Building, Dallas, the Medical Center 
of the Southwest 

proven successful. The medical school having al- 
ways been closely affiliated with the Baptist Sani- 
tarium and being housed in a building on the same 
grounds, these two institutions entered into a cam- 



88 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



paign wherein $1,600,000 worth of buildings would 
be built, and $500,000 would be set aside as a mini 
mum endowment for the medical department. When 
you understand that after this campaign was en- 
tered upon, a governmental appraisement of the 
property occupied by the sanitarium and medical 
school, placed their value at $1,300,000, you can see 
that the addition of $1,600,000 worth of buildings 
will make a formidable showing, and create in Dal- 
las one of the few really great medical centers of 
the country. 

The clinical possibilities presented by a population 
of some 225,000 people such as Dallas has, are con- 
stantly being augmented by thousands who come 
to Dallas for treatment each year, as it is a center 
of a densely populated section. The medical students 
have the advantage of all this, and the environment 
is the very best, inasmuch as there is a disposition 
of all the population of Dallas to encourage sujh 
students. A notable indication of this being a re- 
quest on the part of the medical profession here, that 
the City Hospital, the great charity institution of 
Dallas, should from the time of the school session, 
be entirely in the hands of the men who teach medi- 
cine and surgery in Baylor University School of Med- 
icine. 



At the present time Baylor University has three 
departments in the city, with the following number 
of students: medical, 146; dental, 75; pharmacy, 55. 
The Texas Baptist Memorial Sanitarium School of 
Nursing utilizes the teachers of the medical depart- 
ment, there being some hundred students in nursing 
in the school. It is expected these various depart- 
ments will fron. now on, have enlarged enrollmert; 
this will be due in part to the fact that the pres- 
ent requirements have been in force long enough for 
there to be accumulated in the Universities a larger 
number of students ready for entrance, than here- 
tofore. 

Medical education opens a broad field for scien 
tific work, social welfare work and properly ap- 
plied charity, in ministering to the sick, and the 
care of those who need help which they can not pay 
for. It creates in this section a training-school for 
all the various scientific departments, and makes it 
possible for us to meet the crying demand for doc- 
tors, dentists, pharmacists and nurses. The hard 
work of building up Dallas as a medical center. »• 
now over; the start is made, and large endowments 
will now flow into the coffers of the Medical Depart- 
ment; the scientific work and Humanitarian possi- 
bilities which only broaden as the years go by. 



HISTORY OF THE BENGH AND BAR OF DALLAS 



By F. ML ETHERIDGE 




T 



VHE history of the bench 
and bar of Dallas can 
be written within the 
I'mits of this paper only in 
general terms. It is a history 
of achievement and distinc- 
t'on. The bar of Dallas has 
maintained the best tradi- 
tions. In trying cases from 
Now York to Los Angeles 
and from St. Paul to New 
Orlerns I have been asso- 
ciated with and opposed by 
some of the best lawyers of 
various states, with the re- 
sult that I can truthfully say 
I have found my best sup- 
port, as well as my most 
formidable adversaries, 
aniung the members of the Dallas bar. The Dallas 
bar has furnished the Supreme Court with a num- 
ber of distinguished members, among them Sawnie 
Robertson, John L. Henry and Nelson Phillips. 
Judge Sawnie Robertson was an accomplished lawyer 
and one of the most likable men I ever knew. Judge 
John L. Henry was a prince among good men and 
bore the merited and distinctive designation of 
"the grand old man." Judge Nelson Phillips, ex- 
Chief Justice, has proved himself s. worthy successor 
of a long line of the illustrious chief justices that 
preceded him. 

The Dallas bar has furnished the Court of Civil 
Appeals for the Fifth District two distinguished 
members, Judge John Bookhout, now deceased, and 
Judge Charles A. Rasbury, who recently resigned 
;o re-enter the practice. It furnished to the nation 
Judge Seth Shepard who, under appointment of 
President Cleveland, was for many years Associate 
Justice, and later and until his death Chief Justice 
of the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia. 



Judge Shepard became a close and scientific student 
of the law and his opinions are comparable with 
those of the most illustrious of our judges. 

The Dallas bar has furnished the university a num- 
ber of distinguished members that immolated them- 
selves upon the altar of the noble profession of 
teaching. It contributed to the university Thomas 
Scott Miller, now deceased, a Harvard graduate, 
a genial gentleman and a profound lawyer. Judges 
W. S. Simkins and Lauch McLauren are now and 
for years past have been, each at a great personal 
sacrifice, rendering distinguished service as teachers 
in the university. 

The Dallas bar has had an illustrious membership. 
It comprised, among others, such distinguished 




The Dallas County Court House 

names as those of Colonel John C. McCoy, Judges 
Zimri Hunt, H. Barksdale, Nat M. Buford, E. G. 
Bower, Alex White, Olin Wellborn, N. W. Finley, 
M. L. Crawford and John M. Stemmons, A. H. 



89 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Field, Major B. H. Bassett, Colonel W. W. Leake, 
Major Jerome C. Kearby, J. L. Harris, Colonel W. L. 
Crawford, General A. P. Wozencraft, W. B. Gano, 
George H. Plowman and many others of enduring 
reputation. 

Colonel John C. McCoy was the most noted of the 
pioneers. His life, character and services at the 
bar were such as won him enduring fame. Judges 
Hunt. Barksdale and Buford were pioneer district 
judges. They were cast in large mold and left their 
impress upon our jurisprudence. Judge White was 
originally from Alabama. He was of counsel in 
many important cases in the Supreme Court of the 
United States that went up from that state. After- 
wards he was on the Supreme bench of Utah and 
later came to Dallas. He was possessed of a vast 
wealth of learning and was a lawyer of exceptional 
ability. Judge Olin Wellborn for a long time repre- 
sented this district in congress, and afterwards re- 
moved to Los Angeles, where for many years he 
served with distinction as a judge of the United 
States District Court. Judge M. L. Crawford had 
been a district judge prior to his removal to Dallas. 
He was an accomplished lawyer, an indefatigable 
worker and one of the acknowledged leaders of the 
bar. John M. Stemmons and Judge A. H. Field were 
partners and their firm deservedly enjoyed an en- 
viable reputation. Major Bassett was one of the 
foremost lawyers of his time. He was ambitious 
to round out his career by becoming a professor of 
law in the university. He was unanimously elected 
to a chair in that institution, but unfortunately 
died before occupying it. Colonel Leake, in his time, 
was the nestor of the Dallas bar. He was a pro- 
found lawyer and a man of rare culture and refine- 
ment. His example at the bar was worthy of emula- 
tion. Major Jerome C. Kearby possessed a keen 
intellect and was easily in the front rank of the 
greatest of the Texas advocates. Judge Finley was 
for many years a member of the Court of Civil 
Appeals for the Fifth District and his many opinions 
attest his industry, acumen and capacity. General 
A. P. Wozencraft became a specialist in the law of 
corporations and was an acknowledged authority 
upon that subject. J. L. Harris was a prodigious 
worker, a close and constant student and was aston- 
ishingly resourceful. W. B. Gano was ornate and 
scholarly j<nd as a practitioner he had no superior 
and but few equals. George H. Plowman was a 
Harvard graduate and one of the most indefatigable 
workers I have ever known. Judge E. G. Bower 
possessed an indomitable spirit, and our present 
coui t house constitutes a memorial to his untiring 
effort. Whilst that court house has practically sur- 
vived the period of its usefulness, it was, neverthe- 
less, a gigantic undertaking in Judge Bower's time. 
Colonel W. L. Crawford, recently deceased, was a 
man of transcendent ability and personal magnetism. 
He was a power before the court, as well as with the 
jury. He was the greatest forensic orator within 
the range of my acquaintance. 

The mention of the foregoing names is not de-> 
signed to be exclusive and, would the limits of this 
paper permit, many others equally conspicuous would 
be added. 

The Dallas bar has contributed to the bar of New 
York a number of distinguished lawyers, among 
them and notably Isaac R. Oeland and Martin W. 
Littleton. The judges who have occupied the vari- 
ous benches of Dallas have all been distinguished 



by their learning and probity. Many distinguished 
men in public life are numbered among the members 
of the Dallas bar, notably Charles A. Culbersop, 
deceased, Thomas B. Love, formerly assistant secre- 
tary of the treasury, Hatton W. Sumners, congress- 
man, as well as many others. 

The Dallas bar, from small beginnings and ir- 
regular and inefficient organization, emerged some 
years since into a corporate body of which there 
were one hundred charter members, and since its or- 




Dallas County Criminal Court Building and County Jail 

ganization nearly every reputable member of the 
Dallas bar has become a member of the Dallas Bar 
Association. Many of the members of the associa- 
tion have given generously of their time to the 
work of furthering the administration of justice and 
of inculcating the highest professional ethics and of 
teaching the younger members of the bar. 

I do not hesitate to say, that the standard of prac- 
tice of the members of the Dallas Bar ranks very 
high in comparison with the lawyers of other cities, 
her membership will rank very favorably with the 
best. With the passing of many of the most able 
representatives, there are many young and possibly 
just as capable young lawyers growing up to take 
their places and the standards are no doubt being 
raised rather than lowered. 

The young lawyers club composed of many of the 
most capable and progressive young attorneys, has 
done much toward the progress of the young men of 
the profession and is worthy of commendation. 

I cannot particularize among the existing mem- 
bers of the bench and bar of Dallas, but I can truth- 
fully say, having before me the criterion of contact 
with the best legal talent of other states, that the 
bench and bar of Dallas is today the equal of any. 

I may add that the Dallas bar comprises very 
many younger members that give full promise to 
maintain its standards of excellence when the elder 
ones shall have retired or passed away. 



90 



DALLAS MUNICIPAL ACTIVITIES 

By SAWNIE ALDREDGE 




FROM year unto year in 
Dallas' Municipal life 
there is being realized 
a remarkable record of pro- 
gress, not only in material 
things for which the public 
looks to its municipality, but 
in the ever widening scope 
of a less material but none 
the less necessary activity 
which tends to make a city 
more livable and to give to 
it a "soul." Two operations 
are found essential in the 
building of every worth- 
while garden, or worth-while 
life or a great city — and 
these operations are the same 
throughout: uproot the ugly 
and plant deep and well the beautiful. While sensa- 
tionalism plays up the former, yet how much more 
does the latter abound! Not only have the results 
achieved helped to fill the needs of Dallas, but they 
liave also attracted widespread attention from other 
■cities wrestling with the same problems, and again 
and again letters have been received, even from the 
great metropolitan centers, asking just how Dallas 
lias solved these problems. Not only has stress 
"been laid upon the paving of streets, the supplying 
of the physical needs of the citizenship and the 
better development of the public utilities in recent 
years, but also upon better sanitation and health 
conditions, welfare work, development of Dallas ac- 
cording to the Kessler Plan, and upon provision of 
more extensive and better equipped parks and other 
public amusements for the people. 

By municipal action important changes have been 
"brought about in the city's Emergency Hospital 
which include the employment of graduate and hos- 




Carnegie Public Library at Commerce and Harwood 
Streets, Dallas 

pital-trained physicians and surgeons only, to handle 
all work instead of a staff of "student doctors," and 
the placing on duty of a graduate doctor on every 
ambulance call so as to insure first aid to the in- 



jured; there has been effected an improvement in 
the sick-visiting service of the city, and a city-county 
clinic established, while the City Hospital has been 
given a larger and better trained staff, additional 
and needed equipment of the latest type, and for 
the first time brought into first class recognition by 
the American College of Surgeons. This latter in- 
stitution has received a $500,000 bond issue, is jointly 
owned by city and county and is placed under a 
committee system at present governed by a Hos- 
pital Board appointed by the mayor. 




Municipal Building, Dallas 

Welfare work of recent years worthy of note are 
the establishment of a working mothers' home, im- 
provement of working girls' lodge, relief in Mexican 
housing, extension in negro welfare work and an 
employment service recognized by the government. 

Nothing is more fundamentally necessary to the 
proper development of a city than an adequate sys- 
tem of beautiful and well equipped parks. Dallas 
has twenty-two parks covering 3,500 acres. They 
include playground equipment, wading and swim- 
ming pools, free moving pictures and band concerts 
in the evenings of summer for both children and 
adults. "Swimming holes" have been provided at 
the City, Oak Lawn, Buckner, Exall, Garrett, Alamo 
and Colonial Parks. More than 150 free moving 
picture shows have been given at each park and band 
concerts and public sing-songs have been inaugu- 
rated. Athletic activities in parks have been ex- 
tended and the summer playground system placed 
under paid leaders. As a result of such park system, 
Dallas has the largest park attendance in proportion 
to population of any city in the United States. In 
the summer of 1920, there came to Dallas parks 
1,689,865 visitors while 53,150 children used the 
swimming and wading pools and 17,620 persons had 
free baths furnished by the city parks. Besides 
these improvements, the municipality has added new 
parks to its list. The Ferris Plaza, a sunken garden 
beauty spot, greets the Dallas visitor as he steps out 
of the Terminal Station; Booker T. Washington 
Park, as its name indicates, is a new park for ne- 
groes; Parkview has been donated to the city, a strip 
of land has been added to Forest Park and other 
tracts added to park properties. 



91 



THE PUBLIG SGHOOLS OF DALLAS 

By JUSTIN F. KIMBALL 

Superintendent 



ONE of the significant characteristics in the 
history of the growth of Dallas as a city in 
the last decade is the development of its sys- 
tem of public schools. From an attendance ten years 
ago of less than 15,000, the attendance in the schools 
has increased to more than 35,000 for the present 
school year. During the last scholastic year prac- 
tically every child of school age in Dallas was in 
attendance in school, either in private or public 
schools. The most remarkable growth in the schools 
has been in the high schools and in the night schools, 
both of which minister to the educational needs of 
the young manhood and womanhood of Dallas. From 
an attendance in the white high schools of 1,300 
ten years ago, taken care of in one high school 
building, Dallas has grown until it has four magnifi- 



school rooms, 40 being the standard maximum class 
in the elementary schools and 30 in the high schools. 
Likewise the permanent buildings that have been 
erected have all been fireproof, modern in their plan- 
ning, beautiful in architecture, economical of space 
and efficient in administration. The city of Dallas 
maintains a special public day school for deaf chil- 
dren and three special day schools for children whose 
mentality is so different from that of the other 
children that they cannot be taught to the highest 
advantage in the usual school. The courses in the 
high schools afford an unusual range of opportunity 
for the young people of the city, giving instruction 
in many courses that train for practical lines of 
work in the business world on leaving school. More 
than 60 per cent of the graduates of the Dallas 




Dallas Hall, the Main Class Room and Administration Building at Southern Methodist University, Dallas, One 
of the Leading Educational Institutions of the South 



cent modern high school buildings, with an attend- 
ance of 5,500 students. Last year among the cities 
of the United States of similar size, Dallas stood 
fourth in the nation in its ratio of high school at- 
tendance, being surpassed only by Seattle, Portland, 
Oregon, and Oakland, California, all of these being 
towns that have no large negro or foreign popula- 
tion. 

The rapid growth of the city of Dallas has taxed 
the department of education to its utmost to keep 
adequate facilities for instruction of the rapidly 
increasing roll of students. The city has responded 
to the demand for larger quarters and additional 
school houses have been erected to give housing 
facilities to the rapid growing additions, and schools 
are provided in easy access to nearly every section 
of the city. 

To house these public schools Dallas has a perma- 
nent investment of about $11,000,000 and expends 
annually for their maintenance nearly $2,000,000 and 
employs more than a thousand teachers. 

During the same decade the board of education 
have held steadfastly to the policy of giving every 
child in school a full day at school, in a room not 
overcrowded and have been successful in avoiding 
the necessity of half-day sessions and overcrowded 



high schools attend college after leaving the public 
schools. Approximately 2,000 high school boys 
each year are given military instruction, uniforms 
and equipment by the United States government 
through army officers detailed to the Dallas high 
schools. The board of education operates more than 
30 school cafeterias and lunch rooms, in which 
lunches of high quality are served at actual cost to 
the children. 

Another noteworthy feature of the Dallas schools 
is the detailed attention that is given in the ele- 
mentary schools, to accuracy in numbers, to correct- 
ness in spelling, to the hearing and appreciation of 
good music and to good penmanship. Last year 
there were more than 9,000 children in the elemen- 
tary schools of Dallas whose handwriting was suffi- 
ciently good to meet official approval under the 
recognized writing standards used in the best school 
systems in the United States; while the unusual 
achievement of the Dallas school children in musical 
appreciation of high class music and in music mem- 
ory contests has won national recognition. In all 
these details of elementary instruction the most care- 
ful statistics are kept of the quality of the work of 
the children in order that it may be compared with 
the best standards obtainable in the United States. 



92 



STATE FAIR OF TEXAS 

By W. H. STRATTON 




D 



.ALLAS is the home of 
the State Fair of 
Texas, the grounds of 
which are located within the 
city and have an appraised 
value of over $2,000,000. This 
is the largest fair of its kind 
in the United States, being 
approached in the Western 
Hemisphere only by the an- 
nual fair of Toronto, Canada. 
The annual attendance ap- 
proximates 1,000,000 persons. 
Its profits are used in mak- 
ing improvements, or for 
stimulating manufacturing, 
agriculture and stock raising. 
The splendid spirit of co- 
operation, developed so ef- 
fectively among all of our people while we were en- 
gaged in the world war, is concretely exemplified 
by the efficient efforts of eminent live stock breed- 
ers, agriculturalists, artists, scientists, industrial 
and commercial experts, from all sections of our 
great state, men whose names alone are a guarantee 
that the fair will always keep up to the splendid 
standard of past achievement and in fact surpass 
it each year. 

Golden grain from fertile fields, luscious fruits 
from fragrant orchards, succulent vegetables from 
well-kept gardens, lowing herds of fattened cattle, 
magnificent thoroughbred horses, and all the other 
faithful, lowly friends of man, as well as riches 
from the marts of trade, modern creations of the 
inventive wizard's brain, the wonders of science, 
the beauties of art — in a word, our Twentieth 
Century Texas civilization, is" typified, glorified, 
visualized at the State Fair of Texas. 

Just as "Uncle Sam" believes that "all work and 
no play makes the Yank a dull boy," so we believe 
that recreation and amusement are similarly es- 





Entrance to Texas State Fair Grounds, Dallas, Texas 



The Adolphus Hotel and Annex, Dallas, Texas' Largest 
Hostelry — R. B. Ellifritz, Managing Director 

sential for civilian welfare. Therefore clean, 
wholesome, high-grade entertainment features 
are always found at the fair. Entrancing 
music, wonderful feats of skill and daring, 
dazzling spectacular displays — a very pano- 
rama of world progress greets the eye and 
delights the ear of the multitudes who attend 
this wonderful exposition each year. 

The Texan has one great opportunity each 
year to secure "visualized vocational instruc- 
tion" upon the many subjects of practical 
use on the farm, ranch, in the orchard, the 
vineyard or in the garden; to rub elbows 
with friends and neighbors from far and 
wide, to find relaxation and to enjoy entertain- 
ment on a scale in keeping with the wonderful 
development of today. 

The Texas State Fair has become a perma- 
nent institution. It is a gathering- place for 
large numbers of Texans, who each year make 
their pilgrimage to Dallas to enjoy the en- 
tertainment, to get acquainted with each other 
or to renew old friendships. The management 
of the fair never fails to provide something 
new, attractive and out of the ordinary. 



93 



HISTORY OF TEXAS BANKING 

By JUDGE W. F. RAMSEY 

Federal Reserve Agent 




T 



\HE history of banking 
in Texas is both pe- 
culiar and interesting. 
In the early history of the 
state most of the banks were 
unincorporated private insti- 
tutions. Some of these were 
without any considerable ex- 
perience or adequate capital. 
Others were controlled by 
men of large vision and ex- 
perience and a few of them 
exist this day. 

In the early history of the 
state, banks were incor- 
porated under the authority 
of our laws with very large 
and unusual powers. A few 
of these charters still exist, 
and one or two of our large banks are still operat- 
ing under their authority. There had been experi- 
enced such a lack of success in incorporated state 
banks, that under the constitution of 1875 the organi- 
zation of banks under the state charter was abso- 
lutely prohibited. The result was, of course, that the 
only banks in existence for many years were those 
granted under the authority of the old laws, private 
banks and those chartered under the authority of 
the National Bank Act. For a long time, no national 
bank could be chartered with a capital of less than 
$50,000. Considering the newness of the state and 
the sparseness of its population, the National Bank- 
ing System in this state for a long time did not 
flourish, as it has done since. The minimum amount 
of capital required for national banks was a severe 
handicap for a small community. Further con- 
sideration and discussion finally developed an in- 
telligent public opinion which found expression in a 
constitutional amendment, duly voted by the people, 
authorizing the creation of state banks. Conform- 
ing with this amendment, the legislature of the 
state passed, about 1905, a comprehensive law 
authorizing the organization and regulating the con- 
duct or operation of state banks. A little later a 
law was passed, guaranteeing non-interest bearing 
deposits in state banks and making provision for 
the creation and collection of a guaranty fund which 
was deemed to be sufficient to make ample provision 
for the payment of deposits in such state banks as 
might fail. While stoutly opposed in many quarters, 
the guaranty of deposits feature of the state bank 
law had succeeded and endured to this day, and it is 
approved not only by a great many bankers, but by 
a large body of intelligent public opinion generally. 
The rapid growth in the state since 1905, and the 
fact that state banks could be organized with a mini- 
mum capital of $10,000, at once had the effect of 
encouraging the establishment of many state banks 
all over the state. Other features of the law, among 
others the authority to lend a greater portion of 
capital and surplus than the National Bank Act per- 
mitted, induced the establishment of many fairly 
large banks in most of the larger cities and more 
important towns of the state. The same growth, 
prosperity and increase in population have also 
brought about the establishment and organization of 
many national banks. This result was particularly 

94 



encouraged by the reduction of the minimum capital! 
required in the organization of national banks to 
$25,000. 

In a general way, it could be safely said that we 
have a sound, safe and workable banking law in this- 
state, and it is every where conceded that the man- 
agement and supervision of these banks of the- 
State Banking Board and Commissioner of Banking 
has been of the highest order and intelligence. The 
virtues and merits of the National Banking Act andS 
the vigor and vigilance of the supervision of these- 
banks is known to all men. 

The best opinion in this state is that there is- 
ample need for both national and state banks, that 
there is no necessary conflict between them, but 
there is and should be only an attitude of generous; 
competition between the two systems. 

The growth in number and increase in resources- 
of banks, both state and national, is but an ex- 
emplification and evidence of the growth, develop- 
ment and prosperity of the state. There are today 
in operation in this state 549 national banks, with a- 
combined capital and surplus account of $94,366,000> 
and with deposits of $572,106,000. There are ire 
actual operation in the state 923 state banks, with a- 
combined capital and surplus of $50,379,541, and? 
combined deposits of $238,920,170. It will thus be 
seen that there are, altogether, 1,472 banks in the 
state, and combined capital and surplus of all banks,, 
state and national, amounts to $144,745,541, and 
their combined deposits amount to the sum of 
$811,026,170. 

These figures take no account of the capital ano> 
surplus or the deposits of the private banks in suc- 




The Federal Reserve Bank Building, Dallas, Built in 1920 

cessful operation in the state. Any statement as tc 
these figures applying to private banks would be 
a mere estimate, but I think it a fair approximation! 
of the facts to say that the capital of the private 
banks in this state would exceed $5,000,000, and that 
their deposits would probably go well beyond 
$25,000,000. 



MEXIA, THE CENTRAL TEXAS OIL CITY 

ByMEXIA CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 






MEXIA, is situated in Central Texas, seventy- 
five miles South of Dallas on the Southern 
Pacific and T. B. V. Railroads. It is the 

•bbing center for Central Texas Oil Fields. More 

han thirty large supply houses and Tank Companies, 
vith big warehouse facilities are located here. Four 
State Highways enter the city from different direc- 
tions. The city is amply supplied with schools, 
J-iurches and public utilities, including electric lights, 
sewerage, telephone, telegraph, express company, 
etc., and are being extended to keep pace with the un- 
paralleled growth of the city. There are three banks 
brimming over with deposits to take care of the 
financial situation and ample hotel facilities to house 
the permanent residents as well as taking care of 
the transients. 

The average rainfall in Mexia is about thirty 
inches, mean temperature sixty-five degrees, eleva- 
tion five hundred feet. The city has a Commission 
form of Government. It also has municipal water 
works, sewerage system, Public Library, City Hall, 
Chamber of Commerce, five Newspapers and Periodi- 
cals, First Class Hospital as well as an Emergency 
Hospital, and rapidly increased the office facili- 
ties with a number of modern brick office buildings. 

The City has an enterprising and progressive popu- 
lation to join together in the promotion of every 
activity for the welfare and upbuilding of a modern 
city. 

Mexia has made good as an oil city. In the fall 
of 1921, when the newspapers all over the United 
States began publishing stories of 25,000-barrel 
gushers at Mexia, railway agents began to sell 
tickets to the new center of excitement and the 
established population of 3,482 grew almost over 
night to nearly 35,000. Conservative estimates today 
place the number of people at 11,000. 

Emerging from the first effects of being over- 
whelmed, the city is now working out a develop- 
ment of civic improvements and public service insti- 
tutions to care for its new citizens. Included in the 
public works are several miles of street paving; a 
$250,000 high school building to supplement the four 
schools already established; a federal post office 
building; an extremely new and adequate water and 
sewerage system; a sanitary organization, police and 
law enforcing body second to none, as well as many 
other radical changes in the right direction. 

The oil field two miles west of the city produces 
around 100,000 barrels of high grade crude oil 
every day. Pay rolls due to this development bring 
approximately $400,000 a week to the city. Seven 



pipe lines now carry the oil away. A number of 
refineries are now operating. More than fifty wildcat 
test wells are going down in the county to prove up 
additional territory in addition to the twenty square 
miles already in the producing column. 

Thirty-two lumber yards and more than thirty 
supply houses and tank companies supply drilling 
operations covering an area of several counties in 




Mexia's Depot. The Crowds of Automobiles and People are 

Indicative of the Busy Condition of this 

Thriving Oil Center 

central east Texas. Four large wholesale grocery con- 
cerns operate in Mexia, owning fine brick buildings. 
Every large oil company on the continent is in- 
terested in Mexia. Since the beginning of develop- 
ments, Mexia has built several nice hotels, one three 
story $100,000 hostelry now being owned by J. K. 
Hughes, one of the biggest independent operators in 
the field. 

Mexia is situated on three railroads, one being a 
trunk line, the Southern Pacific. Two state high- 
ways cross Mexia, the county having just completed 
a two million dollar road building program when oil 
was discovered at Mexia. The county is one of the 
leading agricultural and stock raising counties in the 
State. Mexia being a well developed market for all 
kinds of products. 

"Make Mexia a Better Place in Which to Live," 
has been the slogan of the Chamber of Commerce 
since it began to function as the representative com- 
mercial organization of the new oil field city some 
years ago. All the citizens are working and planning. 
The various civic bodies and city government are 
united in this move and real results can be seen at 
Mexia, where the citizenship is building a clean oil 
city. 

Mexia has many attractions to commend itself for 
a city in which to permanently reside. Civic and 
municipal improvements are rapidly making it a 
more desirable place for a home. 




A Group of Oil Wells just West of Mexia 



an Area of Derricks Nine Miles in Length 



95 



TEXAS CROPS AND ACREAGE 

By EDWARD M. JOHNSTON, 

Statistician, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 



TO gain an understanding of any business a 
statistical base is fundamental. Figures are 
needed to tell a story as it can be told in no 
other way. Agriculture is no exception to this rule. 
The primary value of such a review is comparative, 
and gives the relationship, one to the other, of the 
several items which combine to make what is spoken 
of collectively as agricultural wealth. 

In the space allowed, only a brief resume of the 
agricultural importance of the state can be given. 
Texas, with approximately 168,000,000 acres within 
its borders, not only ranks as first in size of the 
several states but is, usually, the first in rank in 
the value of its agricultural products which vary 
from $750,000,000 to $1,000,000,000 annually, depend- 
ing, largely, upon the real value of the staple crop 
of cotton, and seldom, if ever, ranking lower than 
second or third when giving way to Iowa or Illinois 
in this particular. 

Of the total area of the state it is important to 
remember that less than one-fifth is utilized in the 
production of farm crops; over 70 per cent being 
devoted to range and pasture purposes. The im- 
portant staple crops of the state are limited to 




Prize Brahma Cattle From a Southern Texas Herd 

some six or eight in number. An average year 
finds the state with approximately 25,000,000 acres 
under cultivation. Roughly, this is occupied by the 
following crops in about the following proportions: 
11,000,000 acres to cotton, 6,000,000 acres to corn, 
2,000,000 acres to wheat, 2,000,000 acres to oats, 
2,000,000 acres to grain sorghums, with the balance 
taken up in some twenty minor crops. 

With four and one-half billions as the value of 
its farm property Texas is exceeded only by Illinois, 
over half its farms are operated by tenants, one- 
fifth of its farms are operated by negroes and half 
of its farms are free of mortgage. 

Texas is the leading range state, both as to area 
and the number of livestock grazed. It is, preemi- 
nently, a great breeding ground and such will it 
ever remain. In normal times it has some 6,000,000 
head of range cattle, some 3,000,000 head of sheep 
and almost as many goats. It leads in wool pro- 
duction with some 20,000,000 pounds annually and 
its mohair production is fully a third of that 
amount. 

The state is second only to Louisiana in rice pro- 
duction, second only to Oklahoma in broomcorn 
production, it is first in the production of grain 



sorghums, grows more Bermuda onions than any 
other state, ranks fourth in peanut production, with 
over 200,000 stands of bees it takes first rank, it 
has half a million turkeys or twice as many as 
the next nearest state in importance, which is 
Missouri. It is also the premier pecan state and 
produces, in the great staple cotton, over one-third 
of the cotton crop of the entire United States. 

The purpose of this article is to give at a glance 
the outstanding features only that those unfamiliar 
with the state may readily gain some idea of its 
relative position among the other states of the 
Union. Statistics has a two-fold purpose to serve. 
One is to give positive information and, secondly, 
comparative. Its end and aim is not alone to esti- 
mate the area of a given crop down to the last 
acre nor wool production to its last pound, though 
approximate accuracy is, however, vital but it has 
a comparative value in showing the shift in crops 
from year to year, the trend of production and a 
relationship that obtains in succeeding years. The 
lessons to be read from statistical data are, then, 
relative as well as absolute and comparative as well 
as positive. 

A stranger traveling through the state from the 
east might suppose the most important crop to be 
rice; if he entered from the north he might believe 
it to be wheat and oats; if entering from the pan- 
handle it might appear to be grain sorghums and 
some wheat and cotton, and if he entered from the 
west he might suppose that the whole state is given 
over to range and pasture purposes. 

It is important to bear in mind the state's posi- 
tion, agriculturally, is maintained on but a small 
percentage of its total area while in Illinois and 
Iowa nearly 90 per cent of the state's total area 
is farmed intensively, that though there are vast 
areas which both can and will be brought under 
the plow yet this relative proportion of range and 
farm lands will always obtain as it is today and 
that the state, which is almost 70 per cent rural 
in population will long continue to be a great agri- 
cultural state. 

In range and diversity of crops grown it holds 
first rank. From an almost sub-tropical valley 
in the south which produces abundantly both trucks 
and citrus fruits it ranges a thousand miles north- 
ward to where winter wheat and other hardy cereals 
alone will thrive. It divides itself, naturally, into 
five great subdivisions. 

The picture which the mention of Texas should 
bring to mind is that of its vast area only a small 
part is farmed, that its staple crops are few and 
rank as follows: cotton, corn, oats, wheat, and grain 
sorghums which on a total of some 25,000,000 acres 
cotton occupies nearly half, corn a fourth, and the 
others share alike. That cotton is the state's first 
crop, that in corn production the state is often third, 
that in cattle, sheep and goats and their products, 
the state leads all others, that it has the greatest 
number of mules of any state and that though a 
great range state yet its diversity of crops is such 
and its expanse so great that it excells in many 
minor crops, many fruits and some native nuts. 



96 



FT WORTH COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 

By FORT WORTH CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 

FORT WORTH is brimming with wealth and Fort Worth is the transportation center of the 

prosperity. She has absorbed thousands of dis- Southwest and her iron arms reach out to all the 
charged officers and men from the military areas in Central, North Central and West Texas 
camps and flying fields of Texas. Her population has where the oil development is under way. She has 
recently been enhanced by many 
other thousands of newcomers, at- 
tracted first by the vast oil develop- 
ment in the adjoining territory, and 
later by the greatly stimulated com- 
mercial activity attending the oil 
development. 

Since shortly after the establish- 
ment of the military post known as 
Fort Worth in 1849, the city had been 
famed as the Capita^ of the Cow 
Country and this she will remain. 
Fort Worth distributes more food 
than any city of her size in the coun- 
try. She is the grain and milling 
center of the Southwest, with an 
elevator capacity of 5,000,000 
bushels. 

From 1900 to 1910, according to 
the Federal census, Fort Worth 
gained 174 per cent in population. 
She is growing faster today than any time in her 
history. The increases in population is from 3,000 
to 5,000 per month and she has a present population 
of 150,000. 

A building era almost unprecedented in Texas, 
is upon Fort Worth. The great territory of West 
Texas, to which she is the gateway, is teeming with 
wealth and is increasing in population at a greater 
rate than any similar area in the country. Nor is 
this wealth coming solely from oil development. 
Never in its history has West Texas had more abund- 
ant crops than in the past few years. 

Farms are being improved. Roads are being built 
and new railway projects are being launched. 




Residence District Around Rivercrest Country Club, 
from the Club House 



Taken 




eleven railroads with seventeen outlets, which give 
her direct communication with all the new producing 
fields. 

Five hundred oil companies maintain offices in 
Fort Worth. Ten refineries are in operation and 
several under construction. With the completion 
of these she will have a refining capacity of 75,000 
barrels daily. Projects are on foot to bring to Fort 
Worth from the great gas wells that have been 
opened in West Texas, an additional supply of 
natural gas. This fuel, in competition with the al- 
most unlimited amount of fuel oil furnished by her 
refineries will give Fort Worth the cheapest fuel 
in the country. 

Her water sup- 
ply is obtained 
from Lake Worth, 
which is fourteen 
miles long, two 
miles wide and has 
a capacity of thir- 
ty billion gallons. 
The lake abounds 
in fish. Hundreds 
)f power boats, row 
boats and canoes 
ply its water. At 
the municipal bath- 
ing beach throngs 
of citizens and vis- 
itors from all parts 
of Texas find re- 
laxation during the 
summer. 

Fort Worth is 
the third largest 
packing center in 
the country, and 
the second largest 
horse and mule 



Fort Worth, Looking North on Main Street from Tenth. The Texas Hotel in Center on Right. 

M. Bank Building on the Left 

97 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



market. One and a half million head of live stock 
are slaughtered annually. From the plains of West 
Texas and New Mexico and from Old Mexico, come 
to Fort Worth, long trains loaded with cattle. From 
these plains come hundreds of trains loaded with 
grain. Fort Worth mills have a daily capacity of 
2.000 barrels of wheat flour and an equal amount 
of corn products. 

Five large wholesale grocery houses in Fort Worth 
including one of the largest in the country. A roll- 
ing mill employs 700 men. A Fort Worth furniture 
factory is the largest in the South. The Fort Worth 
Power and Light Company's plant is the largest 
in the Southwest. She has twelve banks and trust 
companies, one of which, the National Bank of Com- 
merce, has recently been chartered with a capital of 
$1,000,000. Her bank deposits are more than $80,- 
000,000 and bank clearings are increasing each year. 

The growth of the city is indicated by tremendous 
increase in the bank clearings, the building permits 
and the post office receipts. 

Building permits in 1917 amounted to $1,790,612. 
In 1918 they amounted to $2,267,887. On September 
1, 1919, the permits had exceeded $9,000,000. Per- 
mits for the month of August were in excess of 
$3,000,000. In 1920 and 1921 the building permits 
were far above normal. 

Post office receipts show steady growth. They 
have doubled in five years. 

In spite of the departure in July, 1918, of approxi- 
mately 45,000 troops who received their mail through 
the Fort Worth post office, the receipts have in- 
creased rather than diminished and continue to grow 







W. T. Waggoner Building. Twenty Stories of Offices 

rapidly, due to the great influx of new population. 
Fort Worth has one university, two class A col- 
leges, nine private and preparatory schools and 
twenty-seven public schools. Three new high school 



buildings were recently completed at a cost of 
$6,000,000. 

Fort Worth has more than 100 miles of paved 
streets; twenty-seven parks with an area of 6,427 

n~ 





The Texas, Fort Worth's New $4,000,000.00 Hotel, the Finest 

Hostelry in the South. There are Six Hundred 

Guest Rooms, all with Bath 

acres and 64 miles of street railway within the city. 

There are 100 churches in Fort Worth and ten of 
these occupy buildings which cost more than $100,000 
each. The largest Sunday school in the country is 
located in Fort Worth. 

The Shrine Mosque is located on Lake Worth, is 
the headquarters of Moslah Temple and was recently 
completed at a cost of $300,000. 

Building operations recently completed in Fort 
Worth involve a total of twenty-five million dollars. 
According to careful estimates there are under con- 
struction seven hundred residences and apartment 
houses, sufficient to accommodate three hundred 
families. The latter group includes the Lucerne 
Apartment which was recently completed and which 
contains 119 three, four and five-room apartments. 

The W. T. Waggoner Building, completed in 1921, 
offers the much needed office space. This building 
occupies a ground space of 75x95 feet, and is twenty 
stories in height with a double basement and is lo- 
cated at Eighth and Houston Streets. 

The Farmers and Mechanics National Bank Build- 
ing, completed in the latter part of 1921, is a twenty- 
four story structure at Seventh and Main Streets. 
This building is one of the tallest in Texas and cost 
over $1,500,000. The bank owned part of the corner 
and recently purchased the balance. The dimensions 
of the building are 100x100 feet. 

The Livingston Oil Corporation recently purchased 
a site on Third Street between Main and Commerce 
Streets and have announced their intention of build- 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



ing a ten story office building, at a cost of about 
$700,000, in the near future. 

Pierre Levy and associates have purchased a site 
in the 900 block on Main Street extending through 
to Commerce Street and will erect an eight story 
building to house a large motion picture theatre and 
offices. 

The Citizens Hotel Company recently erected at 
Eighth Street between Main and Commerce Streets, 
the new Texas Hotel, which cost two million dollars. 
The company, made up entirely of Fort Worth citi- 
zens, paid $350,000 for the site, which is 100x120 
feet. The hotel contains 450 guest rooms and is 
fifteen stories in height. 

E. N. Schenecker has recently purchased a lot, 
100x200 feet on East Seventh Street between Cal- 
houn and Jones Streets and announced his intentions 
of erecting an eight story build ng to house a whole- 
sale grocery establishment. 

The United States Navy constructed a Helium gas 
plant two miles north of the city at a cost of four 
million dollars. Several petroleum refineries have 
been completed within the last few years and more 
are to be built. These new plants, when completed, 
will give Fort Worth an additional refining capacity 
of 75,000 barrels per day, and if present plans are 
carried out the total expenditure on these plants will 
be in excess of fifteen million dollars. 

The Monnig Dry Goods Company has recently pur- 
chased a lot, 75x200 feet, extending through from 
Main Street to Commerce Street near Fifteenth 
Street, and will erect a seven story building to house 
its wholesale department. 

W. C. Stripling, a dry goods merchant who owns 
the entire block between Main, Houston, First and 
Second Streets has made additions to his store which 
give him a seven story building covering the entire 
block. 

The Chevrolet Motor Car Association in 1921 
made an addition to its assembling plant which cost 
$250,000. 

The Alexander Lumber Company has just com- 
pleted a plant for the manufacture of interchange- 
able unit houses, which cost $250,000. 

The Texas Creosote Manufacturing Company has 
finished its plant in which it has invested $200,000. 

The Star-Telegram, an evening paper, has erected 
a building at a cost of $*00,000. 

Oil well supply concerns in Fort Worth during the 
past two years have taken out permits for ware- 
houses which cost in excess of $2,000,000. 

The city of Fort Worth is doing its share toward 
caring for the rapidly growing population. The 
filtration plant was recently completed by the city 
cost $300,000. During April, 1919, a bond issue of 
$1,890,000, was voted to provide for sewer, water and 
street improvements and extensions for the construc- 
tion of a sewage disposal plant. 

Recently Tarrant County, of which Fort Worth is 
the county seat, and which already has the best road 
system in the state of Texas, voted $3,450,000 ad- 
ditional bonds for good roads. 

The Southwestern Telegraph and Telephone Com- 
pany is spending $460,000 on improvements and ex- 
tensions on its system in the city and more than 
$1,000,000 on improvements in the long distance serv- 
ice to the various towns in Texas and Oklahoma oil 
fields. 



Building operations in Fort Worth are limited at 
this time only by the inability to get more build- 
ers and laborers. Already a large army is employed 
and recruits are being sought to double this army 
if possible. New houses have been built and are 
being built in every part of the city, and yet the cry 
for more residences is becoming louder and louder 
as thousands after thousands of new homeseekers 
continue to pour into the city. Among the recently 
constructed buildings are: The twenty-story W. T. 
Waggoner Building, the twenty-four story F. & M. 
Bank Building, one of the tallest buildings in Texas, 
and the $2,000,000 Texas Hotel. 

Fort Worth is growing and growing fast and 
seems in a fair way to realize the forecast that the 
population of the city will reach a quarter of a 
million people when the next census is taken. 

Banks of a city may be considered an index to 
its prosperity and the growth of the Fort Worth 
banks are an indication of the city's rapid growth. 
They have more than 50,000 individual accounts and 
deposits are in excess of $50,000,000. Several of the 
banks have been compelled to enlarge their quarters 
to handle the business that has come to them and 
yet some of them continue to work in cramped quar- 
ters. There are six national and four state banks 
and not one of them has failed to share in the pros- 
perity caused by the growth of the city. 

Fort Worth is superlative in a number of things, 
but among them may be mentioned its distribution 
facilities by means of the seventeen railroads and 
splendid paved highways extending in every direc- 
tion; the center of the oil industry of Texas, many 
of the largest producers having established their 
headquarters here; its refinery and pipe line facili- 
ties, reaching to the various oil fields of Texas, and 
Oklahoma; its packing houses, cotton gins and cotton 
seed and peanut oil mills; its industries of every 
kind and unexcelled general commercial conditions; 
its schools, which rank among the finest in the state, 
both in teaching talent and in buildings, and its cli- 
mate, water and people — everything that makes a 
city desirable as a home. 

Fort Worth offers two special advantages to home 
seekers in its schools and churches. For grade and 
high school work there are a number of private and 
church schools in addition to the public schools, 
and for those wishing to take college courses there 
are no schools of higher education offering better 
advantages than the Texas Woman's College, under 
direction of the Methodist Church, and the Texas 
Christian University, under direction of the Christian 
Church. 

Practically every denomination is represented 
among the churches of Fort Worth and each has 
a substantial following. Many of the congregations 
have built houses of worship that would be an ad- 
vantage to any city in the country and several 
have established and are conducting) institutional 
churches with great success. One church in the city 
has a membership roll of about 4,000 communicants 
and has the largest Sunday school in the world. 

Fort Worth is the capital of the "land of liquid 
gold," not in the sense of the city where laws are 
made, but as a city which reflects in its culture 
and prosperity the contentment and happiness of a 
united commonwealth. 



99 



HISTORY OF FORT WORTH BANKS 



By G. H. COLVIN 

Chairman of Board, F. & M. Bank 




T 



[HE growth and develop- 
ment of any communi- 
ty or state is commen- 
surate with the strength of 
its financial resources. Capi- 
tal and labor, in the hands of 
integrity and industry, make 
an irresistible combination, 
and a community so blessed 
with these forces can only go 
forward to success and bigger 
things. 

The city of Fort Worth 
was fortunate to have within 
its bounds in its pioneer days 
such type of men; yet they 
dared to stake their judgment 
and loan their money on many 
a proposition for the up- 
building of their town that today would be consider- 
ered as foolhardy speculation. A study of these men 
and their methods reveals to a large extent the rea- 
son for the steady, sturdy and continuous growth of 
this very important city in the Lone Star State. 

On the pioneer pages of History of this small 
Army Post, we find written the names of these men; 
Col. Van Winkle, Major K. M. Van Zandt, Thos. A. 
Tidball, Capt. M. B. Loyd, J. F. Ellis, W. J. Boaz, 
Capt. H. C. Edrington, J. Marklee, Jno. Nichols, A. 
B. Britton, S. W. Lomax and others. Of these men, 
only one today is with us; Maj. K. M. Van Zandt, 
still at the helm of the institution he organized, the 
only president this institution has ever had. The 
first bank interests were established here in 1872, W. 
J. Boaz and J. F. Ellis under the firm name of 
Boaz & Ellis conducted a general merchandise store 
and in connection with this did a loan and exchange 
business, which was at the time the principal func- 
tions of a bank. A little later Geo. H. Van Winkle 
and A. W. Wroten opened the private bank of Van 
Winkle & Co. The following year, Thos. A. Tidball, 
Wilson & Co., which was reorganized in the latter 
part of the same year to Tidball, Van Zandt & Co., 
with Tidball, Van Zandt, J. J. Jarvis and J. Peter 
Smith as members of the firm. After this reorgan- 
ization, in the same year, Capt. M. B. Loyd and J. 
Marklee formed the bank of Loyd, Marklee & Co., 
also known as the California and Texas Bank. 

When the National Bank Act was passed in 1876, 
Capt. Loyd organized the First National Bank. La- 
ter the City National Bank was organized, and in 
1882 W. J. Boaz and associates obtained the char- 
ter for the Traders National Bank. 



The combined resources of the Fort Worth banks 
in 1882 totalled $1,502,959.52. The total resources 
of the Fort Worth banks today are over $65,000,- 
000.00. Fort Worth deposits in 1882 were $915,000. 
Today the total deposits are $55,000,000.00. 




■•v ■...: ■■ -., ■ - 



^ S £g>;:: 




Farmers and Mechanics National Bank Building:, 

which on Completion in 1921 was the Tallest 

Building: in Texas 

In 1888 The Fort Worth Clearing House Associa- 
tion, was formed with a membership of six banks, 
The First National Bank, The City National Bank, 
The Traders National Bank, Fort Worth National 
Bank and Merchants National Bank. There are to- 
day ten member banks in the association; First 
National Bank, Fort Worth National Bank, Far- 
mers & Mechanics National Bank, Stock Yards Na- 
tional Bank, Continental Bank & Trust Company, 
Exchange State Bank, Texas State Bank, Ft Worth 
State Bank, Guaranty State Bank and National Bank 
of Commerce. 

The daily clearings in 1888 averaged about $45,- 
000.00. Today, this average is nearer $3,000,000.00 





Fort Worth's New Skyline. Buildings Costing Over 810,000,000.00 have been Erected in this Business 

District in the Past Two Years 



100 



HISTORY AND PROGRESS OF FORT WORTH 

By J. ir. ALLISON 

Formerly Proprietor of Fort Worth Record 




FORT WORTH is a won- 
derful city with a glow- 
ing future. The pioneers 
must have had a prophetic 
vision when they built their 
block houses on the banks of 
Trinity River and made it a 
haven of refuge for settlers 
when, as occasionally hap- 
pened, they were driven from 
their ranches and farms by 
Indians; the United States 
government looked ahead 
when it established a military 
post at this point in 1849 and 
gave it the 
name the 
city now 
bears; the 
cattlemen who made it their 
marketing point, the early day 
traders and the latter day mer- 
chants, the railroad men, the cap- 
tains of industry, the tourists who 
came to see and stayed because 
they saw the possibility for happy 
homes — all appear to have recog- 
nized the spot as most admirably 
located by reason of climate, 
geographical position and natural 
resources and advantages as the 
ideal place for residence, for com- 
merce, for agriculture, for a domi- 
nant station among the great cities 
of this fair land. And yet none of 
them knew and until very recently 
none has known- that they were 
establishing themselves in the "land 
of liquid gold." 

For many years Fort Worth grew slowly, but 
even so, she has kept pace year after year with 
every other growing city of Texas, has outstripped 
many and now bids fair to outstrip all of them. As 



a trading post it has attracted the ranchman from 
near and distant points, and the cow boys and the 
cow owners made periodical visits for both business 
and pleasure. Strong men located here, men who 
looked ahead, and they made it an industrial center, 
small at first, but having a foundation capable of sus- 
taining a large growth. 

It was natural that having become established as 
one of the most enterprising and substantial cities 
of Texas, Fort Worth should have attracted the 
railroads. They came one after the other, until at 
this time thirteen trunk lines of railway converge 
at this point and radiate in seventeen different di- 
rections. With their connections they cover all points 
in Texas and all Oklahoma. Three lines lead to 




Looking Across Lake Worth 
The Old Shriner's Mosque 



From the Meandering Road 
is Seen on the Farther Shore 




Forest Park is a Beautiful Area, Comprising Seventy-Five 
Acres. A Glimpse of the Zoo is Shown at the Right 



Denver, three to New Mexico, five to St. Louis, four 
to Kansas City, five to Houston and Galveston and 
two to the Mexican border. 

The railroad yards in Fort Worth have storage 
for 15,000 cars and none larger may 
be found South of Kansas City. 
About 80 per cent of all railroad 
traffic entering Texas passes through 
Fort Worth and more than one and 
one-quarter million freight cars are 
interchanged here annually. 

The railroads and the steady 
growth of agriculture throughout 
the surrounding country contributed 
to the continued growth of Fort 
Worth and the city gained more and 
more until the population had 
reached close to one hundred thou- 
sand. Natural gas was piped in 
from Oklahoma fields, and cheap 
fuel, both gas and lignite coal from 
the Thurber mines, only a few miles 
away, give encouragement to indus- 
try. And then came the discovery 
of oil with Fort Worth in the center 
of the new oil field, and new men 
and new money poured in. 



101 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Time was when men sought for gold in the river 
beds and cradled it out of the sands, later they mined 
it in rocks which they crushed to extract the yellow 
metal, now they drive a drill many feet into the 
earth and penetrate to the pools where oil is to be 
found and then they realize the truth that they are 
living in the "land of liquid gold." 

Fort Worth will not be dependent much longer 




Bathing at the Municipal Beach, Lake Worth 

on natural gas from Oklahoma, although that has 
served its purpose well. Two pipe lines now are 
being constructed, one by the government which 
purposes bringing gas of a superior quality from 
Petrolia, a few miles north, to manufacture argon 
gas or helium for use in balloons and another from 
the Ranger field, about one hundred miles to the 
west, which will bring to the city Texas gas for 
heating and power purposes. 

The discovery of Texas oil fields adjacent to Fort 
Worth gave a new stimulus to the city. Oil de- 
velopers and oil producers flocked here from all 
parts of the country bringing money for investment 
not only in oil lands, but in pipe 
lines, in refineries, in new indus- 
tries and in homes. Deposits in 
the banks doubled and trebled and 
kept on growing and new banks 
were established. The Pierce Oil 
Corporation had a refinery in 
operation here with a daily ca- 
pacity of 15,000 barrels before 
the discovery of the new oil fields, 
the Magnolia Petroleum Company 
had a refinery with a daily capacity 
of 12,000 barrels and the Gulf Re- 
firing Company had a refinery with 
a daily capacity of 6,000 barrels, a 
total daily capacity of 33,000 bar- 
rels. Since the new oil fields were 
opened ten new refineries have been 
constructed or are in progress of 
construction which will increase the 
daily refining capacity to 75,000 
barrels and other refineries hav- 
ing plans to increase the daily out- 
put by about 15,000 barrels are 
planning to locate here. 

Upwards of one billion dollars are said to have 
been paid for oil leases in the Fort Worth area of 
the West Texas oil field and at this time hundreds 



of wells are being drilled in every part of the field. 
Many of these wells become producers, some of them 
prove to be merely dry holes, the latter often oc- 
curring within a few feet of a good producing well, 
but the $50,000 or so expended in a dry hole is not 
lost, for the money has been paid out in large wages 
to the men employed on the work and through them 
has passed into the various channels of trade, and as 
a general thing the company which 
has paid out its money for a dry 
| hole, makes it up and much more 
too, soon afterwards by bringing in 
a good producer. 

One of Fort Worth's greatest at- 
tractions is Lake Worth, said to be 
the largest artificial body of water 
in Texas. It is about 14 miles in 
length and two miles wide and 
covers 5,000 acres. It was con- 
structed by damming the west fork 
of the Trinity River and impounds 
thirty billion gallons of water, suffi- 
cient to provide for the needs of a 
city having 500,000 population. 
The dam is 3,300 feet in length and 
the spillway is 700 feet long. The 
water is soft and may be used in 
boilers. By the use of an elab- 
orate filtration system, the water 
attains a high degree of purity and 
is distributed to every part of the city. 

The lake is one of the chief pleasure resorts of 
the city. It has a bathing beach where thousands 
go during the summer to enjoy the inland sea, this 
bathing beach being sufficiently distant from the 
intake to the filters to avoid any risk of contaminat- 
ing the water. The lake is popular for boating, pro- 
vides splendid fishing for those who like that sport, 
and the shores on every side are dotted with summer 
homes and camps, in addition to several chautauqua 
grounds. It is in fact one of the most delightful 
recreation spots to be found anywhere. 

Fort Worth's trade territory is very large, extend- 




Neil P. Anderson Building, Home of the Grain and Cotton Exchange, as well 
as Many Dealers in Grain and Cotton Products 

ing throughout North Texas, far up through the 
Panhandle country to the very edge of Colorado and 
New Mexico, embraces the greater part of West 
Texas and reaches far into Oklahoma. 



102 



WICHITA FALLS, THE CITY THAT FAITH BUILT 

By WICHITA FALLS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



REALIZING the discovery of great oil fields 
in Wichita County as a remarkable bit of 
good fortune, and also as a commanding op- 
portunity for new civic advancement, Wichita Falls 
has started activity on an enlarged program of solid, 
substantial improvements. It is ambitious as a city 
to become known, not only for its wealth in oil, 
wheat, cattle and cotton, but as a delightful city in 
which to live and to rear children, as well as to make 
a living. 

While oil has played a big part in the growth of 
Wichita Falls, it is a mistake to consider that it is 
merely an oil town. Wich- 
ita Falls had 8,200 people 
in 1910 and in 1917, before 
the discovery of the Burk- 
burnett oil field, it had in- 
creased more than 100 per 
cent to a population of 18,- 
000 based upon its agricul- 
tural and jobbing and 
manufacturing resources. 
Following the discovery of 
oil in 1918 at Burkburnett, 
Wichita Falls leaped into 
the city class and the 1920 
census gave it a population 
of 40,079. This made the 
percentage of growth in the ten years from 1910 to 
1920, 388 per cent. 

The oil fields of Burkburnett, Iowa Park, Electra, 
Petrolia, Holliday and other parts of northwest 
Texas, with a daily production of nearly one hun- 
dred thousand barrels are an important factor in 
Wichita Falls. Wichita County produces more oil 
than any other county in the United States. There 
are about thirty refineries in the Wichita Falls oil 
district, thirteen of these being in Wichita Falls. 
Wichita Falls is the headquarters of hundreds of oil 
companies and of thousands of individuals who fol- 
low the oil business in one or another of its various 
phases. New oil producing territory is being steadily 
developed. 

Wichita Falls does not look to oil alone for her 
substantial prosperity. The city is a wholesale 
center for a large portion of northwest Texas, and 
southwest Oklahoma, and is constantly adding to its 
wholesale trade. It is the retail center of a pros- 
perous district. There are about fifty manufactur- 
ing plants in the city, their products including flour, 
motor trucks, glass jars, window glass, refinery 
products, brooms and brick and tile material, oil 
field tools and equipment, building material, roasted 
coffee, foundry products and other articles. The 
Wichita truck, manufactured in Wichita Falls, is 
sold throughout the civilized world, and the scope of 




A Night View of Wichita Falls 



its distribution is scarcely less extensive than that 
of other Wichita Falls products. 

Wichita Falls is the center of a prosperous farm- 
ing community, for which the city is both the mar- 
ket and the source of supplies. Wheat, oats, corn, 
forage crops, cotton, fruit and truck are produced 
and the farm production is to be greatly increased 
when the $4,500,000 irrigation project is completed. 
Already large tracts near the city are under irriga- 
tion, and such records as $7,500 worth of melons, 
$400 of tomatoes, 150 bushels of sweet potatoes and 
1,000 bushels of cucumbers, from one acre, have been 
made. The new irrigation 
project will add 150,000 
acres of irrigated land and 
will also insure a perma- 
nent ample water supply 
for the city. Grain finds 
a ready market in Wichita 
Falls, there being four 
elevators with a combined 
capacity of 1,180,000 
bushels. 

Wichita Falls is division 
headquarters for both the 
Ft. Worth and Denver, and 
Missouri, Kansas and 
Texas systems, which con- 
trol seven of the rail outlets. More than 1,000 
men are employed in the offices, shops and yards of 
these railroads. Two new railroads now reach 
Wichita Falls, one is the Wichita Falls, Ranger 
and Gulf, financed largely by home capital, con- 
necting with the oil fields of central West Texas; 
the other, the Rock Island decently built from Wau- 
rika, Okla. 

No city in the United States saw more new build- 
ings erected, in proportion to population, than did 
Wichita Falls in 1919-1920, it being estimated that 
a total of more than $20,000,000 was expended. 

The city school system comprises a high school, a 
junior high school, seven ward schools and a negro 
school. During 1920 a total of $300,000 was spent 
by the Board of Education in erecting new buildings. 
There are 30 churches and missions in the city, and 
the larger denominations are housed in splendid 
buildings of worship. One congregation recently 
constructed a $250,000 building and two others have 
plans under way for buildings rivaling this. 

Wichita Falls Chamber of Commerce is stronger, 
numerically and financially, than that of any other 
city in America of less than 100,000 population, hav- 
ing a membership of 2,500, and an annual revenue 
of $60,000. Wichita Falls offers innumerable oppor- 
tunities for commerce, industries, manufactories and 
agriculture, and invites all those who are in any way 
interested to write the Chamber of Commerce. 








Skyline of Wichita Falls today. The Oil Metropolis of North Texas 

103 



WICHITA FALLS IRRIGATION PROJEGT 



By J. A. KEMP 

Chairman of Board, City National Bank of Commerce 




A' 



N important election 
was held on Septem- 
ber 7, 1920, by the 
Wichita County Water Im- 
provement District No. 1, 
which comprises the city of 
Wichita Falls and some acre- 
age of farm lands to the 
north and to the south of the 
city, and voted bonds in the 
amount of $4,500,000 to com- 
plete the irrigation project. 
The bonds have been sold and 
the construction work done. 
This pi-oject furnishes the 
city of Wichita Falls with 
a permanent and adequate 
supply of pure water and 
also irrigates approxi- 
mately 150,000 acres of the rich Wichita Valley land 
lying on both sides of the Wichita River in the 
vicinity of Wichita Falls. 

A large dam was constructed across the Wichita 
River in the north central part of Baylor County, 
thus forming an artificial lake covering some 17,835 
acres of land and holding 444,168 acre feet of water, 
an acre foot being water one foot deep over one 
acre of land. In addition to the large reservoir there 
was a diversion dam and reservoir built some 




The City National Bank of Commerce Building- Home of the 
Banking Institution of that Name 

twenty miles east of the main reservoir which 
has an additional capacity of 45,000 acre feet of 
water. From this diversion dam site two canals 
were constructed, one running north and one running 



south of the city limits of Wichita Falls. The south 
canal is used to supply Lake Wichita with an 
abundant supply of water at all times. A chemical 
analysis of the river water made by the Fort Worth 




Kemp Hotel, Named for the Pioneer Citizen of Wichita Falls 
One of the Finest Hotels in the Southwest 

laboratories, May 20, 1920, shows that the water con- 
tains very little hardness of any character. An 
analysis shows the following ingredients: 
Calcium Carbonate 66 parts per million 
Calcium Sulphate 245.8 parts per million 
Calcium Chloride 104.4 parts per million 

Sodium Chloride 112.8 parts per million 

Thus indicating that the water is excellent water 
to drink and also to put on the land for irrigation 
purposes. 

The city of Wichita Falls was confronted with 
a situation similar to that confronting Los Angeles 
in 1905. In order to maintain our present pros- 
perity and to provide for the future growth of the 
city, a permanent and adequate supply of water was 
imperative. 

After many years of testing of the underground 
water in this part of the state we are assured that 
the underground supply is entirely inadequate and 
so full of mineral salts as to make it unsuited for 
drinking purposes. The only adequate and satis- 
factory supply within the reach of this city is the 
Wichita River which extends some 200 miles to the 
west and flows sufficient water for all purposes. The 
location of the large dam and reservoir is ideal and 
seems to have been made by nature for this very 
purpose. A large natural basin had been surveyed 
in the north part of Baylor County and a dam was 
built across a narrow gap in the hills impound- 
ing sufficient water to take care of a city of a million 
people and also to irrigate some 150,000 acres of 
the rich Wichita- Valley land in Archer and Wichita 
counties. It is difficult to realize the change that 
has occurred in the surrounding country since this 
irrigation has been completed. On the Seymour road 



104 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



and the Electra road we will see hundreds of homes 
surrounded with five, ten, twenty acre tracts in- 
tensively cultivated in field and garden truck of all 
character. Fruit and shade trees, in abundance, 
berries of all kinds, sugar beets, long staple cotton, 
wheat, alfalfa, corn and other field crops will be 
grown with a certainty of success because an abund- 
ant supply of water is ready to be placed on the 
land, whenever required. Farmers will make as 
much money from a ten-acre tract under irriga- 
tion as they now make from a hundred acres without 
sufficient water. Many prominent people in this city 
have already decided to acquire a small acreage 
under this irrigation ditch and build a home where 



duplicate the wonderful results in those states. 

In many respects our climate is more advantag- 
eous to some crops than either Colorado with its 
severe cold or California with its rainy season. This 
project has been favorably passed upon by some of 
the best irrigation experts in the country and there 
seems to be no unfavorable features to overcome. 

The water is here in abundance, of good quality 
and favorable for the land. The entire project will 
be gravity flow, thus saving the expense of pumping 
the water as is done all along the Rio Grande. 

With the cultivation of land which will vastly in- 
crease the rural population, there will also be the 
introduction of industries which go hand in hand 




The Business Section of Wichita Falls, from a Point Beyond the Railroad Track 



they can have fresh vegetables, eggs, milk, etc., 
every morning with beautiful country surroundings, 
and run into the city for business on the concrete 
roads that will be built along the valleys. 

Intensive cultivation of some 150,000 acres of land 
in the vicinity of this city will give us the most 
densely populated agricultural districts in the state 
and will furnish the necessary labor for the opera- 
tion of many factories which will locate here in order 
to handle the agricultural products and also to avail 
themselves of the labor thus afforded. Traction 
lines will probably be run through the thickly settled 
valley lands to accommodate the people and to 
handle the products of the farms. 

The completion of this project will accomplish 
two things. It will furnish the city of Wichita 
Falls an abundant supply of pure water for all 
future time and thus stabilize and maintain our pres- 
ent real estate values, and provide for the future a 
confidence on the part of our present and future 
citizenship in the continued growth of our city. 

It will also bring hundreds of farmers from out- 
side our country who will locate here and take up 
the valley land in small acreage farms and build 
their homes among us and intensively cultivate this 
rich valley. Under irrigation one acre of land fre- 
quently nets the farmer from $500 to $1,000 and 
such acreage planted in fruit, walnuts, pecans, etc., 
in other irrigated districts sells from $1,500 to $3,000 
per acre. Agriculturists have examined the soil in 
the Wichita Valley and have pronounced it as rich 
as any irrigated land in Colorado or California, and 
state that with irrigation we should be able to 



with rural communities. Much of the land will un- 
doubtedly be turned to fruit raising. This will be ac- 
companied by the organization and building of pack- 
ing plants and canning factories, to take care of the 
produce as fast as it is gathered. Manufacturing 
establishments will also be erected to furnish utensils, 
machinery and tools used in the cultivation of the 
land. These institutions will employ a great deal 
of labor, thus increasing the population of this 
element. This additional population will vastly in- 
crease the mercantile business, both retail and whole- 
sale. Money will be deposited in the banks, all kinds 
of permanent improvements will be made, thereby 
increasing the wealth of the community and estab- 
lishing a stable and permanent business in all lines. 
The project will be owned by the people, and man- 
aged by a board of directors elected by them. It 
will be carried out under the irrigation laws of the 
State of Texas and there will be absolutely no profit 
to anybody connected with the enterprise in the way 
of promotion or the sale of water rights. The entire 
project will be owned by the people and the cost, 
owing to the favorable engineering features will be 
less than any other irrigation project of this mag- 
nitude ever completed. The entire cost will be di- 
vided between District No. 1, comprising the city of 
Wichita Falls and some fifteen thousands acres of 
irrigable land north and south of the city, and Dis- 
trict No. 2, comprising the main irrigable land 
lying west of the city in the Wichita Valley. The 
only other expense will be the maintenance and 
operating expense each year. The bonds will be 40 
year bonds and the principal and yearly interest will 
be arranged in easy payments. 



105 



TRANSPORTATION AND INDUSTRIES OF WICHITA FALLS 

By FRANK KELL 




w 



'ICHITA FALLS does 
not look to oil alone 
for her substantial 
prosperity. The city is a 
wholesale center for a large 
portion of northwest Texas 
and southwest Oklahoma, and 
is constantly adding to its 
wholesale trade. Because of 
its location and excellent 
railroad facilities Wichita 
Falls was known as a thriv- 
ing manufacturing center be- 
fore oil was discovered and 
gained first place among its 
industries. Excluding its re- 
fineries and other plants deal- 
ing with the oil business 
there are approximately 45 
manufacturing firms in the city having a total in- 
vestment of more than $7,000,000 and an annual 
gross output valued at more than $20,000,000. About 
1,800 people are employed in these plants. 

Among the important articles manufactured in the 
«ity are motor trucks, window glass, brick, tiles, 
fruit jars, mattresses, flour, brooms, tanks and meal. 
The Wichita trucks, manufactured here, are sold in 
68 countries of the world, one shipment recently 
going to a buyer in the Gobi Desert in Asia, to re- 
place camels. Flour made in Wichita Falls is sold 
extensively for export trade also, shipments going 
to South America, Cuba, Norway, Sweden and many 
other parts of the world. The capacity of the Wich- 
ita Mills and Elevator Company's two plants is 3,500 
barrels daily, together with 500 barrels of meal and 
2,000 bags of feed. About 30,000,000 bushels of 
wheat are handled on the average each year. 

There are 33 companies doing a wholesale and 
jobbing business, their total investment is approxi- 
mately 10,000,000 and their annual business is about 
$36,000,000. This business is growing rapidly be- 
cause of the increase in wealth and prosperity of the 
city's distribution territory and its railroad ad- 
vantages. 

The railroads of Wichita Falls have struggled with 
a traffic problem almost unprecedented and have 
made an earnest effort to meet the enormous demand 
made by the sudden growth. Wichita Falls is the 




Wichita Mill and Elevator Company, One of the City's 
Big Industrial Institutions. 

division headquarters of the Ft. Worth & Denver, 
and the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway sys- 
tems, which control all of the southern outlet. More 
than a thousand men are employed in the offices, 
shops and yards. Two other railroads now reach 



Wichita Falls, one is the Wichita Falls, Ranger 
and Ft. Worth which was built from Brecken- 
ridge to Dublin, financed largely by home capital, 
together with the Wichita Falls and Southern R. R. 
connects with the oil fields of central West Texas; 
the other, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, built 
from Waurika, Okla. 

The Wichita Falls & Northwestern, built by local 
citizens in 1906-1911 (with mileage of about 400 
miles extending from Wichita Falls across the west- 
ern part of Oklahoma to Forgan with a branch line 
from Altus, Okla., to Wellington, Texas, being oper- 
ated now as a part of the M. K. & T. system, but with 
general headquarters and shops in Wichita Falls, is 
a large factor in transportation facilities in this city. 

In order to take care of the increased demands on 




L^zasfc 



The Business Section of Wichita Falls, as Viewed from an 

Airplane. The County Court House is Seen 

in the Foreground 

the railroads entering Wichita Falls many improve- 
ments have been made here. New construction by 
the Ft. Worth & Denver in brief is as follows: Two- 
story office building and freight house, $250,000, with 
foundation for ten stories; new freight yard north of 
city, $150,000; new coaling station, $50,000; in- 
creased yard facilities through city, two new tracks, 
$10,000; river track, $10,000; eating and rooming 
house for employees, $8,000; temporary freight 
house, $5,000; three new sidings, $21,000. 

Improvements by the M. K. & T. railroad total 
$1,000,000. They include: New freight yards north 
of the city; three story freight and office building; 
track of heavier steel and ballasting Wichita Falls 
to Whitesboro; dispatcher's telephone circuit, Wich- 
ita Falls to Whitesboro; established general offices 
at Wichita Falls; four train masters, two road fore- 
men of engines and one master mechanic to handle 
business formerly handled here by one train master; 
three sets of dispatchers; track, Wichita Falls to 
Burkburnett, ballasted and improved, fourteen miles, 
for heavier traffic than is handled over any similar 
piece of track in the southwestern region; signal 
system, Wichita Falls to Devol, Okla.; four mile 
double track through Burkburnett; 55 industry 
tracks, 35 miles; additional yard facilities, capacity, 
1,000 cars, which alone is more yard trackage than 
the M. K. & T. had at Wichita Falls prior to 1918. 

With these greatly increased facilities in opera- 
tion, Wichita Falls is looking forward with optimism 
to the advent of new industries and factories in this 
district, feeling assured that they will be amply 
provided for in all their needs. Inquiries are invited 
and new enterprises welcomed. 



106 



NORTH TEXAS OIL INDUSTRY 

By WALTER D. CLINE 

Ex-President, Texas and Louisiana Division Mid-Continent Oil & Gas Association 




w 



ICHITA FALLS, 
headquarters for all 
West Texas oil ope- 
rations, as well as for much 
of the work in central West 
Texas and southwest Okla- 
homa, is perhaps more pre- 
eminently an oil city, in the 
accepted sense of that term, 
than any other community in 
Texas. Yet it denies that hei 
prosperity and growth have 
been dependent upon oil alone 
in the past, or that with the 
gradual passing of oil that 
her development will cease. 
Wichita Falls had many 
years of steady and consist- 
ent growth before the oil 
business assumed such gigantic proportions, and it 
is laying- systematic and careful plans for maintain- 
ing her present proud position among southwestern 
cities when the time comes that oil is less of a 
factor than now. 

At the present time the district of Wichita Falls 
as the center produces about one hundred thousand 
barrels per day and just now many pools being de- 
veloped that promise to materially increase these 
figures. There are fourteen refineries in Wichita 
Falls, and thirty-three in the oil district tributary 
to it, all depending upon the production of the 
Wichita oil district for their operations. Many of 
these refineries have their own production. 

Practically all of the large companies that operate 
in Texas have offices in Wichita Falls, and conduct 
their extensive operations from this city. The Texas 
Company, Gulf, Magnolia, Sun, Prairie, Sinclair, 
Humble and others might be named in this connec- 
tion. In addition, there are many hundreds of 




The G. Clint Wood Building, Wichita Falls. Built by the 
Pioneer Oil Man for Whom it was Named 

smaller companies that maintain offices in Wichita 
Falls and make this city headquarters for their 
activities. Their personnel includes experienced oil 
men from every section of the United States, as well 
as many, not oil men before, who have become such 



by reason of their successful and profitable opera- 
tions here. In fact, Wichita County oil field has 
been the particular paradise of the so-called "little 
fellow," for the biggest wells were brought in at 
depths of less than 1,800 feet, for which the men, 




Wichita Falls, Looking Down Eighth Street from Lamar. 
The Building on the Left Foreground is the Kemp Ho- 
tel. On the Right is the City National Bank of 
Commerce 

or group of men, with little capital might drill with 
little expense. This condition has resulted in very 
extensive development, with resultant prosperity for 
Wichita Falls. 

Oil has already played a large part in the history 
of Wichita Falls. With its discovery in large quan- 
tities in the Electra district in 1911 new capital 
flowed into this city, new enterprises were organized 
to take care of the business and oil men began to 
look upon the city as headquarters. The many dis- 
coveries of new pools since that time in different 
directions from the city, at Clara, Sunshine Hill, 
Burkburnett, Iowa Park, Holliday, have added to 
the city's wealth and prestige. 

The total money value of oil produced in Texas 
during the last quarter was $31,250,000; out of this 
total $3,538,507 goes to the credit of companies hav- 
ing their home offices in Wichita Falls. The value of 
the product in Wichita County of such companies 
as the Texas Company, Magnolia Petroleum Co., 
Humble Oil and Refining Co., and others, which are 
the largest producers in the state is not included in 
this amount, though all of these companies have big 
production in Wichita County. The proportion of 
successful companies having their headquarters in 
Wichita Falls will be much greater for the present 
quarter than for the last, because of many new de- 
velopments. 



107 



History and progress of bregkenridge 

Bv BREGKENRIDGE S. WALKER 




FROM a hamlet of six 
hundred souls, without 
fame, without railroads, 
without everything, Brecken- 
ridge has grown within the 
short space of two years to a 
city that is known nationally 
and internationally as an oil 
class hotels, banks with de- 
center to a city upwards of 
15,000 inhabitants served by 
three railroads, many first 
posits of more than $6,000,000 
and a new post office with 
1,649 lock boxes. 

February 4, 1920, is a me- 
morable date for this city. 
When the Chaney No. 1 well 
began suddenly on this day 
to spout oil at a rate of 3,700 barrels per day, the 
news was flashed across the wires far and wide 
and the future of Breckenridge as a city was as- 
sured. The railroads now running into Breckenridge 
are the Cisco & Northeastern, Wichita, Ranger & Ft. 
Worth and the Wichita & Southern. These roads 
centering in Breckenridge located at the very heart 
of one of the great oil districts of this country, mak- 
ing of it a logical clearing house, oil center and meet- 
ing place for the transaction of business concerning 
this rapidly developing Eldorado. While the produc- 
tion does not come up to the 100,000 barrel per day 
mark at this time, yet the prospects are good for 
it to come back to this point. Lack of water for drill- 
ing and bad market conditions caused considerable 
depression in the production. Experienced oil men 
are convinced that the district is not one-half de- 
veloped and that many big producers are still looked 
for in the fields. 

There are now close to 2,000 derricks within three 
miles of the Breckenridge court house, over three- 
hundred of these are in the Breckenridge townsite, 
over seven hundred of the total number of the wells 
are producers while practically all of the remainder 
are temporarily shut down for drilling. 

Up until recently it must be admitted that the 
city lacked water and the streets needed paving 
while other numerous inconveniences that always ac- 
company a new oil city were present. However, the 
progressive citizenship of the oil metropolis rapidly 
took the necessary steps to remedy these conditions 



and the mayor and city commissioners met February 
2, 1921, to make plans for the flotation of $300,000 
worth of bonds for sewerage system and $600,000 
for street improvements. Also plans were made for 
a flotation of a $250,000 bond issue for the erection 




The First National Bank of Breckenridge, one of the Strongest 
Banking Institutions in West Texas 

of a high school and $175,000 additional for gram- 
mar school buildings. The wide awake merchants 
and business men pledged themselves to a man to 
put new fronts on their buildings which improve- 
ments are rapidly being carried out. To take care 
of the water situation, the Walker-Caldwell Water 
Company, at a cost of over a million dollars, have 




A Portion of Breckenridge from the Intersection of East Walker Street and Breckenridge Avenue 

108 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



built one of the most complete and up to date water 
systems of Texas, supplying the city with an ade- 
quate supply of watsr brought from the Brazos 
River, ten miles distant. This splendid system was 
built and paid for in full without bonding the system 
for a dollar. 

So it is to be seen that Breckenridge today is in 
its period of transition. Those who have never seen 
an oil boom town, those who have read of the days 
of '49, Cripple Creek and Goldfield and wish they had 
lived to witness the romantic side of that period 



and those who have resided all their lives in 
peaceful and slowly growing cities — all such peo- 
ple should go to the wonder city of Breckenridge 
immediately if they desire real atmosphere and 
local color. Within another year the greater part 
of the town's picturesqueness will have disap- 
peared and in its place will be found a very live 
little city of modern brick buildings, paved streets 
and will resemble any other wide awake busy 
municipality of the same degree of prosperity and 
enthusiasm. 



BRECKENRIDGE, THE OIL CITY 

By BRECKENRIDGE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



BRECKENRIDGE, one of the latest and most 
progressive oil centers of the Southwest, is al- 
ready a city commanding a prominent share 
of industries of North Texas. The industries are 
principally oil, refined oil products, gas, coal, fire 
brick clay, agriculture and cattle raising. The 
population is conservatively estimated at 15,000. 
The city has a banking deposit upwards of $6,000,000 
and has one of the finest water systems in Texas, 
built at a cost of $1,000,000, with a splendid filtra- 
tion plant, a standard motorized fire equipment, paid 
fire department, four railroads with common point 
freight rates and has a sufficient number of well 
supported schools, churches, clubs and hotels, that 
would be a credit to any city of the Southwest. 

The "Breckenridge oil pool" is the greatest oil 
producing area in the United States. Oil records 



and these plants refined over 800,000 gallons ol 
crude oil during September. Ten of the leading oil 
companies of the world maintain operating head- 
quarters here as well as 700 of the smaller com- 
panies whose holdings comprise from 10 to 500 acres. 
The monthly payroll of the oil companies operating 
within the "Breckenridge oil pool" is over $3,000,000. 
There are thousands of acres of undeveloped land 
in Stephens County, which lands are located within 
proven and semi-proven oil territory, awaiting the 
coming of outside capital for development. Stephens 
County has just sold $2,100,000 road bonds. This 
sale of road bonds assures the county of an ade- 
quate highway system upon which construction im- 
mediately started. The plans as outlined include 
construction of the Bankhead Highway which tra- 
verses the county east and west and passes through 




West Walker Street, Breckenridge. The Largest Building in the Background is the Stephens County Court House. 
The Three-Story Building in the Foreground is me first National Bank Building 



and statistics bear out this statement. The "pool" 
comprises 34 square miles and embraces over 2,100 
standing oil derricks, 1,620 of which are producers, 
approximately 290 in state of drilling with but ap- 
proximately 190 dry holes. The production for Sep- 
tember, 1921, was one-third as much oil as either 
California or Oklahoma produced and 12 per cent 
of all oil produced in the United States. The "Breck- 
enridge oil pool" produced over 2,500,000 barrels 
of oil during September. Within the "Breckenridge 
oil pool" are located 23 refineries and casing-head 
plants representing an investment of over $8,000,000 



Breckenridge; also the highway north and south, 
together with lateral roads throughout the county. 
Federal aid has been obtained for the Bankhead 
Highway in the sum of $300,000. 

Breckenridge is the wholesale and retail distribut- 
ing center of all classes of oil supplies for the entire 
"pool." Forty-seven oil supply houses are located 
here and carry stocks that reach a total of more 
than $18,000,000. Breckenridge is the county seat 
of Stephens County, which county's assessed valua- 
tion has increased from $18,000,000 to $50,000,000 
during 1 the past two years; is being served by four 



109 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



railroads; is the largest and only incorporated city 
in the county, is located geographically in the coun- 
ty's center and enjoys the surrounding territory's 
wholesale and retail business to the extent of mil- 
lions of dollars. 




City Pumping Plant of the Walker-Caldwell Water Co. 

Breckenridge has made rapid strides in the matter 
of public improvements. Many first class permanent 
buildings have been erected which give it the air 
of a much larger city. The streets are being rapidly 
improved and many of the principal streets will 
eventually be paved. 

The general spirit of the business people of this 
"West Texas Oil Metropolis is to make it a city of 
permanent prosperity. During the last two years, 
three railroad lines have been completed connecting 
Breckenridge with Ranger, Cisco and Graham, 
putting the city in close communication with the out- 




interior View, and the Officers and Employees of the First 
National Bank of Breckenridge 

side world, both with the North, East and West. 
This has given great sesame to the mercantile busi- 
ness, both wholesale and retail. 

The city of Breckenridge has a large surrounding 
territory which makes it a commercial center. The 
public highways are also being rapidly improved 
and Breckenridge is already connected with Graham, 
Caddo and Ranger with good automobile roads. 
Other roads are being improved to the oil fields and 
near by cities. The greatly increased population of 
Breckenridge during the last two years and due 
primarily to the oil business, has brought to the city 
many kindred industries and has given permanent 



employment to hundreds of men in various lines of 
occupation. 

Stephens County, of which Breckenridge is the 
county seat and principal business center, was 
formerly devoted to stock raising. In the memory 
of many of the local citizens, herds of cattle grazed 
on the open range which covered a large portion of 
this part of the State. In recent years, with the 
dividing of the land in smaller tracts, the raising 
of small grain became the principal industry. The 
greatest drawback to this section is the lack of rain 
in some seasons. 

The assessed valuation of Breckenridge for 1921 
is approximately $12,000,000. This is an increase 
over 1920 of $10,000,000. More than fifty one, two 




Coadulation and Sedimentation Basin of Walker-Caldwell Water 
Company, Breckenridge 

and three story fireproof buildings have been con- 
structed recently. Bonds have beeen voted in the 
sum of $600,000 for street improvements; $300,000 
for sewerage; $350,000 for additional school build- 
ings, the work for which will begin immediately. 
Breckenridge has a first class post office, employing 
31 persons. Total receipts for the past four months 
were $413,563.92. Stamp sales totaled $28,130.33, 
while money orders issued totaled $390,233.59. 
Breckenridge has a building program for 1921-1922 
calling for an expenditure of $300,000, of which 
$2,500,000 has already been expended. This build- 
ing program included hotels, business blocks, oSce 
buildings, churches and schools. The Baptist and 
Presbyterian churches have now under construction 




Pump Station at Dam at Crystal Falls, from which the Water 
Supply of Breckenridge is Secured 

new buildings costing $100,000 and $'45,000 respect- 
ively. Breckenridge today is the largest and morally 
the best city in the "West Texas Oil Belt," and with 
its rapid growth and permanency assured we 
heartily invite the "new comer." 



110 



HISTORY OF RANGER 

By M. II. IIAGAMAN 




T 



IHE story of Ranger, 
through the years of 
struggle for a bare and 
scant existence, to the present 
prosperous City reads like a 
fairy story of old. Less than 
six years ago, with a popula- 
tion of seven hundred native 
West Texans, there was no 
indication of what would be 
the future history of this 
little village. Though there 
were some whose optimism, 
even in the face of hardships 
occasioned by the drought, led 
them to believe in the possi- 
bility of finding oil beneath 
the rocky surface, yet few, if 
any, foresaw the growth and 
phenomenal development which was destined to make 
Ranger known throughout the whole world as she is 
today. 

When oil was first discovered in October 1917, on 
the McClesky farm, through the united efforts of 
Mr. Marston, Mr. Gordon and several enterprising 
citizens among whom were Mr. John M. Gholson, 
H. R. Gholson, M. H. Hagaman, strangers began to 
arrive in large numbers and by July, 1918, four 
thousand pilgrims to the promising El Dorado scurried 
hither and thither in a mad disorderly fashion, com- 
peting for the almighty dollar. There was no City 
Government, but the old citizens of Ranger were 
destined to maintain the good reputation of their 
home town and in order that she might go forward 
with more rapidity, a Chamber of Commerce was 
organized and an experienced Secretary placed in 
charge. The result was a cleari-up both from moral 
and sanitary standpoint. New industries and mer- 
cantile establish- 
ments came every 
week. Streets, room- 
ing houses, trains be- 
came so congested so 
as to tax every re- 
source of the com- 
munity. 

In the early part of 
1919 a movement was 
started to incorpor- 
ate the city, and at 
the election in Feb- 
ruary, a large ma- 
jority was cast in 
favor of incorpora- 
tion. Later in April, 
a charter election, ac- 
cepting the Commis- 
sion plan was car- 
ried, and though the 
administration was 
hampered by reason 
of not having any 
funds the benefits of 
the organized ma- 
chinery of City Gov- 



meantime an unprecedented development was taking 
place in the surrounding oil field. Leases com- 
manded fabulous prices and in a very short time 
practically every tract of land within a radius of 
thirty miles was leased. Farmers who had struggled 
for years for a scant living became suddenly rich and 
a large number moved to nearby cities to enjoy a well 
earned rest. All the large oil companies and inde- 
pendent as well as scores of newly organized com- 
panies secured holdings and vied with one another 
in drilling into the pay sand until the country for six 
miles about the city is a veritable forest of oil rigs. 

Ranger became a city of 25,000 to 30,000, streets 
were paved, modern schools and office buildings were 
erected and a fine clean city was built where oil men 
and ranchers could bring their families to live in 
order to properly educate their children. 

Since the oil boom subsided, the city of Ranger 
has settled down to a steady but continuous progress. 
It is the commercial center for a vast area of West 
Texas and the unlimited quantity of natural gas 
here assures the city of Ranger a prominent and 
permanent place among the leading cities of West 
Texas. 

The big permanent building period began im- 
mediately after the fire and a transformation, almost 
as if by magic, has taken place in a little less than 
two years. More than twenty five, two, three- four 
and six-story brick buildings costing from $50,000 
to $350,000 have been erected in the business district. 
They are buildings modern and substantial. Bonds 
were voted by the citizens and one of the largest 
paving contracts ever let in Texas, covering sixty- 
seven blocks in the business district, was let and 
work started late in 1919. By the end of 1920, forty 
blocks of this contract had been completed with the 
prospect that the entire contract will be completed 
by the middle of 19 21. 




ernment have been in- 
numerable. In the 



The Principal Business Street of Ranger on a Busy Day 
Ranger has Modern Office Buildings and Several Miles of Paved Streets 

111 



MINERAL WELLS 

By MINERAL WELLS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 

RAY LEEMAN, Manager 




M : 



INERAL Wells, "Na- 
ture's Great Sanita- 
rium," is in pictur- 
esque Palo Pinto County, fif- 
ty-three miles west of Fort 
Worth on the Texas & Pa- 
cific Railroad and the Bank- 
head National Highway. Min- 
eral Wells has been a boon 
to the health and happiness 
of thousands of people from 
every state in the Union and 
from nearly every foreign 
country on the globe. It has 
made them enjoy the more 
living today and look to the 
morrow with greater joy and 
anticipation; it has added to 
the days of their usefulness 
and the hours of their recreation. 

Nature smiled upon the beautiful valley where 
lies Mineral Wells and gave a beautiful and charm- 
ing setting to the city. Texas knows no more pic- 
turesque land than the beautiful Palo Pinto moun- 
tain country. The winding highways that radiate 
in every direction from Mineral Wells are a con- 
stant delight to the motorist. 

Along these highways is some of the most ma- 
jestic scenery in the state. Think of the spots of 
beauty and grandeur that must have conjured up 
the names of Devil's Hollow, Witch's Rock, Hang- 
ing Rock, Lover's Retreat, Inspiration Point, Reve- 
lation Point, the Pinnacle and Penitentiary Trap. 
Think of the joy of motoring only a few minutes 
from ihe city to a high pinnacle overlooking the 
majestic Brazos, where in the blue haze of the 
horizon, your eyes can view five counties. 

Mineral Wells is recommended by reputable physi- 
cians throughout the United States. Railroad rates 
are available the year 'round from everywhere, while 
snecial week-end rates prevail from all points in 
Texas in the summer. Golfing is available most 
every day in the year while swimming, boating, fish- 




Bathing Scene Near th~ Beautiful City of Mineral 
Wells 

ing and many other sports are indulged in by the 
thousands of visitors. Recently one of the most 
complete and comfortable automobile tourist parks 
in the Southwest has been completed. It is only 



eight blocks from the heart of the city and is 
equipped with all the things that make camping a 
pleasure. 

Mineral Wells has a full quota of modern mer- 
chandise establishments and the prices are not ex- 
orbitant. One of the largest inland lakes in Texas 
has recently been completed. It covers 1,000 acres 
and has an average depth of 30 feet. A great out- 
door swimming pool has been built in connection 
with this lake and a concrete wading pool for the 
kiddies has been provided. 

The region surrounding Mineral Wells is prolific 
with the sweetmeats of Nature. Tickle the rich 
sandy loam and it laughs a harvest as rich and re- 
plete as it is diversified. Here are raised some of 




Mineral Wells, One of the Leading Health and 
Pleasure Resorts of Texas 

the finest watermelons in the world. The straw- 
berries are rich in flavor and red with their luscious 
juices. Of course this is a great live stock coun- 
try and the crops include all kinds of fruits and 
vegetables, pecans, peaches, corn, wheat, cotton, 
grain, etc. The dairy and beef cattle industry of 
Palo Pinto County stands among the first in the 
state. Tillable land is available at reasonable prices. 

Mineral Wells boasts the largest mineral water 
bottling plant in the world. Here, too, are the larg- 
est drinking pavilions in the country. Mineral Wells 
is not only a good place to visit and recuperate, but 
it is a good place to live. The natural beauty of 
the surrounding country and the delightful all-year 
climate make this naturally an ideal home spot. The 
added attractions are good schools, modern churches, 
natural gas for all purposes in unlimited quantities 
and at a low rate, paved streets, an abundance of 
good drinking water, hospitable neighbors and the 
pleasant and congenial surroundings of a moderate 
sized city, coupled with a distinct metropolitan at- 
mosphere. 

Mineral Wells offers advantages favorable to the 
location of industries and would be an ideal college 
town. Being hard by one of the greatest natural 
gas fields in the United States, an abundance of 
fuel at a low cost is assured. Living conditions are 
unexcelled and housing facilities are exceptionally 
reasonable. Climatic conditions are advantageous 
and a healthy, happy existence is assured. 

Of recent years, Mineral Wells has taken on a 
splendid and solid growth and is rapidly forging 
to the front, not only as the great resort city of 
West Texas, but as one of the larger cities of that 
great empire. 



112 



AUSTIN, THE HOME CITY 

By AUSTIN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



IN building a city of homes, homes which are al- 
ways a delight to live in, many conveniences 
must be added to the work nature has done for 
the locality in order that people may desire to live 
there. 

Nature has given to Austin and its surrounding 
territory climate, sunshine, water and scenery, and 
the hand of man has done the rest. 

In 1836, the Republic of Texas appointed a Com- 
mission whose duty it was to locate the capital of the 
Republic. A Republic whose area was more than 
one-twelfth as large as the present total area of the 
United States. This commission looked over the 
whole of Texas and then unanimously selected the 
present site of Austin. This site was near the cen- 
ter of the Republic and selected on its merit and nat- 
ural beauty. 

The city is built on the edge of the Edwards pla- 
teau with the altitude ranging from 500 to 700 feet 
above sea level. The Colorado River flows through 
the south side of the city but the water never dis- 
turbs the inhabitants along its course. The banks 
of this stream are of limestone from 40 to 60 
feet above the water. 

Beginning at Austin and going northward, the 
Colorado has cut a canyon through limestone hills 
for a distance of 250 miles. This fact makes pos- 
sible the utilization of water power without any 
great engineering difficulties, such as are charac- 
teristic of nearly all other rivers. From six to 
eight dams could be built across the river at a min- 
imum expense. The dam which has been built at 
Austin, when completed, will generate 6,000 H. P. per 
day. This dam now forms a lake 28 miles long 
where fishing, boating, swimming and other sports 
are engaged in throughout the year. This lake is ac- 
cessible by automobile and street cars. The lake is 
65 feet deep. 

There are a number of bathing beaches, such as 
Deep Eddy and Barton Springs which provide ad- 
ditional recreation for all visitors and residents. 

The homes of Austin are beautiful throughout the 



year by every type of flower which grows in the 
south. Each season of the year produces its abun- 
dance of wild flowers in the fields, along the road 
sides, and on the hills. 

In making this a home city, the citizens of Austin 
have taken particular care to see that its water 
supply is maintained not only in abundance but of 




Looking up the Main Thoroughfare of Austin Towards the 
Capitol Building 

the highest quality. Street car service is provided 
to every section. The city being well drained there 
are rarely ever any mosquitoes. 

There are within the city nearly 60 Churches, rep- 
resenting the principal denominations. There are 
also Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A organizations. The 
Country Club is one of the best to be found in Texas 
with beautiful grounds and scenery. 

The area of the city is 16 square miles. There are 
195 miles of streets, 35 miles of which are paved and 
tarviated. There are 69 miles of sewer mains and 64 
miles of gas mains. There are a number of high 
class theatres and moving picture shows which con- 
tribute to the pleasure of all. 

Surrounding Austin there are 340 miles of mac- 
adamized and tarviated roads which traverse the 
hills and mountains west of the city as well as the 
level farming land to the east. There are four na- 




Lake Austin, only a Short Ride from the Heart of the City; A Popular Watering 
University Students and Residents of Austin 

113 



Place for 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



tional highways passing through Austin, these are 
the Meridian Highway, The International Paved 
Way, the King of Trails and the Southern Highway. 

The business men and other citizens of Austin 
have organized a number of clubs which are working 
for the upbuilding and beautification of Austin and 
its surrounding territory. The principal one of these 
clubs is the Chamber of Commerce which has been 
working for Austin for nearly forty years. The or- 
ganization has a permanent building on Congress 
Avenue in which center every activity of the city 
and surrounding country. This organization is 
backed financially by every leading business con- 
cern of any importance in the city. The farmers 
and stockmen in the country are joining the organi- 
zation as a business proposition and are receiving 
many benefits. The Rotary Club, Lions Club, and 
Kiwanis Club are strong allies of the Chamber of 
Commerce in the work which it is doing. There is 
never any friction between these organizations and 
the value of progressive spirit which these clubs in 
inculcating in the minds of the citizens of this city 
cannot be estimated. The Retail Merchants Asso- 
ciation and the Credit Men's Association are two of 
the most valuable assets the retailers and whole- 
salers have. Among the citizens of Austin of na- 
tional and international repute are Col. E. M. House, 
A. S. Burleson, T. W. Gregory, D. F. Houston, R. E. 
Vinson and Mrs. Percy V. Pennybecker. 

Throughout the city are located many beautiful 
parks whose grassy slopes are dotted with live oak 
trees and mountain laurel in great profusion. 
Among these parks are; Woolridge Park, Pease Park, 
the City Park at Lake Austin. One of the striking 
beauties of Austin is the wide paved streets whose 
parked centers are carefully kept. 

The public schools in Austin, numbering sixteen in 
all have the highest scholarship classification of any 
schools in Texas. There is also located in Austin 
the Texas State University which has an enrollment 
of 3,500. The Texas school of the Blind, Deaf and 
Dumb Institute, Wesleyan College, Pfresbyterian 
Theological Seminary and a number of private 
schools are located here. 

Austin was one of the first cities in Texas to adopt 
the Commission form of government. The wealth of 
the city is estimated at seventy-five million dollars 
and the wealth of the county outside of the city is 
estimated at sixty-seven million dollars. The Post 
Office receipts for 1918 were $268,579.83. Austin 
has four banks and two trust companies. The clear- 
ings for 1918 were $185,372,224.38. 

The State Capitol of Texas located at Austin is 
the largest building of its kind in the United States. 
This building is constructed of Texas Granite and is 
surrounded by beautifully parked grounds. A number 
of modern office buildings, notably the Scarborough 
building, Littlefield building and the Austin Na- 
tional Bank Building provide offices for all types of 
businesses. Accommodations are found in the hotels 
for all the travelers and strangers who visit the city. 

In the country surrounding Austin, the prospective 
home seeker will find any type of soil he desires. 
There is the rich alluvial bottom land which costs 
from $200 to $250 per acre. There is the rich fertile 
black prairie land which is worth from $125 to $200 
per acre. In the western part of the county the hilly 
land which has some farming land on it can be pur- 
chased at from $5 to $10 per acre. At the present time 
there are 5,697 homes in Travis county. The average 
rainfall in this county is 35 inches per year. This 



is sufficient rainfall to produce any of the staple 
crops which are grown in Texas. The principal 
crops raised in Travis county are, cotton, corn, cane 
and a variety of hay crops. Peaches, plums and 
grapes produce abundant crops when properly cared 
for. One of the vegetable crops produced in winter 
is spinach. Austin ships annually from 200 to 500 
cars of spinach. This is the largest producing point 
for spinach in the south. The climate and soil are 
especially adapted to the production of this vege- 
table which does not do so well at many other points 
where the winter is too severe or where the soil does 
not contain such essential elements as iron. There 
are many other vegetable crops as well as farm 
crops which pay well in Travis and surrounding 
counties. 

The temperature of this section is maintained at 
a comfortable degree throughout the summer by gulf 
breezes which blow principally from the south or 
southeast. 

The normal cotton crop of Travis county is sev- 
enty thousand bales, while there are approximately 
four hundred thousand bales produced in the trade 
territory of Austin. 

The dairy industry is becoming an important fac- 
tor each year. The eradication of ticks is bringing 
into this county full blooded registered stock from 
the best herds of the nation. 

There is marketed at Austin each year around 
two hundred and fifty thousand dollars worth of 
turkeys. These are killed, picked and shipped to 
market in refrigerator cars. The field for raising 
chickens and turkeys is unlimited. 

Among the industries of Austin are the following 
factories: Canning plant for chili; factory for gas 
engines; brick; candy; bottling; cigars; flour; cotton 
seed oil; mattresses, cots, beds; mill work; doors; 
soap; ice; trunk; monuments; also creameries and 
cotton gins. 

One of the factories badly needed to utilize the 
spare labor in Austin is a cotton mill. 

The transportation lines with railroads to Austin 
are the International - Great Northern; Missouri- 
Kansas-Texas and the Southern Pacific. The 
freight tonnage of Austin for 1918 was 1,314,900 
tons. The value of the public and High School prop- 
erty is $1,113,000.00. The minimum water rate is 
50c for 2,500 gallons. The electric power rate is 
2%c per K. W. for over 3,000 K. W.s. 

Austin is one of the most attractive residence cities 
of the South. It particularly appeals to the highly 
cultured and educated class of citizens. A great 
many state officials often serving their term in 
office and becoming imbued with the charm of 
Austin make this Capital City their permanent place 
of abode. 

Many well-to-do or retired business men from the 
cities and ranchers from the rural district move 
to Austin to give their children the advantages of an 
education in the splendid schools or the University. 

In close proximity to Austin are many attractive 
places to go for vacation time. The Colorado river, 
above the city is noted for its beautiful scenery. 
Motor boats can go many miles up the river through 
as fine a stretch of attractive scenery as can be found 
in the South. The Colorado river is teeming with 
fish which gives an unlimited field of sport tc the 
angler. Lake Austin also is a natural vacation spot 
with facilities for boating, fishing, swimming and 
picnicking. 



114 



THE WONDERFUL RESOURCES OF WEST TEXAS 



By PORTER A. WIIAEEY 

Manager West Texas Chamber of Commerce 



HARASSED by misleading and often by 
malicious statements affecting the very life 
blood of her civilization, following the nearly 
state-wide drouth of 1917, and keenly feeling that 
she was the victim of misunderstanding and preju- 
dice, in December, 1918, a small but representative 
group of West Texans assembled in Fort Worth and 
there took initial action towards the organization 
of a movement which should always have as its 
prime idea the importance of correctly portraying 
the actual facts as they might exist with regard to 
life, progress and truth in the regions making up 
the domain of West Texas. 

It is an interesting fact that the so-called drouth 
of 1917 extended over a larger proportionate ter- 
ritory in the eastern than in the western half of 
Texas. The drouth may, in a broad sense, be said 
to have approximated the area of the state, yet it is 
a perfectly true statement to say that of the regions 
not affected or only slightly affected more of them 
were located in west than in east Texas. Perhaps 
the territory most seriously affected was Central 
Texas. Yet, it seemed to be the custom of most 
Texans to refer to what they termed the "Drouth in 
West Texas." Abortive plans were placed under 
way to raise a sum of money which it was advertised 
was to "relieve the drouth in West Texas" ad in- 
finitum. Comparatively a small sum of money was 
raised, most of which was given to itinerants, and 
finally the remaining balance, representing a con- 
siderable part of the total, was given to the Kerr- 
ville tubercular hospital. Yet as late as during the 
special session of the state legislature at Austin in 
August, 1921, Senator Darrough of Texarkana de- 
livered an address before the senate of Texas 
astounding for its misinformation on the "relief 
given West Texas," and we were informed that 
"East Texas, in her generosity would be willing 
again to extend relief, if in the meantime most of 
the people had not returned to their former homes 
in the princely land of East Texas," and the sad 
thing about such statements is that thousands be- 
lieve them. It is in the black land belt particu- 
larly — that region of Texas noted for its high land 
values and low assessed valuation — and where there 
is general mis-information and a growing prejudice 
against West Texas. 

In view of the fact that West Texas pays propor- 
tionately a much larger part of the state taxes, and 
in fact has such a large over-plus proportionate 
payment as to make what in fact is in reality an 
annual contribution to the rest of the state aggre- 
gating millions of dollars, it does seem absurd that 
Senator Darrough should in his ignorance prate as 
he did in the last special session. 

Much of this mis-information is due not to a desire 
to damage West Texas, but is due to a general mis- 
understanding of life on the plains of West Texas. 

Purpose. It is therefore the primal purpose of 
the West Texas Chamber of Commerce to endeavor 
in a myriad of ways to dissipate mis-understanding 
of the truly remarkable life and pulsating civiliza- 
tion of the hardy, prosperous and thrifty people now 
living in West Texas, and in its place to repose an 
understanding of the causes back of the great exodus 
which in twenty years has sent more than 1,000,000 



native white Americans upon the lands of West 
Texas, and of the causes as they cumulate which 
for many years yet to come are to continue this 
movement. It is its purpose to stimulate all that 
is best in community and rural life, and to build 
up a consciousness of duty towards one-self, his 
neighbors and his community, and to assist in di- 
recting the mighty forces which fundamentally are 
creating a new civilization upon this threshold of 
the Southwest. Making people think is a necessary 
prelude towards getting people to act. Therefore 
thought should be followed by action, and no theory 
is worth while which fails in the acid test of action. 

Practical Things Done. Therefore the men who 
first originated the ideas of the organization rightly 
decided that they would bring into play a plan of 
operation which would cause the actual doing of 
practical, tangible things. Hence a program — and 
following that the instituting of bureaus, etc. After 
a working staff was appointed the first immediate 
object was to obtain its membership. It is interest- 
ing to note how the various towns in West Texas 
have become interested. Today the association has 
its members in practically every hamlet onward to 
the largest cities in West Texas. The present mem- 
bership includes the affiliation of 264 cities and 
towns, and a total of 5,157 members. 

The association operates through administration, 
traffic, service, agricultural, exhibit and legislative 
bureaus. A staff employee is placed at the head of 
each bureau, all of whom are appointed by the man- 
ager, who is himself elected annually by the execu- 
tive board. 

Porter A. Whaley, the writer of this article, is the 
manager. Clifford B. Jones, well known banker 
and agriculturalist, is the president. Geo. W. Briggs 
represents Lubbock on the board of directors. There 
are all told 34 directors. J. A. Kemp, of Wichita 
Falls, is vice-president. 

The administration bureau is under the imme- 
diate control of the manager, and as such directs the 
entire works of the organization. Traffic bureau is 
managed by H. H. Elzey and assistants. This 
bureau also has a special rate stenographer. It 
handles the various and intricate traffic problems 
presented to it by 260 member towns, and also by 
more than 5,000 individual members. A freight 
bill-checking service is also maintained. The agri- 
cultural bureau conducts live stock and dairying 
cow campaigns, gets laborers for harvest, etc. It 
covers all agricultural matters. A vast accumula- 
tion of work is handled. One of the interesting 
works is in marketing. The service or publicity 
bureau is that part of the fabric which must tell 
all about West Texas, must sell it, etc. Thousands 
of news stories are sent out daily. 

But above all the West Texas Chamber of Com- 
merce stands as an outward and visible sign of the 
inward determination of West Texans to protect 
their interest in all legitimate manners and to pre- 
sent to the great world beyond in an intelligent and 
capable manner the story of "America's last El- 
dorado"- — a place where men and women of in- 
tellect and brawn may with their minds and hands 
and hearts build for their glory and the glory of 
their God and country. 



115 



SAN ANTONIO 

By SAN ANTONIO CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



SAN ANTONIO, located on the dividing line be- 
tween what is called the Edwards Plateau (the 
hill country) and the great Coastal Plains, oc- 
cupies a peculiarly strategic position. For this 
cause the location was chosen originally, and the 
development of the country has increased the value 
of the location until today San Antonio is the great- 
est metropolis of the Southwest. 

The population, according to the latest estimate 
of the Research Bureau of the University of Texas, 
is 200,000. More conservative estimates and the 
city directory place it at 175,000. The area of the 
city is 36 square miles or 2,304 acres. 

San Antonio is the distributing and banking center 
for a great tributary territory, which, although as 
yet only partly developed, yields enormous agri- 
cultural and live stock products. 

The growth of San Antonio having sprung mainly 
from the service it has rendered as distributing 
point, it becomes necessary to consider the trade 
territory served by San Antonio. This trade ter- 
ritory covers fifty-five counties and contains 68,015 
square miles, or 43,529,600 acres. This is an area 
larger by 3,850 square miles than the combined 
areas of Ohio, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Con- 
necticut, Rhode Island and Delaware. 

The population of this territory, based on the 
United States census estimates, is nearly 1,000,000. 
The wholesale business of San Antonio is estimated 
by a committee of business men engaged in this 
line of business at $150,000,000 a year. 

San Antonio is naturally the retail market for 
this tributary territory and also for Mexico, al- 
though this latter business has been diminished by 
reason of the revolutions. The retail trade is esti- 
mated at from $100,000,000 to $125,000,000 a year. 

San Antonio has some of the largest department 
stores in the Southwest and has developed a retail 
market that serves this whole southwest country. 

of 



The military post at San Antonio, known as Fort 
Sam Houston, placed here because of the strategic 
advantages, represents an investment on the part 
of the United States government of between five 
and six million dollars. It is the general head- 
quarters for the Department of the South, head- 
quarters for the quartermasters and commissary 





Alamo Plaza, the Historic Park of San Antonio. In the Back- 
ground are seen the Alamo, on the Right, and the 
San Antonio Post Office in the Center 




One of the Principal Business Streets of San Antonio 

The total value of the agricultural products and 
live stock produced in this area in a normal year, 
according to official figures of the state comptroller 
of Texas, is over $200,000,000. The cotton raised in 
this section is estimated by state experts at 800,000 
bales, with a value of $80,000,000. 

San Antonio is a great live stock, cotton, wool 
and mohair market. 



supplies, the hospital base and the principal aviation 
base of the United States, which includes Kelly 
Fields 1 and 2 and Brooks Fields. With Camp 
Travis, the huge national army cantonment, this 
military establishment housed nearly a hundred 
thousand men during the war. Ordinarily 5,000 or 
more troops are garrisoned here. It is estimated 
that the financial asset to San Antonio of the army 
post is of the value of about $10,000,000 a year. 
The weather in San Antonio during eight months 
the year is altogether delightful, and although the 
four summer months are warm they have the heat temp- 
ered by the gulf breezes and the nights are cool. 

The winter temperature average is 54 degrees. It is 
possible to live out of doors most of the time, as the 
winter days are generally sunny. 

Spring temperature average is 69 degrees. 
Summer temperature average is 82 degrees. 
Fall temperature average is 70 degrees. 
The climate in San Antonio is favorable to manufac- 
turing, particularly because the mildness of the climate 
makes a saving in the fuel bill necessary to the heating 
of plants. Then again the length of days in the winter is 
greater than in northern latitudes, and there is a saving 
in the lighting cost. The climate being favorable to hu- 
man life, gives greater efficiency and a generally happier 
and more contented set of workers. 

Survey of the industries show that the larger factories 
employ approximately 7,000 persons, and the annual out- 
put is about $35,000,000. The payroll is in the 
neighborhood of $10,000,000. 

Owing to its very delightful and healthful climate, 
which is especially pleasant in the winter season, 
many tourists from the colder northern sections have 
been in the habit of coming to this city. Beginning 
in 1909, when two splendid new modern hotels were 
completed, San Antonio has consciously fostered 
this tourist trade. 



116 



THE FUTURE OF SAN ANTONIO 

By C1IAS. S. DIEIIL 




SAN ANTONIO is one of 
the natural capitals of 
the world. If the United 
States was divided into sep- 
arate sovereignties as con- 
tinental Europe is, San An- 
tonio would be the metropoli- 
tan center of the southwest- 
ern empire as it has always 
been and is now. This is not 
said in derogation of the other 
beautiful and growing com- 
monwealths of the great 
state of Texas, which cannot 
strictly be rivals of San An- 
tonio, in the commercial 
sense, any more than San 
Antonio can hold any ungen- 
erous rivalry toward her 
sister cities. Each cares for the broad territory in 
which it is located, but the fact remains that San 
Antonio was located and discovered by early Spanish 
discoveries, with the same unerring certainty as 
Rome, Paris, Vienna and Moscow. Its history dates 
back to 1689 as a European settlement. Its missions 
date back to 1700, and as American history runs, 
it represents the seat of the oldest white civiliza- 
tion in the republic. 

What San Antonio was, more than two centuries 
ago, it remains today, the strategic center of that 
one-quarter of the United States lying west of the 
Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, and from 
the Oklahoma line to the Rio Grande. Its strategical 
importance has been such that the battles for the 
control of the great Southwest empire were fought 
on the site of the city, and when^the Spaniards were 
finally defeated, and San Antonio became an Amer- 
ican garrison instead of a Spanish garrison, the 
American Republic definitely fixed its southern 
boundary at the Rio Grande. 

It has always been a military town, the same as 
the historic strategic cities of Europe. It has been 
such, for strictly military reasons, and in following 
up the natural historic hypothesis, it has grown with 
the population of the states surrounding it, into 
an ever increasing center of population, trade, and 



wealth. All the natural elements which attracted 
the early settlers from Europe remain with it, tend- 
ing to make it one of the most wholesome, delightful 
an^I healthful spots for a great city. Its natural 
elevation gives it perfect drainage, its water supply 
from deep flowing wells is unsurpassed in purity and 
volume, its skies are almost perennially blue — all 




The San Jose Mission Near San Antonio. A Relic of the 
Historic Days of the Spanish Padres 

tending to make it one of the healthiest large cities 
in the world. 

Apart from its ideal location, it is surrounded 
by an empire of tillable land, capable of producing 
large crops, with and without irrigation. The rang'e 
in production can be seen in all the tree, shrub and 
flower forms in her public parks, and in the tilled 
fields. 

The asphalt, oil, gas, mineral, lignite, building and 
road stone deposits have already been developed to 
an extent that insures the great prosperity of the 
capital city of the region, its numerous hot mineral 
baths are already largely patronized, its road sys- 
tem through the hig'h wooded hills to the north and 
west are being extended, while in the city itself 
her public and private schools are possibly larger 
in number than any other city of like size in 
America, insuring the growth of refinement and 
proper appreciation of the artistic among its people. 




*M*»i«l 




A Panoramic View of Business District of San Antonio, the City with an Ideal Climate. Beautiful Parks, Attractive Resi- 
dences and Commodious Hotels. San Antonio is one of the Most Popular Winter Resorts for Tourists 
in the South. One of the Largest Army Posts in the United States is Located Here 

117 



in this section of the state with some snow, but the 
temperature never remains low for any extended 
period, and the average mean temperature for the 
winter months is 43 degrees. The climate is indeed 
healthful and invigorating both winter and summer. 
The discovery of gas twenty-eight miles northwest 
of Amarillo is destined to play an important part 



AMARILLO, METROPOLIS OF THE PANHANDLE 

By BOARD OF CITY DEVELOPMENT 

AMARILLO, the metropolis of the well known 
panhandle country of Texas, with trade area 
of 3S panhandle counties is a modern and 
up-to-date city in every respect, advancing rapidly 
with the growth and development of this prosperous 
section of the state. What is known as the Amarillo 
trade territory, is an area containing 60,000 square 
miles, with a population of 350,000. 

Amarillo was for many years the principal city 
of the great western stock raising district. In the 
days of the open range vast herds of cattle fed 
on the broad prairies and Amarillo was the head- 
quarters of the stock men, who brought their cattle 
here for shipment to the Northern and Eastern 
markets. Although much of the land has been 
brought under cultivation, and grain raised in abund- 
ance, there are still large areas devoted to the cattle 
raising. Although Amarillo has undergone an evolu- 
tion which has made it a modern city, the modern 
improvements, fine business buildings and residences 
equipped with all of the up-to-date appliances of 
other modern cities, it still retains many of the 
traditions of the western range. 




Looking North on Polk Street, Amarillo 




Amarillo, the Metropolis of the Panhandle. A View of Polk 
Street Looking South from Fourth 

The principal crops are wheat, which in normal 
years amounts to 20,000,000 bushels, oats, barley 
and rye amount to 10,000,000 bushels, kaffir and 
maize 40,000,000 bushels. An idea of Amarillo as 
a market, may be gained from the shipments of 
products and stock from this city. The average 
shipment of grain over all railroads averages over 
700 cars annually, while live stock shipments, in- 
cluding cattle, horses, hogs and sheep averages 
over 5,000 cars annually. 

The South Plains section has become famous as 
a poultry producing section, while the North Plains 
is one of the greatest small grain producing and 
cattle growing areas in the country. 

Bank clearings annually of Amarillo are in excess 
of $300,000,000, while bank deposits are near the 
$10,000,000 mark, while the total bank deposits of 
all panhandle counties are over $60,000,000. The 
1920 census gives this city a population of 15,494, 
while the city directory estimate at this time gives 
; t a population of over 18,000. 

The climate of Amarillo has been grossly mis- 
represented and joked about, while as a matter of 
fact, the Fummer climate is delightful with an aver- 
age mean temperature for the summer months of 
69 degrees. There are, of course, some cold days 



in the future history of this city. This gas field is 
fifteen miles in width and twenty miles in length, 
and is probably the largest natural gas field in the 
world. The thirteen producing wells have a total 
daily capacity of 400,000,000 cubic feet, this gas 
serves the city for industrial, commercial and do- 
mestic purposes. It is more than likely that oil 
will also be discovered, inasmuch as many tests are 
now being made by substantial companies. 

There are three grain elevators here with a com- 
bined storage capacity of 700,000 bushels, and one 
flour mill with a capacity of 800 bushels per day. 
Eight wholesale houses have headquarters in 
Amarillo, and about 300 traveling salesmen have 
headquarters here. The volume of wholesale busi- 
ness averages over $20,000,000 annually. There are 
three railroad round houses and shops located in the 
city and up to date business houses of every descrip- 
tion to take care of the growing trade of the pan- 
handle district. 

With the vast area of wealthy productive territory 
surrounding Amarillo the city is sure to become a 




The City Hall of Amarillo 

wholesale as well as retail commercial center. 
Amarillo is assured a permanent place among the 
commercial and industrial, as well as agricultural 
centers of the Southwest. 



118 



EL PASO 

By EL PASO CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



EL PASO'S territory represents 15 per cent of 
the area of the United States and El Paso 
is the distributing and banking center of the 
district having a greater area than that comprised 
in the New England States and New York, New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania added for good measure. 

It is the only large city along 2,000 miles of the 
Mexican border, and is the natural meeting point 
for persons interested in mining, trade, transporta- 
tion, live stock, agriculture and manufacturing. 

El Paso is the seat of Federal and State Courts, 
National and International commissions, bureaus, 
and is a great center of tourist movement, offer- 
ing the unique attraction of instant communication 
with Mexico. 

It has a population of over 80,000 while the popu- 
lation of the territory, exclusive of states of Northern 
Mexico, is 1,050,203. 

The city of El Paso has a modified commission 
form of government; the executive and legislative 
power is vested in a mayor and four aldermen 
elected by the people. The school board consists of 
eight members elected by the people. Promptness 
and clarity of action and hearty co-operation char- 
acterize the work of the various municipal depart- 
ments. 

The city of El Paso was chartered in 1873. Popu- 
lation in 1900 was only 15,000. 

El Paso is essentially a city of homes of $18,000 
size. There are probably not over 50 wooden houses. 
All buildings are of reinforced concrete, brick, steel 
and tile. New building investments exceed $3,- 
000,000 per year. 

El Paso has hundreds of homes costing above 
$10,000, and over 50 homes worth $17,000 to $50,000 
each. 

El Paso's building permits for April, 1919, were 
140 valued at $126,133, against 110 permits in April, 
1918, valued at $59,041, indicating a return to pre- 
war activities. 

El Paso has the lowest fire insurance key-rate of 
Texas, it being only 20 cents. 

El Paso, an incorporated area of ten square miles, 
with 100 miles of graded streets, over 40 miles of 
paved streets, cost of paving over $2,000,000. Over 
50 miles of asphalt country roads. 

Parks and play grounds cover over 150 acres, valu- 
ation $2,400,000. 

El Paso has municipal water works which can 
supply 16,000,000 gallons daily. The city is now 
using only 6,000,000 gallons daily. Reserve capacity 
is always in excellent condition. The city plant is 
worth $2,000,000. The water is pure, as confirmed 
by recent analysis. 

El Paso has 85 lodges, societies and clubs and a 
public library with over 15,000 volumes; 12 hospitals 
and sanitariums, property valuation of over $3,- 
000,000. 

El Paso has 40 churches, property valuation, 
$1,000,000, and has 13 public schools and 9 private 
ones. Enrollment over 10,000 pupils. Property 
valuation more than $1,000,000. 

El Paso has a state school of mines, branch of the 
University of Texas; a million dollar hotel and many 
smaller but thoroughly modern hotels. 

Climate and Rainfall. Altitude of 3,767 feet; 
climate is equable, mild, but crisp and invigorating 



winters. 329 clear days each year and almost en- 
tirely free from humidity. Near El Paso is Cloud- 
croft, altitude 9,000 feet, which is one of the most 
delightful resorts in the world. El Paso has an 
annual rainfall of 9.84 inches. 

Financial Center. Within this district which we 
term our trade territory there are 190 banks, in- 
cluding El Paso, 70 national banks and 120 state 
banks, with a combined capital and surplus of $21,- 
000,000; and combined deposits of $85,000,000. 95 
per cent of these banks carry accounts in El Paso. 

The yearly volume of outgoing items of banking 
paper between El Paso and her trade territory totals 
$39,000,000 while the yearly volume of incoming 
items of banking paper reaches a total of $110,- 
000,000. The city of Denver, three times the size 
of El Paso, shows only twice this volume. These 
figures do not include the immense volume of bank- 
ing business done by this city with Mexico under 
normal conditions. The northern portion of Mexico 
is one of the richest sections of this continent in 
natural resources. 

The railroads realize the special value of the 
city's location by granting 10 days stop over privi- 
lege under normal conditions. 

El Paso has seven trunk line railroads; five from 
the East, North and West; two from Mexico; 40 
passenger trains arrive and depart from El Paso 
daily. 

The value of shipments made by manufacturers, 
jobbers and firms having stocks in El Paso near a 
total of $25,000,000 annually. 

The annual tonnage represented in these ship- 
ments totals over 800,000,000 pounds. This is on 
freight shipments only. The average freight move- 
ment in El Paso yards is over 2,000 cars per day. 

Trunk lines and feeders penetrate El Paso's trade 
territory in every direction, centering at this great 
Pass of the North. For centuries the great trails 
have centered here, owing to the typography of the 
country and the great railroad systems of today 
find that El Paso is the lowest pass over the Rocky 
Mountains and Continental Divide between the 
equator and the arctic snows. El Paso is the great- 
est trading point south of Denver, between San An- 
tonio and Los Angeles, a distance of 1,500 miles. 

In order to give a clear conception of the trans- 
portation facilities, the following items are pre- 
sented : 

El Paso is 1,250 miles from San Francisco, or a 
running time of 38 hours and 15 minutes; El Paso 
to Kansas City, 27 hours and 30 minutes; El Paso 
to Denver, 24 hours and 30 minutes; El Paso to 
St. Louis, 40 hours; El Paso to Chicago, 42 hours 
and 15 minutes. 

In view of the foregoing figures it is readily 
observed that any point within the trade territory 
can be served with a maximum running- time within 
18 hours. 

Industrial Survey. El Paso has 105 local firms 
engaged in manufacturing to some extent for the 
general trade. These figures do not include railroad 
shops, building trades, exclusive repair shops or 
special service shops. In these manufacturing es- 
tablishments a recent survey of labor shows 4,700 
wage earners now employed in the 105 manufactur- 
ing plants. The maximum capacity of these plants 



119 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



is approximately 7,500. On a maximum capacity 
of 7,500 laborers the annual output is $50,000,000 and 
the payroll is $5,000,000. Capital investment of 
$15,000,000. 

Natural Resources. No. 1. The largest body of 
clear white pine timber in the world is near El Paso 
in Chihuahua, covering an area of 3,500,000 acres 
and affording an outlet of 1,500,000 board feet per 
day for 100 years; two-thirds of this product is to 
be manufactured in El Paso. 

No. 2. Largest body of yellow pine on this con- 
tinent in New Mexico and Arizona, now on forest 
reserve. 

No. 3. Metal mining is the greatest industry of 
the Southwest, copper being the principal product. 
The mines within this territory produce $70,000,000 
worth a year; or more than one-fourth of the 
world's supply. El Paso's smelter itself produces 
one-twentieth of the total American copper product. 

No. 4. Next to copper rank silver and lead, which 
are produced in immense quantities in Northern 
Mexico and pass through the El Paso smelter. Gold 
is also produced west and southwest of El Paso 
and is of considerable value. East are the quicksilver 
mines with immense deposits of oil and sulphur in 
the same territory. Iron, zinc, manganese, platinum 
and tungsten. 

No. 5. Salt, potash, plaster and fertilizer exist 
in abundance. 

No. 6. Construction materials, sand, gravel, lime, 
cement, constituancies, tile and brick clay, fine 
marble and building stone. 

No. 7. North of El Paso in New Mexico lie the 
coal fields. This state (New Mexico) has the larg- 
est body of coal of any state west of Illinois. 
Coal ranges from ignite to semi-anthracite, with 
high g - rade domestic and steam coal. 

No. 8. Cotton in Texas, Arizona, New Mexico 
and Mexico producing one-fourth of the world's 
supp ] y of this staple. 

No. 9. Leather, hides, wool, mohair, fertilizer 
from 20,000,000 head of cattle, sheep, goats, horses, 
mules and hogs worth $240,000,000. 

No. 10. Furs and pelts from countless wild ani- 
mals. 

No. 11. Various fibers in unlimited quantities. 

No. 12. Rubber and gum plants. 

No. 13. Cereals for milling. 

No. 14. Vegetables and fruits for canning. 

No. 15. Broom corn, sugar cane and sugar beets. 

No. 16. Mineral springs of all kinds. 

Mexican Trade Relations. Due to the demoral- 
ized conditions in Northern Mexico, proper trade 
relations are difficult, however, a substantial busi- 
ness being done in all lines as emphasized by report 
on exports and imports. 

Amount exported, 1918, for fiscal year ending 
June 1st, 1918, $5,715,442. 

Imports from Mexico through El Paso amounted 
to $2,034,306 for the same period, while the Arizona 
districts show $20,077,045. This difference is readily 
explained by the operations of the Villistas on the 
railroad lines south of El Paso. The Chamber of 
Commerce maintains a special department for Mexi- 



can trade and handles all letters and bulletins for 
this territory in Spanish. 

Agricultural Development and Irrigation. The 
total value of agricultural products in El Paso ter- 
ritory is over $16,000,000 with one-fourth of this 
produced in the Rio Grande valley project or $4,- 
237,000. 

The Elephant Butte Dam project cost over $10,- 
000,000 and is the largest storage of irrigation 
waters in the world, storing fifty per cent more than 
Assonan Dam in Egypt. The reservoir will contain 
862,20'0,000,000 ; gallons of water. 

El Paso has had an interesting and romantic 
history. The name "El Paso" is a Spanish word 
meaning "The Pass." The city is the county seat 
of the county by the same name. The county was 
created from Bexar County in 1850 and was not 
organized until twenty-one years later. By an act 
of the legislature, Culberson County was created 
from a portion of El Paso and more recently Huds- 
peth County was created from a portion of the re- 
mainder, leaving the area of El Paso County but a 
small fraction of its former size. 

The surface of the county is generally mountain- 
ous, broken up and traversed by many canyons and 
valleys. A good portion of the county is given to 
grazing. Many thousands of acres along the Rio 
Grande where irrigation is possible is devoted to 
intense cultivation and is extremely productive. The 
Elephant Butte Dam was built by the Government, 
irrigating an area of fifty thousand acres North of 
El Paso. In the irrigated districts, much of the land 
is devoted to raising fruit. Some of the finest 
grapes in the United States are raised here. Large 
orchards of peaches, pears, plums and apricots are 
cultivated. The dairy industry of El Paso has also 
made rapid strides. 

The mountains in the near vicinity of El Paso are 
rich with mineral deposits. There are rich quarries 
of marble and granite. Copper and silver are mined 
in the Quitman Mountains. Lead and zinc are also 
mined in paying quantities. There is also some gold 
mined in this district and there are deposits of iron 
and coal in unlimited quantities. 

One of the most valuable attributes to El Paso, is 
her delightful climate the year round. At an altitude 
of 3762 feet, the air is dry and vigorous and the city 
is becoming famed as a health resort. There are 
many delightful features of El Paso as a health re- 
storing rendezvous. 

Situated on the Rio Grande river, there are many 
beautiful drives that are rich with scenic beauties. 
To a person who is not fond of outdoor sports, such 
as hunting and fishing, there are many attractive 
trips into the city of Mexico. Fish and game are 
found in abundance. Across the border lies the Mex- 
ican town of Juarez, where thousands of tourists, 
enroute from coast to coast, visit monthly and enjoy 
the Bohemian atmosphere of this Mexican Pueblo. 

El Paso is provided with many luxurious and com- 
modious hotels, with prices to suit the taste of the 
guests. El Paso is a great railroad center. All 
traffic passing from Texas and all other Southeri. 
States enroute for the west must pass through this 
city. 



120 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



ABBOTT— Hill County; pop., 1,196; on M. K. & 
T. Ry. and Waco-Dallas Interurban, 10 miles south 
of Hillsboro the county seat. Bank, Guaranty State. 
Industry, cotton. Express. 

ABERNATHY— Hale County; pop., 200; on P. & 
N. T. Ry., 31 miles from Plainview the county seat. 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ABILENE— Taylor County seat; pop., 10,274; on 
T. & P. and W. V. and A. & S. Rys., 161 miles west 
of Ft. Worth. Alt., 1,738 ft. Banks, Citizens' Nat'l, 
Farmers' and Merchants' Nat'l., Abilene State and the 
Central State Bank. Hotels, Commercial, Grace 
and Grand Central. Newspapers, Daily Reporter 
and Semi-weekly Reporter. Modern city with street 
railway, paved streets and modern public utilities. 
Institutions, State Epileptic Colony, Simmons Uni- 
versity, Abilene Christian College, McMurry College, 
public schools and libraries. Industries, cotton, cot- 
ton seed products, live stock and produce. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

ACME— Hardeman County; pop., 500; on the .bt. 
W. & D. and Q. A. & P. Rys., 5 miles northwest of 
Quanah, the county seat and banking point. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

ADDISON — Dallas County; pop., 40; on St. L. & 
S W. Ry. 14 miles from Dallas, the county seat. 
Bank, Addison State Bank. Tel., W. U. Express. 
ALAMO— Hidalgo County; pop., 300. Bank, First 

State. 

ALBA— Wood County; pop., 1,352; on M. K. & 1. 
Ry., 10 miles west of Quitman, the county seat. 



City, Garnett and Holland. Industries, stock raising, 
quick silver mines. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALT A LOMA — Galveston County; pop., 400; on 
G. C. & S. F. Ry., 18 miles west of Galveston, the 
county seat. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

ALTO— Cherokee County; pop., 1,081; on St. L. S. 
W. Ry., 12 miles southeast of Rusk. Alt., 442 ft. 
Banks, Guaranty State, Continental State. Hotels, 
Alto and Moore. Has a weekly newspapre. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

ALTOG A— Collin County; pop., 150; 10 miles from 
McKinney, the county seat and shipping point. 
Bank, Altoga State. 

ALVARADO — Johnson County; pop., 1,284; on 
G. C. & S. F. and M.-K.-T. Rys., 12 miles east of 
Cleburne, the county seat. Alt., 442 ft. Banks, 
Alvarado State and First Natl. Hotel, Commercial. 
Weekly newspaper, The Bulletin. Industries, cotton 
and grain. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALVIN — Brazoria County; pop., 1,519; on G. C. 
& S. Fe, T. & B. V. and the Frisco Rys., 20 miles 
northwest of Angleton, the county seat. Alt., 49 ft. 
Banks, Alvin State and First Natl. Hotels, Alvin 
and Reynolds. Two weekly newspapers, Sun and 
Advocate. Industries, cotton, fruit and vegetables. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALVORD— Wise County; pop., 1,376; on Ft. W. 
& D. Ry., 12 miles northwest of Decatur, the county 
seat. Alt., 860 ft. Banks, Alvord State and Securi- 



Banks, Alba Natl, and First State. Hotels, Central ty State. Hotels, Boon, Hatchett and Sturdy. News- 

and Commercial. Weekly newspaper, The News, paper, the Alvord News. Industries, cotton, fruit 

Tel W U Express. ano ^ truck. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALBANY Shackelford County seat; pop., 1,469; AMARILLO — Potter County seat and capital of 

onT. C. Ry., 33 miles northwest of Cisco. Alt., 1,429 the Panhandle; pop., 15,494. Commercial and dis- 

feet.' Banks', Albany Nat'l and First Nat'l. Hotels, tributing center for the Panhandle. On I 
City, Commercial and Sackett. Weekly newspaper, 



The News Has preparatory boarding school and 
public school. Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 
ALEDO — Parker County; pop., 360; on T. P. Ry., 
14 miles east of Weatherford, the county seat. 
Bank, Citizens Bank. Industry, cotton, live stock 
and grain. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALEXANDER— Erath County; pop., 381; on S. L. 
& S. W. and M.-K.-T. Rys., 13 miles south of Stephen- 
ville, the county seat. Bank, Alexander State, In- 
dustry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALICE— Jim Wells County seat; pop., 1,880; lo- 
cated at the junction of the T. M. and S. A. & A. 
P. Rys., 43 miles west of Corpus Christi. Alt., 20y 
feet. Banks, Alice State & Trust Co. and Security 
State. Hotels, Commercial. Weekly newspapers, 
The Echo and The News. Industries, stock-raising, 
dairying, cotton, corn and trucking. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

ALLEN— Collin County; pop., 500; on H. & T. C. 
Ry. and Sherman-Dallas Interurban, 8 miles south 
of McKinney, the county seat. Bank, First Natl. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALMA— Ellis County; pop., 250; on H. & T. C. 
Ry., 17 miles east of Waxahachie, the county seat. 
Bank, Alma State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALPINE — Brewster County seat; pop., 1,200; on 
G. H. & S. A. and K. C. M. & O. Rys. Alt., 4,482 ft. 
Banks, Natl. State and First Natl. Hotels, Bell, 



W. & 
D., the P. & N. T., the S. P. R. R. of Tex., and the 
C. R. I. & G. R. Rys., all four of which centering 
here, with freight terminals, roundhouses, shops, 
etc., make it the principal railroad point between 
Kansas City and the Rio Grande. 622 miles from 
Galveston and 1,043 miles southwest of Chicago. Alt., 
3,691 ft. Banks, Amarillo Bank & Trust Co., Am- 
arillo Natl., First Natl., Guaranty State, Natl. 
Bank of Commerce and the Amarillo Clearing House 
Association. Hotels, Amarillo, Denver, Elk, Elm- 
hirst, Giles, Magnolia and Oriental. Two news- 
papers. A modern city with modern public utilities. 
Government maintains a weather station here. In- 
dustries, farms and ranches. Tel. W. U. Express. 
AMBROSE— Grayson County; pop., 50; on M. K. 
& T. Ry., 18 miles from Sherman. Tel , W. U. Ex- 
press. 

AMMANNSVILLE— Fayette County; pop., 300, 
Bank, Ammannsville State. Weimar, P. O. 

ANAHUAC — Chambers County seat; pop., 500; 
on Galveston Bay, 48 miles from Galveston. Bank, 
Chambers County State Bank. Hotels, Anahauc and 
Clove. 

ANDERSON— Grimes County seat; pop., 600; on 
the Madison branch of the I. - G. N. R. R., 11 miles 
north of Navasota, the principal town in the county. 
Bank, First Natl. Industries, cotton and lumber. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

ANDREWS — Andrews County seat; pop., 200; 40 
miles northwest of Midland, nearest shipping point. 



121 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Bank. Andrews State. Weekly newspapers, Andrews 
County Times. Telephone connection. 

ANGLETON— Brazoria County seat; pop., 1,043; 
on the St. L. B. & M. and the H. & B. V. Rys., 44 

miles southwest of Houston. Banks, Angleton State 
and Brazoria State. Hotels, Angleton, Delaney, 
Phillips. Alt., 56 ft. Newspaper, The Times. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

ANNA — Collin County; pop., 538; on Interurban 
and H. & T. C. Ry., 11 miles north of McKinney, the 
county seat. Bank, Collin County State. News- 
paper, The Advance. Industries, cotton and alfalfa. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

ANNONA— Red River County; pop., 500. Alt., 
370 ft. On T. & P. Ry., 53 miles northwest of Tex- 
arkana. Banks, First Natl., First State and Russell 
Exchange. Hotel, Gaines. Weekly newspaper, The 
Annona News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ANSON — Jones County seat; pop., 1,425. Alt., 
1,500 ft. On W. V. and the A. & S. Rys., 14 miles 
south of Stamford. Banks, Anson State and First 
Natl. Hotels, Culver, Sanders and Vietch. News- 
paper, The Western Enterprise. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

ANTELOPE— Jack County; pop., 500; 24 miles 
from Jacksboro, the county seat, and 16 from Jer- 
myn, the nearest banking and shipping point. Stage 
daily to Jacksboro. 

APPLEBY — Nacogdoches County; pop., 500; on 
the H. E. and W. T. Ry., 6 miles northeast of 
Nacogdoches. Bank, Appleby State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

APPLE SPRINGS— Trinity County; pop., 150; on 
G. L. & N. Ry., 15 miles from Groveton, the county 
seat. Bank, First State. Express. 

AQUILLA— Hill County; pop., 500. Alt., 635 ft. 
On T. C. Ry., 22 miles north of Waco. Bank, Aquilla 
State. Weekly newspaper, The Times. Hotel, 
Aquilla. Express. 

ARANSAS PASS— San Patricio County; pop., 
1,569. Alt., 20 ft. On S. A. & A. P. Ry., and on 
the gulf coast, 22 miles east of Corpus Christi. 
Banks, First Natl, and First State. Hotels, Com- 
mercial, Minter, Royal, Starbuck. Industries, cotton 
and shipping, a deep water port for all ocean-going 
vessels, an important distributing point. 

ARCHER CITY— Archer County seat; pop., 689; 
on W. F. & S. Ry., 25 miles south of Wichita Falls. 
Banks, Power State, Power Bkg. Co., Peoples Ex. 
WeeKly newspaper. Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

ARGYLE— Denton County; pop., 300; on T. & P. 
and M. K. & T. Rys., 7 miles south of Denton. Bank 
Argyle State. Industries, cotton and grain. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

ARLINGTON— Tarrant County; pop., 3,031. Alt., 
607 ft. On T. & P. and N. T. T. Co. Rys., and the 
Dallas-Ft. Worth concrete pike, 14% miles east of 
Fort Worth, the county seat. Banks, Farmers 
Natl., First State. Hotels, Arlington, Hutcheson. 
Institutions, Old Mason's Home, Grubb's Vocational 
College and fine high school and public school sys- 
tem. Newspaper, Arlington Journal. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

ARP— Smith County; pop., 200; on I. & G. N. Ry., 
18 miles from Tyler, the county seat. Bank, Arp 
Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 



ASHERTON— Dimmit County; pop., 1,000. Alt., 
368 ft. On A. & G. R. R., 10 miles from Carrizo 
Springs, the county seat. Bank, Asherton State 
Bank. Newspaper. Hotel, Cactus. Express. 

ASHLAND — Upshur County; pop., 175; on M. & 
E. T. Ry., 16 miles from Gilmer, the County seat. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

ASPERMONT— Stonewall County seat; pop., 436; 
on W. V. Ry., 35 miles west of Stamford. Bank, 
First Natl. Weekly newspaper, The Star. Industry, 
cotton. Tel. Express. 

ATHENS — Henderson County seat; pop., 3,276. 
Alt., 502 ft. On St. L. S. W. and T. & N. O. Rys., 
76 miles south of Dallas. Banks, Athens Natl., First 
Natl, and Guaranty State. Hotels, Athens, Dean. 
Daily newspaper, The Daily Review; two weeklies, 
The Review and Henderson County Journal. Indus- 
tries, brick, tile and crockery manufacturing, cotton 
and grain. Tel. Express. 

ATLANTA— Cass County; pop., 1,469. Alt., 
257 ft. On T. & P. Ry., 24 miles from Texarkana. 
Banks, Atlanta Nalt., Farmers' State and First 
Natl. Hotels, Hughes, Matthews, Meridith. Weekly 
newspaper, Citizens Journal. Tel., W. U. Express. 
AUBREY— Denton County; pop., 800; on T. & P. 
and M. K. & T. Rys., 11 miles north of Denton, the 
county seat. Banks, State and Security State. 
Weekly newspaper, The Herald. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

AUSTIN — The capital of Texas and county seat 
of Travis County; pop., 34,876. Alt., 650 ft. On 
H. & T. C, I. & G. N. and the M. K. & T. Rys. and 
the Colorado River. Banks, Amer. Natl., Austin 
Natl., Citizens State, State Natl., Texas Trust Co., 
Brown Bros. Bankers and Brokers and Austin Clear- 
ing House Association. Hotels, Austin, Avenue, 
Driskill, Hancock, Keystone, Kirby and Sutor. News- 
papers two dailies, ten weeklies and a number of 
monthly and quarterly publications. Institutions, 
University of Texas, St. Edward's 'College, Stw 
Mary's College, Texas Wesleyan College, Kenilworth 
School, Austin College, Texas School for the Deaf, 
Texas School for Defective and Sanitarium for 
Mental Diseases, Whitis School, Swedish College, 
Presbyterian Theological Seminary, State Deaf and 
Dumb and Blind Institutes, Tillotson Institute, Sam 
Houston College for Colored Children, St. John 
Industrial Institute and Orphanage, State Confed- 
erate Home and Texas State Lunatic Asylum. Has 
paved streets, electric railway and modern public 
utilities. Industries, manufacturing and retail cen- 
ter, farming. Tel., W. U. Express. 

AUSTWELL— Refugio County; pop., 100; on St. 
L. B. & M. Ry., 35 miles northeast of Refugio, the 
county seat. Mail daily. Bank, Austwell State. 

AVALON — Ellis County; post office, Italy, pop., 
300. Bank, First State. 

AVERY— Red River County; pop., 300; on T. P. 
Ry., 16 miles from Clarksville, the county seat. 
Banks, Avery State Bank and First National Bank. 
Newspaper, The Avery News. Tel., W. U. Express. 
AVINGER— Cass County; pop., 505; on M. K. & 
T. Ry., 15% miles southeast of Daingerfield. Bank, 
First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

AVOCA— Jones County; pop., 150; on T. C. R. R., 
18 miles northeast of Anson, the county seat. Week- 
ly newspaper, The Avoca Telegram. Tel., W. U. 
Express 

BAGWELL— Red River County; pop., 250; on T. 



122 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



& P. Ry., 7 miles from Clarksville, the county seat. 
Bank, First Natl. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BAILEY— Fannin County; pop., 350; on St. L. & 
S. W., 12 miles from Bonham the county seat. Bank, 
Continental State. Newspaper, The Bailey Tele- 
gram. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BAIRD— Callahan County seat; pop., 1,902. Alt., 
1,707 ft. On Rio Grande division of the T. & P. Ry., 
140 miles west of Ft. Worth. Banks, First Natl. 
1st Guaranty State. Hotels, American, Mae. Week- 
ly newspaper, The Star. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BALLINGER— Runnels County seat; pop., 2,767. 
Alt., 1,637 ft. On G. C. & S. F. and A. & S. Rys. 
and the Colorado River, 225 miles west of Ft. Worth. 
Banks, Ballinger State, Farmers' & Merchants' 
State and First Natl. Hotel, Central. Daily news- 
paper, The Ledger; two weeklies, The Banner-Led- 
ger and the Runnels County Democrat. Industries, 
cotton, cotton seed products, bottling works. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

BALMORHEA— Reeves County; pop., 50; on P. 
V. & S. R. R. R., 36 miles from Pecos, the county 
seat. Bank, Toyah Valley State. Weekly news- 
paper, The Toyah Valley Herald. Express. 

BANDERA— Bandera County seat; pop., 700; 20 
miles from Center Point, the nearest railroad con- 
nection. Banks, First State, First National and 
W. J. Davenport, banker. A newspaper, The Bandera 
Enterprise. Stage daily to Boerne and Tapley and 
semi-weekly to Medina. Telephone connection. 

BANGS— Brown County; pop., 709; on G. C. & 
S. F. Ry., 10 miles from Brownwood, the county seat. 
Bank, First State. Weekly newspaper, The Bangs 
Enterprise. Telephone connection. Express. 

BARDWElL— Ellis County; pop., 358. Alt., 580 
ft. On T. & B. V. Ry., 12 miles from Waxahachie, 
the county seat. Bank, First Natl. Hotel, Bardwell. 
Weekly newspaper, The Herald. Express. 

BARKSD ALE— Edwards County; pop., 200; 50 
miles from Uvalde, the nearest shipping point. 
Bank, First Natl, of Barksdale. Telephone connec- 
tion. 

BARNHART— Irion County; pop., 150. Alt., 1,849 
ft. On K. C. M. & O. R. R., 31 miles from Sher- 
wood, the county seat. Bank, First State. Hotel, 
Joslin. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BARRETVILLE— No P. O. Bank, Barretville 
Bank & Trust Co. 

BARRY— Navarro County; pop., 350; on St. L. S. 
W. Ry., 12 miles from Corsicana, the county seat. 
Bank, First State. Weekly newspaper, The News. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

BARSTOW— Ward County seat; pop., 490; on T. 
& P. Ry., 214 miles east of El Paso. Bank, Citizens 
State. Opera house and weekly newspaper, The 
West Texas Journal. Industries, cotton, grain, al- 
falfa, seed and live stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BARTLETT— Bell and Williamson Counties; pop., 
1,731 ; alt., 611 ft. On M. K. & T. Ry., 51 miles north 
of Austin, 24 miles south of Temple. Is eastern 
terminal of the Bartlett Western Ry. Has electric 
lights, water works and sewerage. Banks, Bartlett 
National, Bartlett State and First Natl. Hotels, 
Clark, Commercial. A weekly newspaper, The Tri- 
bune. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BASTROP— Bastrop County seat; pop., 1,828; alt., 
377 ft. On M. K. & T. Ry and Colorado River, 35 
miles southeast of Austin. Banks, Citizens State 



and First Natl. Hotel, Bastrop. Has public library 
and weekly newspaper, The Advertiser. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BATSON— Hardin County; pop., 700; 20 miles 
west of Kountze, the county seat, 6 miles from Sara- 
toga and 8 miles from Hull, both of which latter 
places afford shipping facilities. Stages twice daily 
to Saratoga and Hull. Bank, R. S. Sterling & Co., 

BAY CITY— Matagorda County seat; pop., 2,454; 
alt., 55 ft. On G. H. & S. A., G. C. & S. F. and the 
St. L. B. & M. Rys., 90 miles southwest of Houston. 
Banks, Bay City Bank & Trust Co., First Natl, and 
First State. Hotels, Baker, Bay City, Commercial, 
Nuckles, Progressive and Rice. Daily newspaper, 
The Tribune, and two weeklies, the Matagorda 
County News and Mid-Coast Farmer, and the Mata- 
gorda County Tribune. Shipments, cotton, rice, rice 
products, corn, potatoes, live stock and produce, 
brick, tile and marble works. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BEASLEY— Fort Bend County; pop., 350; on 
G. H. & S. A. Ry., 11 miles from Richmond, the 
county seat. Bank, Beasley State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BEAUMONT— Jefferson County seat; pop., 
40,422; alt., 27 ft. On Neches River, 50 miles from 
the Gulf, and on the Gulf Coast Lines, the 
G. C. & St. Fe, the K. C. S. and the T. & N. O. Rys., 
84 miles east of Houston and 278 miles west of New 
Orleans. Banks, American Natl., First Natl., City 
National Bank, Security State Bank and Trust 
Company, Texas National Bank, Davidson Securities 
Co. and Beaumont Clearing House Association. 
Hotels, Clairmont, Crosby, Gowling, Heising, Ogden, 
Phoenix, Plaza and Woodrow. Largest vessels ply- 
ing the Gulf come direct to Beaumont wharves. In- 
dustries, rice, lumber, oil, jobbing trade and retail 
trade, each of which runs into the millions of dollars 
annually. Beaumont is located in the heart of the 
"rain belt" where farming is a practical certainty, 
while through its railroads it is the center of the 
empire of East Texas, the seat of the lumber indus- 
try. Is a great summer and winter resort. Has 
three of the largest rice mills in the world; is the 
location of the famous Spindle Top oil fields. Is 
said to have more fine homes, paved streets and 
public improvements than any city of same size in 
the South. Two daily newspapers. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BECK VILLE— Panola County; pop., 606; on T. & 
G. R. R. and on the Sabine River, 10 miles from 
Carthage, the county seat. Bank, Continental State 
Bank. Weekly newspaper, The Times. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BEDIAS— Grimes County; pop., 500; on I. & G. N. 
Ry., 21 miles from Anderson the county seat. Banks, 
Citizens Bank and First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BEEVILLE— Bee County seat; pop., 3,063; alt., 
214 ft. On S. A. & A. P. Ry. and terminus of a 
branch of the S. P. Ry., 93 miles southeast of San 
Antonio. Banks, Beeville Bank and Trust Co., Com- 
mercial Natl., and First Natl. Hotels, McAllen, 
Queen. Two weekly newspapers, The Bee and The 
Picayune. Shipments, sotton, cotton seed products, 
farm products, brooms, broom corn, honey. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

BELCHERVILLE— Montague County; pop.. 200; 
on M. K. & T. Ry. 13 miles from Montague, the 
county seat, and 7 miles from the nearest banking 



123 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



center, Nocona. Railway name is Belcher. Tel., 
W, U. Express. 

BELLEVUE— Clay County; pop., 782; alt., 975 ft. 
On the Ft. W. & D. C. Ry., 16 miles south of Hen- 
rietta, the county seat, 80 miles north of Ft. Worth. 
Banks, First Guaranty and First Natl. Hotel, Bass. 
Weekly newspaper, The Bellevue News. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BELLS— Grayson County; pop., 585; alt., 732 ft. 
On T. & P. and M. K. & T. Rys., 14 miles from 
Sherman, the county seat. Bank, First Natl. Hotel, 
Commercial. Has a newspaper. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

BELLVILLE— Austin County seat; pop., 2,000; 
alt., 263 ft. On A. T. & S. Fe Ry., 108 miles north- 
west of Galveston. Banks, Austin County State and 
First Natl. Hotels, Burns, Steck. Weekly news- 
paper. The Times. Bellville is the receiving and 
distributing center for great farming district; ship- 
ments, cotton, truck farming, live stock. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BELTON— Bell County seat; pop., 5,098; alt., 
811 ft. On G. C. & S. Fe., 8 miles west of Temple. 
Banks, Belton Natl., First State and People's Natl. 
Hotels, Belton, Central. Modern public utilities. Is 
seat of Baylor College for Women. A daily news- 
paper, The Evening News and two weeklies, The 
Journal and The Messenger. Shipments, cotton, 
grain and live stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BEN ARNOLD— Milam County; pop., 250; on S. A. 
& A. P. Ry., 8 miles from Cameron, the county seat. 
Bank, BenArnold State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BEN AVIDES— Duval County; pop., 500; on T. M. 
Ry., 18 miles southwest of San Diego, the county 
seat. Bank, Merchants Exchange. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BEN FRANKLIN— Delta County; pop., 300; on 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry., 12% miles from Cooper, the 
county seat. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

BENJAMIN — Knox County seat; pop., 500; on the 
K. C. M. & O. Ry., 32 miles west of Seymour. Bank, 
First Natl. Two hotels and weekly newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

BEX WHEELER— Van Zandt County; pop., 400; 

13 miles southeast of Canton, the county seat, and 

14 miles from Brownsboro, the nearest shipping 
point. Bank, First State. Stage daily to Browns- 
boro; telephone connection. 

BERCLAIR— Goliad County; pop., 300; on S. P. 
R. R., 17 miles from Goliad, the county seat. Bank, 
Berclair State. Express. 

BERTRAM— Burnet County; pop., 420; on H. & 
T. C. Ry., 10 miles southeast of Burnet, the county 
seat. Banks, Farmers' State, First Natl., and D. C. 
Reed & Son, Bankers. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BESSM AY— Jasper County; pop., 1,000; on G. C. 
& S. Fe and Frisco lines, 35 miles from Jasper, the 
county seat, and 15 miles from Kirbyville, the near- 
est banking point. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BETTIE— Upshur County; pop., 284; on St. L. S. 
W. Ry., 6 miles from Gilmer, the county seat. Bank, 
First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BIG LAKE — Reagan County seat; pop., 30; on 
K. C. M. & O. R. R., 17 miles from Stiles, the county 
seat. Banks, First State. Stage daily to Stiles. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

BIG SANDY— Upshur County; pop., 658; alt., 



329 ft. On T. & P. and St. L. S. F. Rys., 12 miles 
from Gilmer, the county seat. Banks, Continental 
State and Farmers' State. Hotel, Fox. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BIG SPRING— Howard County seat; pop., 4,273; 
alt., 2,397 ft. On T. & P. Ry., 107 miles west of 
Abilene. Banks, First Natl., State Natl., West 
Texas Nat'l. Hotels, Cole, Johnson, Stewart. Two 
weekly newspapers The Enterprise and The Herald. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

BIG WELLS— Dimmit County; pop., 750; on S. A. 
U. & G. Ry., 17 miles from Carrizo Springs, the 
county seat. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

BISHOP— Nueces County; pop., 1,300; alt., 400 ft.; 
On St. L. B. & M. Ry., 31 miles southwest of Corpus 
Christi, the county seat. Banks, First National 
and First State. Hotel, Bishop. Industries, cotton, 
citrus fruits, winter vegetables, live stock, poultry, 
dairying. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLACKWELL— Nolan County; pop., 500; alt., 
1,880 ft. On K. C. M. & O. Ry., 31 miles southeast 
of Sweetwater, the county seat. Bank, First State. 
Hotel, Star. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLANCO— Blanco County; pop., 600; alt., 1,300 ft. 
15 miles south of Johnson City, the county seat, 
and 38 miles from San Marcos, its shipping point. 
Bank, Blanco Natl. Hotels, Comparet and Kellam. 
Weekly newspaper, Blanco Courier. Stages daily to 
San Marcos and tri-weekly to Johnson City. Tele- 
phone connection. 

BLANKET— Brown County; pop., 472; on Ft. W. 
& R. G. Ry., 16 miles from Brownwood, the county 
seat. Bank, Blanket State Bank. Weekly news- 
paper, Blanket Signal. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLESSING— Matagorda County; pop., 500; alt., 
43 ft. On St. L. B. & M. and the G. H. & S. A. Rys., 
20 miles west of Bay City, the county seat. Banks, 
Blessing State Bank. Hotel, Blessing. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BLOOMBURG— Cass County; pop., 436; on K.C.S. 
and T. A. & L. Rys., 25 miles east of Linden, the 
county seat and 20% miles south of Texarkana. 
Bank, Bloomburg State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLOOMING GROVE— Navarro county; pop., 898; 
alt., 420 ft. On St. L. S. W. Ry., 16 miles west of Cor- 
sicana, the county seat. Banks, Blooming Grove 
State and Citizens Natl. Hotel, Alamo. Shipments, 
cotton and grain. Weekly newspaper, The Rustler. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLOOMINGTON— Victoria County; pop., 600; on 
St. L. B. & M. Ry., 14 miles southeast of Victoria, 
the county seat. Bank, First State; newspaper, The 
Bloomington Breeze. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLOSSOM— Lamar County; pop., 969; alt., 530 ft. 
On T. & P. Ry., 10 miles west of Paris, the county 
seat. Banks, Farmers State and First Natl. Ho- 
tels, Blossom, Burke, Sharp. Weekly newspaper, 
The Blossom Bee. Is famed for its mineral wells. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLUE RIDGE— Collin County; pop., 450; alt., 640 
ft. 20 miles northwest of McKinney, the county seat, 
and 11 miles from Melissa, its shipping point. Bank, 
Security State. Hotel, Terry. Stage daily to Me- 
lissa. Telephone connection. 

BLUFFD ALE— Erath County; pop., 457; on Ft. 
W. & R. G. Ry., 16 miles northwest of Stephenville, 



124 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



the county seat. Bank, Bluffdale State. Weekly 
newspaper, The Sun. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLUM— Hill County; pop., 496; on A. T. & S. Fe 
Ry., 25 miles northwest of Hillsboro, the county seat 
and 43 miles south of Fort Worth. Banks, Farmers 
State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLYTHE— Gaines County; pop., 21; 17% miles 
southeast of Seminole, county seat. Bank, First 
State. 455 miles from Lamesa, the nearest railroad 
point. 

BOERNE— Kendall County seat; pop., 1,152; alt., 
1,410. On S. A. & A. P. Ry., 32 miles north of San 
Antonio. Banks, Boerne State, Citizens State. Ho- 
tels, Becker, Kendall, St. James. Vogt. Weekly 
newspaper, The Boerne Star. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BOGATA— Red River County; pop., 500; on Paris 
& Mt. Pleasant Ry., 16 miles northeast of Clarksville 
the county seat. Banks, Bogata Nat'l and First 
Natl. Weekly Newspaper, The News. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BOMARTON— Baylor County; pop., 500; on W. V. 
R. R., 12% miles southwest of Seymour, the county 
seat. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BONHAM — Fannin County seat; pop., 6,008; alt., 
566 ft. On T. & P. and M. K. & T. Rys., 28 miles 
southeast of Denison. Banks, First Natl., First 
State and Fannin Co. State. Hotels, Alexander and 
Bonham. Is lighted by electricity and has mod- 
ern public utilities. Daily newspaper; and semi- 
weekly, The News. Industries, cotton, cotton seed 
products, dairy products. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BONITA— Montague County; pop., 400; on M. K. 
& T. Ry., 14 miles from Montague, the county seat. 
Bank, First Natl. Express and Telephone connec- 
tion. 

BOOKER — Lipscomb County; post office in Lak- 
emp, Okla., Bank, First State. 

BOONSVILLE— Wise County; pop., 200; 25 miles 
from Decatur, the county seat, and 14 miles form 
Bridgeport, the nearest shipping point. Bank, First 
State. Telephone connections. 

BOOTH— Fort Bend County; pop., 100; on G. C. & 
S. Fe Ry., 9% miles southeast of Richmond, the 
county seat. Bank, Bank of Booth. Express. 

BOWIE— Montague County; pop., 3,179; alt., 1,113 
ft. On C. R. I. & G., and Ft. W. & D. C. Rys., 18 
miles west of Montague, the county seat. Banks, 
City Natl., First Natl., First State and Security 
State. Hotels, Bobs, Bowie, National. As Bowie is 
located on the western edge of the famed "Cross 
Timbers" section of North Texas, where timbers and 
prairie meet, it is the central market and distribut- 
ing point for fruit and truck industry on the east, 
cotton, corn and grains on the west. Splendid public 
utilities. Tel. W. U. Express. 

BOYCE— Ellis County; pop., 410. On H. & T. C. 
Ry., 6 miles east of Waxahachie, the county seat. 
Bank, Boyce State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BOYD— Wise County; pop., 410; alt., 714 ft. On 
C. R. I. & G. Ry., 12 miles from Decatur, the county 
seat. Bank, Continental State. Hotel, City. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

BRACKETTVILLE— Kinney County seat; pop., 
600; alt., 1,020 ft. 10 miles north of Spofford, its 
shipping point, and 135 west of San Antonio. Bank, 
First State. Hotel, Terrell. Weekly newspaper, 
The News-Mail. Is the location of Ft. Clark. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 



BRADSHAW— Taylor County; pop., 200. Bank, 
Bank of Bradshaw. On A. & S. Ry., 28 miles from 
Abilene, the county seat. Express and telephone 
connections. 

BRADY— McCulloch County seat; pop., 3,200; 
alt., 1,500 ft. On the G. C. & S. Fe Ry., 42 miles 
west of San Saba. Banks, Brady Natl., and Com- 
mercial Natl. Hotels, Central, Gay, Graham, Mor- 
row and Queen. 2 Weekly papers — The Brady Stan- 
dard and The Brady Sentinel. Tel, W. U. Express. 

BRANDON— Hill County; pop., 307; on St. L. S. 
W. Ry., 11 miles east of Hillsboro, the county seat. 
Bank, Farmers' State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BRASHEAR— Hopkins County; pop., 300. On M. 
K. & T. Ry., 8 miles from Sulphur Springs, the 
county seat. Has newspaper. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

BRAZORIA— Brazoria County; pop., 500. Is lo- 
cated on the St. L. B. & M. Ry., and on the Brazos 
River, 12 miles west of Angleton, the county seat. 
Bank, First State. Weekly newspaper. The Banner 
Tel. Express. 

BRAZOS— Palo Pinto County; pop., 500; on T. & 
P. Ry., 16 miles southeast of Palo Pinto, the county 
seat. Bank, Brazos State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BRECKENRIDGE— Stephens County seat; alt., 
1,300. 28 miles north of Eastland on the T. & P. 
Ry. One of the oil centers in the famous north- 
west Texas district, producing millions of dollars 
worth of oil business annually. Banks, First Natl, 
and Texas Guaranty Bank. Hotels, Campbell, Cres- 
cent, Pearson, Sanger and Shelton. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BREMOND— Robertson County; pop., 1,250; ait., 
469. On H. & T. C. Ry., 18 miles west of Franklin, 
the County seat. Bank, First State. Hotel, Bre- 
mond. Has a weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BRENHAM — Washington County seat; pop., 5,056; 
alt., 350 ft. Is located at the junction of the G. C. & 
S. F. and H. & T. C. Rys., 94 miles east of Austin. 
Banks, Farmers' Natl., First Natl., Washington 
County State, and Giddings and Giddings. Hotels, 
Anthony and Wright. Two daily and weekly news- 
papers, The Banner and The Press. Institutions, 
St. Mary's Academy, Blinn Memorial College, numer- 
ous private schools and one of the best public school 
systems in the state. Brenham is the industrial cen- 
ter for a large section. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BRIDGEPORT— Wise County; pop., 1,872; alt., 
749. On the C. R. I. & G. Ry., 10 miles west of 
Decatur, the county seat. Banks, Bridgeport Natl, 
and First Nat'l. Hotel, Beason. A weekly news- 
paper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BRIGGS— Burnet County; pop., 300; 23 miles 
from Burnet, the county seat, and 10 miles from 
Florence, the nearest shipping point. Bank, Briggs 
State Bank. Stage daily to Bertram. 

BRITTON— Ellis County; pop., 300; on H. & T. C. 
Ry., 18 miles from Waxahachie, the county seat 
Bank, Britton State Bank. Tel., and Express con- 
nections, 

BROADDUS— San Augustine County; pop., 250. 
On the Cotton Belt R. R., 8 miles from San Augus- 
tine, the county seat. Bank, Broaddus State Bank. 
Express and Telephone connections. 

BRONSON— Sabine County; pop., 1,200; on the 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry., 14 miles west of Hemphill, the 



125 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



county seat. Banks, Bronson State and Peoples' 
State. Hotels, Low and Wilson. Weekly news- 
paper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BRONTE— Coke County; pop., 529; on the K. C. & 
M. O. Ry.. 14 miles from Robert Lee, the county 
seat. Bank, Guar. State. A newspaper, The Bronte 
Enterprise. Express and telephone connections. 

BROOKELAND— Sabine County; pop., 500; on 
the G. C. & S. Fe Ry., 30 miles south of San Aug- 
ustine. Bank, Brookeland State Bank. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BROOKSHIRE— Waller County; pop., 500. On 
the M. K. & T. Ry., 27 miles from Hempstead, the 
county seat. Bank, Farmers' State. A weekly 
newspaper, The Times. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BROOKSTON— Lamar County; pop., 300; on T. 
& P. Ry., 9 miles from Paris, the county seat. 
Bank. The Brookston State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BROWNFIELD— Terry County seat; pop., 250; 
alt., 2,080. 28 miles from Tahoka, the nearest 
shipping point. Banks, Brownfield State and The 
First Natl. Weekly newspaper, The Terry County 
Herald. Telephone connection. 

BROWNSBORO— Henderson County; pop., 25. On 
St. L. S. W. Ry., 17 miles from Athens, the county 
seat. Stage daily to Edon, Davidson and Ben 
W T heeler. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BROWNSVILLE— Cameron, County seat; pop. 
11,791; alt., 57 ft. Is the extreme southwestern 
city in the United States, the gateway to Mexico, 
the metropolis and commercial center of the Rio 
Grande Valley, "The Garden Spot of America." 
Banks, First National, Merchants' National, State 
National and D. Yturria, Banker. Hotels, Miller, 
Park, Plaza, Travelers, Valley. Has several daily 
and weekly newspapers, paved streets, street cars, 
all modern public utilities. Its summers are delight- 
ful, because of Gulf breezes, and its winters very 
mild. Average annual rainfall, 26.89 in. Abounds 
with tropical plants, flowers the year 'round, "every 
month is seeding time and every month a harvest." 
Agriculture is the chief industry, truck growing be- 
ing conducted on extensive scale. 20 canal com- 
panies provide for irrigation of large territory. 
Historic Matamoros lies just across the Rio Grande, 
reached by ferry or the international bridge, while 
Point Isabel, a fisherman's Mecca, is 22 miles away. 
Game of every description abound. Destined to be 
one of the most important harbors of the U. S., as 
well as one of the most strategical. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BROWN WOOD— Brown County seat; pop., 8,223; 
alt., 1,342 ft. On G. C. & S. F. and Ft. W. & R. G. 
Rys., in Pecan River Valley, 142 miles southwest 
of Fort Worth. Banks, Citizens' Natl., Coggin Natl., 
First Natl., Brownwood State. Hotels, Barker, 
Graham, Jefferson, Southern. Is seat of Daniel 
Baker College, Howard Payne College besides a 
leading business college for western Texas. Daily 
newspaper, The Bulletin, two weeklies, The Banner- 
Bulletin and The News, has a high school and two 
college monthly publications. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BRUCEVILLE— McLennan County; pop., 500. On 
M. K. & T. Ry., 18 miles south of Waco, the county 
seat. Bank, Bruceville State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

BRYAN— Brazos County seat; pop., 6,307; alt., 



367 ft. On main line H. & T. C. Ry., and the Ft. 
Worth division of the I. & G. N., 100 miles north of 
Houston. Is the home of the great Agricultural and 
Mechanical College of Texas, located at College 
Station six miles out with which it is connected by 
interurban. Other educational institutions are The 
Villa Maria Ursuline Academy, Bryan Baptist 
Academy and Allen Academy, besides its own high 
and graded public schools and a Carnegie Library. 
Banks, City Natl., First Natl., First State Bank & 
Trust Co. Hotels, Bryan and Central. Industry, 
farming, diversified, but cotton leads, Bryan prob- 
ably receiving more wagon cotton than any other 
city or town in the world. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BRYSON— Jack County; pop., 400. On C. R. I. & 
G. Ry., 14 miles southwest of Jacksboro, the county 
seat. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BUCKHOLTS— Milam County; pop., 800. On G. 
C. & S. Fe Ry., 13 miles west of Cameron, the county 
seat. Bank, Buckholts State. Weekly newspaper, 
The Bulletin. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BUD A— Hays County; pop., 300; alt., 722 ft. On 
I. & G. N. Ry., 15 miles from San Marcos, the county 
seat. Bank, Farmers' Natl. Hotel, Commercial Tel., 
W. U. Express. Weekly newspaper, Buda Star. 

BUFFALO— Leon County; pop., 510. On I. & G. 
N. Ry., 16 miles from Centerville, the county seat. 
Banks, Buffalo State and Guaranty State. Weekly 
newspaper, The Banner. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BUENA VISTA— Pecos County; pop., 50. 40 
miles from Pyote its nearest shipping point, and 
20 miles from grand falls. Bank, Farmers' State. 

BUFFALO GAP— Taylor County; pop., 249. On 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry., 13 miles southwest of Abilene, 
the county seat. Bank, Buffalo Gap Banking Co. 
Has a weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BULLARD— Smith County; pop., 212. On St. L. 
S. W. Ry., 16% miles south of Tyler, the county seat. 
Bank, Guaranty State. Has weekly newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

BUNA— Jasper County; pop., 400. On G. C. & S. 
Fe Ry., and the Frisco Lines, 35 miles from Jasper, 
the county seat. Bank, Buna State. Newspaper, 
The Home News. Express and telephone connec- 
tions. 

BURKBURNETT— Wichita County; pop., 5,300; 
alt., 100 ft. On the W. F. & N. W. Ry., 14 miles 
north of Wichita Falls, the county seat. Banks, 
American State, Farmers' State, First Natl., and 
Johnson Bros. Banking Co. Hotels, Burkburnett, 
City, Early. Newspaper. One of the active oil 
centers in the northwest district. 

BURKEVILLE— Newton County; pop., 300. 13 
miles northeast of Newton the county seat and ship- 
ping point. Bank, Guaranty State Bank. Daily 
mail. 

BURLESON— Johnson County; pop., 1,000. On 
the M. K. & T. Ry., and on the Ft. Worth-Cleburne 
Interurban, 15 miles north of Cleburne, the county 
seat. Banks, Continental State, and Farmers & 
Merchants State. Weekly newspaper, The News. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

BURLINGTON— Milam County; pop., 200. On 
the S. A. & A. P. Ry., 12 miles north of Cameron, 
the county seat. Bank, Burlington State. Has 
newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BURNET — Judicial Seat of Burnet County; pop., 



126 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



969; alt., 1,205. On the H. & T. C. Ry., 22 miles 
south of Lampasas. Banks, Burnet Natl., and First 
State. Hotel, Burnet. Weekly newspaper, The 
Bulletin. Has a sanitarium. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BURTON— Washington County; pop., 500; alt., 
417 ft. On H. & T. C. Ry., 13 miles west of Bren- 
ham, the county seat. Bank, Burton State. Ex- 
press. 

BYERS— Clay County; pop., 850. On W. V. Ry., 
23 miles northeast of Wichita Falls. Bank, First 
Natl. Weekly newspaper, The Herald. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BYNUM— Hill County; pop., 350. On the T. & 
B. V. Ry., 9% miles southeast of Hillsboro. Bank, 
First Natl. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CADDO— Stephens County; pop., 1,500. 15 miles 
southeast of Breckenridge, the county seat. Banks, 
First Natl. 20 miles from Ranger. Mail daily. 

CADDO MILLS— Hunt County; pop., 600; alt., 550 
ft. On M. K. & T. Ry., 12 miles south of Greenville 
the county seat, and 45 miles north of Dallas. Bank, 
Caddo Mills State. Weekly newspaper, Caddo Mills 
News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CAIN CITY— Gillespie County; pop., 100; Bank, 
Cain City State Bank. 

CALDWELL — Burleson County seat; pop., 1,689; 
alt., 404 ft. On the A. T. & S. Fe Ry., 158 miles 
west of Galveston. Banks, Caldwell Natl., and The 
First State. Hotels, Caldwell and Elisk. Municipal 
water works, excellent sewerage system, electric 
lights, a weekly newspaper, The Ledger. Industries, 
cotton and grain, potatoes and truck, live stock and 
dairying. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CALVERT— Robertson County; pop., 2,099; alt., 
338 ft. Banks, Calvert State, Union State. Hotel, 
Colonial. On the H. & T. C. and I. & G. N. Rys., 
13 miles west of Franklin, the county seat. Weekly 
newspaper, The Calvert Picayune. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

CAMDEN— Polk County; pop., 500. On spur rail- 
road from Moscow, nearest banking center. 

CAMERON— Milam County seat; pop., 4,298; alt., 
390 ft. On Little River at the junction of the G. C. 
& S. Fe and S. A. & A. P. Ry., 188 miles northwest 
of Galveston and 53 miles south of Waco. Banks, 
Cameron State, Citizens' Natl., First Natl. Hotels, 
Auditorium, Commercial, Connor, Murdock. Is a 
modern, progressive city with good public utilities. 
Has two weekly newspapers, The Enterprise and The 
Herald, wholesale grocer house, wholesale house for 
knit goods, and mill products. Is the center of a 
very rich farming district. Some mining. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

CAMPBELL— Hunt County; pop., 583; alt., 369. 
On M. K. & T. Ry., 10 miles east of Greenville, the 
county seat. Banks, Campbell Natl. Exchange, and 
First State. Hotels, Marr and Reid. Has a news- 
paper, The Review. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CANADIAN— Hemphill County seat; pop., 2,187; 
alt., 2,339 ft. Banks, Canadian State, First Natl., 
and Southwest Natl. Hotel, Moody. On the A. T. 
& S. Fe Ry., 98 miles northeast of Amarillo. Is 
a division point of the Santa Fe Ry., both freight 
and passenger, with round house and machine shops, 
etc. Is marketing center for great grain crops of 
several counties. Livestock an important industry. 
Large salt deposits underlie the territory and 



much silica suitable for the making of glass. 
Broom corn abundant. Weekly newspaper, The 
Record. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CANTON— Van Zandt County seat; pop., 583; alt., 
524 ft. 10 miles from Edgewood, its shipping point, 
and 64 miles from Dallas. Banks, First Natl., and 
Texas State. Weekly newspaper, The Herald. Ho- 
tels, Dixie and Peace. 

CANYON— Randall County seat; pop., 1,618; alt., 
3,300 ft. On main line and Sweetwater branch of 
the A. T. & S. Fe Ry., 18 miles southwest of Ama- 
rillo. Is the home of the West Texas State Normal 
School. Banks, First Natl., First State. Hotels, 
American and Palace. Weekly newspaper, Randall 
County News. Is surrounded by fine grazing land 
and cattle raising and feeding is the principal indus- 
try. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CARBON— Eastland County; pop., 741. On T. C. 
R. R., 10 miles from Eastland, the county seat. 
Banks, Bank of Carbon, First State. Weekly news- 
paper, The Carbon News. Express and telephone 
connections. 

CARLTON— Hamilton County; pop., 161. On the 
S. N. & S. T. Ry., 17 y 2 miles from Hamilton, the 
county seat. Bank, Farmers & Merchants State 
Bank. Weekly Newspaper, the Carlton Citizen. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

CARMINE— Fayette County; pop., 500. On H. & 
T. C. Ry., 14 miles southeast of Giddings and 20 
miles west of Brenham. Carmine State Bank. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

CARRIZO SPRINGS— Dimmit County seat; pop., 
954; alt., 4,603. Situated on the S. A. U. & G. Ry., 
157 miles southwest of San Antonio. Bank, Citi- 
zens State. Hotels, Cottage and White. Weekly 
newspaper, The Javelin. Stage daily to Asherton. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

CARROLLTON— Dallas County; pop., 573. On 
the M. K. & T., the St. L. S. W., and the St. L. S. F. 
& T. Rys., 14 miles north of Dallas, the county seat. 
Bank, First State. Weekly newspaper, The Chroni- 
cle. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CARTHAGE— Panola County seat; pop., 1,366; 
alt., 340 ft. On the G. C. & S. Fe Ry., 37 miles 
southwest of Longview. Banks, First Natl., Guar- 
anty Sate. Hotels, Kellie, W. O. W., Vandigriff. 
Two weekly newspapers, Carthage Watchman and 
the East Texas Register. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CASON— Morris County; pop., 315. On M. K. & 
T. Ry., 6 miles from Daingerfield, the county seat. 
Bank, State Bank of Cason. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CAT SPRING— Austin County; pop., 350. On the 
M. K. & T. Ry., 9 miles from Bellville, the county 
seat. Bank, Cat Spring State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

CEDAR HILL— Dallas County; pop., 500. On G. 
C. & S. Fe Ry., 20 miles from Dallas, the county 
seat. Bank, First Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

CELESTE— Hunt County; pop., 1,022; alt., 658 ft. 
On the G. C. & S. Fe, the M. K. & T., and the St. L. 
S. W. Rys., 12 miles northwest of Greenville, the 
county seat. Banks, Celeste State Bank, First Natl. 
Bank. Hotels, Franklin, Lindell, Maurice. Weekly 
newspaper, The Celeste Courier. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

CELINA— Collin County; pop., 1,126; alt., 600 ft. 
On St. L. S. F. & T. Ry., 18 miles from McKinney, 



127 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



the county seat. Banks, Celina State, First State. 
Hotels. Childress, Hearne, Pond. Has a newspaper. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

CENTER— Shelby County seat; pop., 2,500; alt., 
360 ft. On G. C. & S. Fe and T. & P Rys., 189 miles 
northeast of Houston, 190 miles southeast of Dallas. 
Banks, Farmers' State Bank, State Guaranty Bank. 
Hotels. Adams, Elliott, Padon, Polley. W. U. Tel., 
Express. 

CENTER CITY— Mills County; pop., 180. Eleven 
miles from Goldthwaite, the county seat and bank- 
ing point. Telephone connection. 

CENTER POINT— Kerr County; pop., 543; 10 
miles south of Kerrville, the county seat, 60 miles 
north of San Antonio, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry., on 
the Guadalupe River. Bank, Guadalupe Valley 
Bank. Weekly newspaper, The Center Point News. 
Tel., W. U.. Express. 

CENTERVILLE— Leon County seat; pop., 750; 8 
miles from Robin, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
Centerville State. Weekly newspaper, The Record. 
Telephone Connection. 

CHANDLER— Henderson County; pop., 341; alt., 
404 ft. 25 Vo miles northeast of Athens, the county 
seat. On St. L. S. W. Ry. Banks, Citizens' Guar- 
anty State. Hotel, Leovall. Weekly newspaper, 
The Times. Telephone and Express connections. 

CHANNEL CITY— Harris County; pop., 300. 

CHANNING— Hartley County seat. 51 milea 
northwest of Amarillo, on the Ft.W.&D.C.Ry. Bank 
First Natl. Weekly newspaper; Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

CHAPEL HILL— Washington County; pop., 1,000; 
alt., 340 ft. 10 miles east of Brenham, the county 
seat. On the H. & T. C. Ry. Bank, Farmers' State 
Hotel, Toland. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CHARLOTTE— Atascosa County; pop., 500; alt., 
659 ft. 9% miles southwest of Jourdanton, the 
county seat, on the S. A. U. & G. Ry. Bank, Char- 
lotte State. Hotel, Charlotte. Telephone connec- 
tion. 

CHEROKEE— San Saba County; pop., 500. 16y 2 
miles south of San Saba, the county seat and ship- 
ping point. Bank, First State. Mail daily. Tele- 
phone connection. 

CHESTER— Tyler County; pop., 250. 22 miles 
northwest of Woodville, the county seat, on the 
M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, Chester State. Telephone 
and express connection. 

CHICO— Wise County; pop., 800; alt., 938 ft. 14 
miles west of Decatur, the county seat on the C. 
R. I. & G. Ry. Bank, First Bank of Chico, and 
Cnico State. Hotels, Brown, Chico. Weekly news- 
paper, The Chico Review. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CHILDRESS— Childress County seat; pop., 5,003; 
alt., 1,877 ft. 106 miles west of Wichita Falls, 
on the Ft. W. & D. C. Ry. Banks, City Guar. State, 
Farmers & Mechanics State, First State. Hotels, 
Fagg, Nave. Two weekly newspapers, The Index 
and The Post. It is a division point on the F. W. 
& D. C. Ry. with shops located here. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

CHILLICOTHE— Hardeman County; pop., 1,357; 
alt., 1,406 ft. 65 miles west of Wichita Falls, 13 
miles east of Quanah, the county seat. On the 
Ft. W. & D. and K. C. M. & O. Rys. Banks, Bank 



of Chillicothe, First National. Hotels, Denver, Star. 
Two weekly newspapers, The Independent and the 
Valley News. Cotton, grain and livestock are the 
principal shipments. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CHILTON— Falls County; pop., 231. 10 miles 
west of Marlin, the county seat, and 22 miles south 
of Waco, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Banks, Chilton 
Citizens' Bank and First State Bank. Weekly 
newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CHIRENO— Nacogdoches County; pop., 500. 20 
miles southeast of Nacogdoches, the county seat, 
on the A. & N. R. Ry. Bank, Chireno State Bank. 
Telephone and express connection. 

CHISHOLM— Rockwall County; pop., 200. Bank, 
Farmers' State. 

CHRIESMAN— Burleson County; pop., 100. 7 
miles northwest of Caldwell, the county seat, on 
the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. The railroad name is Yellow 
Prairie. Bank, First State. 

CIBOLO— Guadalupe County; pop., 300. 16 miles 
west of Seguin, the county seat, on the G. H. 
& S. A. Ry. Bank, Cibolo Bank. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

CISCO— Eastland County; pop., 7,422; alt., 1,606 
ft. 45 miles east of Abilene, 10 miles west of East- 
land, the county seat, on the T. & P., T. C. and Cisco 
& Northeastern Rys. Banks, Cisco Banking Co., 
First Guaranty State and Commercial State Bank. 
Hotels, Daniels, Grand, Hartman and Mobley. 
Has splendid preparatory boarding school and pub- 
lic high school. Industries, oil and oil products, 
cotton, cotton seed products, peanuts and pecans. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

CLAIREMONT— Kent County seat; pop., 150. 
11% miles southwest of Jayton, its nearest ship- 
ping point. Bank, Clairemont Bank. Weekly news- 
paper, The Reporter. Stage daily to Jayton. Tele- 
phone connection. 

CLAIRETTE— Erath County; pop., 500. 16 mile_s 
southeast of Stephenville, the county seat, on the 
T. C. R. R. Banks, Farmers State. Express and 
telephone connection. 

CLARENDON— Donley County seat; pop., 2,456; 
alt., 2,719 ft. 164 miles west of Wichita Falls, on 
the Ft. W. & D. C. R. R. Banks, Donley County 
State, Farmers' State, and First National. Hotels, 
Atterbury, and Denver. Opera House; weekly news- 
paper, The News. Cotton, grain and livestock are 
the leading shipments. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CLARKSVILLE— Red River County seat; pop., 
3,386; alt., 442 ft. 61 miles from Texarkana, 183 
miles from Ft. Worth, on the T. & P. Ry. Banks, 
City Natl., First Natl., Red River Natl. Hotels, 
Brewer, and Main. Has two newspapers. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

CLAUDE — Armstrong County seat; pop., 770; 
alt., 3,397 ft. 194 miles west of Wichita Falls, on 
the Ft. W. & D. R. R. Banks, First Natl., First 
State. Hotels, Claude, Palace. Weekly newspaper, 
The News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CLEBURNE— Johnson County seat; pop., 12,820; 
alt., 764 ft. 28 miles south of Ft. Worth, on the 
G. C. & S. F., M. K. &. T., T. & B. V., and Ft. W. S. 
(electric) Rys. Banks, Farmers & Merchants Na- 
tional, Home National and Cleburne State. Hotels, 
Cheney, Cleburne and Floore. Located here are 
the principal shops of the Santa Fe system, with 



128 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



some 1,500 employees sharing a monthly payroll of 
over $100,000.00, which has developed Cleburne an 
important railroad city a trifle more rapid in growth 
than in civic improvements. Institutions, Clebarro 
College, St. Joseph's Academy, a Carnegie Library, 
a R. R. Y. M. C. A. and an unrivalled school 
system. Two daily papers, the Review and the 
Enterprise, each with a semi-weekly edition, and 
another semi-weekly, The Chronicle. Is in the cross 
timbers, with fruit and truck and cotton to the 
east, grain and hay to the north and south, with 
fine grazing prairies to the west. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

CLEVELAND— Liberty County; pop., 1,500; alt., 
159 ft. 44 miles north of Houston, 25 miles north- 
west of Liberty the county seat, on the H. E. & W. 
T. and G. C. & S. Fe Rys. Banks, Cleveland State, 
First Natl. Hotels, Cleveland and Junction. Weekly 
newspaper, The Herald. Lumbering, farming and 
stock raising, principal industries. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

CLIFTON— Bosque County; pop., 1,327; alt., 671 
ft. 12 miles south of Meridian, the county seat, 
and 100 miles southwest of Dallas, on the G. C. & 
S. Fe Ry., Banks, Farmers' Guaranty State, First 
Guaranty State, Guaranty Loan & Investment Co. 
Hotels, Central, Nelson, Santa Fe. Has creamery, 
machine shops, bottling works, grain elevator and 
weekly newspaper, The Record. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

CLINT— El Paso County; pop., 250. 20 miles 
from El Paso, on the G. H. & S. A. and T. & P. Rys. 
Bank, First State. Has weekly newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

CLYDE— Callahan County; pop., 610; alt., 1,979 
ft. 6 miles from Baird, the county seat, on the 
T. &. P. Ry. Banks, Clyde Natl., and First Guar- 
anty State. Hotel, Commercial. Weekly newspa- 
per, The Clyde Enterprise. Tel., W. U. Express. 

COAHOMA— Howard County; pop., 250. 10% 
miles northeast of Big Spring, the county seat, on 
the T, & P. Ry., Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

COLD SPRING— San Jacinto County seat; pop., 
500; alt., 150 ft. 12 miles from Shepherd, the near- 
est shipping point, and 235 miles northeast of 
Austin, on the Trinity River. Banks, Guaranty 
State. Newspaper, The Times. Hotel, Greenaway. 
Daily stages to Shepherd, Camilla, Evergreen and 
Maynard. 

COLEMAN— Coleman County seat; pop., 2,868; 
alt., 1,690 ft. 172 miles southwest of Ft. Worth, on 
the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, Central State, Cole- 
man Natl., and First Natl. Hotels, Commercial, 
Cottage, Delmar, Jones, Modern. Coleman is the 
receiving and distributing point for a rich agricul- 
tural district. Has two weekly newspapers, The 
Democrat-Voice and The Coleman County Herald. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

COLLINSVILLE— Grayson County; pop., 337; alt., 
750 ft. 22 miles west of Sherman, the county seat, 
on the T. & P. and the M.-K.-T. Rys. Bank, Security 
State. Hotel, Commercial. Weekly newspaper, The 
Times. Industries, cotton and produce. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

COLMESNEIL— Tyler County; pop., 600. 9 miles 
north of Woodville, the county seat, on the M. 



K. & T. and S. P. Rys. Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

COLORADO— Mitchell County seat; pop. ,1,766; 
alt., 2,066 ft. 69 miles west of Abilene, on the T. 
& P. Ry. Banks, City National, Colorado National. 
Hotels, Barcroft, Keathley, Majestic. Weekly news- 
paper, The Record. Tel., W. U. Express'. 

COLUMBIA— Brazoria County; pop., 400; alt., 34 
ft. 13 miles west of Angleton, the county seat, on 
the I. & G. N. Ry. Bank, Columbia State. Hotel, 
Phillips. Tel., W. U. Express. 

COLUMBUS— Colorado County seat; pop., 2,000; 
alt., 201 ft. 84 miles west of Houston, on the Colo- 
rado River and the G. H. & S. A. Ry. Banks, Col- 
umbus State, First State. Hotel, Live Oak. Week- 
ly newspaper, The Colorado Citizen. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

COMANCHE — Comanche County seat; pop., 
3,524; alt., 1,434 ft. 113 miles west of Ft. W r orth, 
on the Ft. W. & R. G. and S., N. & S. T. Rys, and 
on the Leon River. Banks, Comanche Nat'l, First 
Natl., First State, John M. Easley & Co, Bankers. 
Hotels, Comfort. Weekly newspaper, The Comanche 
Chief-Exponent. Principal products, cotton, oats, 
hay, live stock, peanuts and poultry. Tel, W. U. 
Express. 

COMFORT— Kendall County; pop, 800. 20 miles 
north of Boerne, the county seat, on the S. A. & A. 
P. Ry. Bank, Comfort State. Weekly newspaper, 
The Comfort News. Tel, W. U. Express. 

COMMERCE— Hunt County; pop, 3,842; alt, 509 
ft. 16 miles northeast of Greenville, the county 
seat, on the T. M. and St. L. S. W. Rys. Banks, 
Citizens' State, First Natl, Planters & Merchants 
Natl, and State Bank of Commerce. Hotel, Com- 
merce, Fought. Has two newspapers and is the 
home of the East Texas Normal College, also of the 
Cotton Belt Machine shops. Tel, W. U. Express. 

COMO — Hopkins County; pop, 827. 9 miles south- 
east of Sulphur Springs, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Bank, Como State. Weekly newspaper, The Corao 
Headlight. There are three lignite mines, near its 
eastern limits. Ships cotton, fruit, garden truck, 
cordwood and lignite coal. Tel, W. U. Express, 

CONNVILLE— Sabine County; pop, 300. About 
20 miles southwest of San Augustine, and five miles 
east of Jeans, the nearest shipping point. 

CONROE — Montgomery County seat; pop, 804; 
alt, 339 ft. 39 miles north of Houston, on the 
G. C. & S. F. and I. & G. N. Rys. Banks, Conroe 
State, Farmers' & Merchants' State, First State. 
Hotels, Capiton, Conroe, Smith. Two weekly news- 
papers, The Courier, The Montgomery County News. 
Is the home of the Conroe Normal and Industrial 
College, a co-educational institution for negroes. The 
soil of surrounding territory is highly adapted 
to truck growing and potatoes, tomatoes and early 
spring vegetables, which are extensively grown. Tel, 
W. U. Express. 

COOK VILLE— Titus County; pop, 420. 8 miles 
from Mt. Pleasant, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
W. Ry. Tel, W. U. Express. 

COOLEDGE— Limestone County; pop, 880. 15 
miles northeast of Groesbeck, the county seat, on 
the T. & B. V. Ry, Banks, First Natl, First State. 
Weekly newspaper, The Ledger-Local. Tel, W. 
U. Express. 



129 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



COOPER— Delta County seat; pop., 2,563; alt., 
495 ft. 22 miles south of Paris, on the Texas Mid- 
land Ry. Banks, Delta Natl., Security State, First 
Natl. Hotels, Ganard, Parish, Robertson. Two week- 
ly newspapers, The Delta Courier, and the Cooper 
Review. It is in the heart of the famous black land 
belt. Tel., W. U. Express. 

COPEVILLE— Collin County; pop., 240. 22 miles 
southeast of McKinney, the county seat, on the 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, Citizens' State. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

COPPELL— Dallas County; pop., 200. 25 miles 
northwest of Dallas, the county seat, on the St. L. 
S. W. Ry. Express. 

COPPERAS COVE— Coryell County; pop., 509; 
alt., 1.092 ft. 26 miles from Gatesville, the county 
seat, on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Banks, First State 
and Guaranty State. Hotels, Goodson, Middick, 
Simpson. Weekly newspaper, The Banner. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

CORPUS CHRISTI— Nueces County seat; pop., 
10,522; alt., 35 ft. Is located on and overlooks 
from its high bluff, two magnificent bays, Corpus 
Christi and Nueces, and with its advantageous sur- 
roundings is destined to become one of the leading 
cities of the nation as commercial, agricultural and 
resort center. Four railways enter the city — the 
T. M., the St. L., B. & M., the S. A. & A. P. and the 
S. A. U. & G. Rys. Banks, City National, Corpus 
Christi National, State National and Texas Savings 
Bank & Trust Co. Hotels, Bidwell, Home, Nueces, 
St. James, State and Williams. Owing to its 
location and freight rates, Corpus Christi is the 
jobbing center of southwest Texas. Paved streets, 
municipally owned docks, splendid public utilities. 
Cotton, forage crops and winter vegetables are 
very prolific. The surrounding land is as rich as 
any in the United States and produces cotton, 
corn, milo maize, kaffir corn, sorghum and other 
forage crops with heavy production in truck pro- 
duce. This city is known throughout the country 
as a resort city and has 5,000 attractive rooms for 
housing visitors. Bathing, boating, fishing, hunt- 
ing are afforded at all times. The city has two 
weekly newspapers and an active commercial club. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

CORRIGAN— Polk County; pop., 1,000; alt., 32 
ft. 24 miles north of Livingston, the county seat, 
on the M. K. & T. and the H. E. & W. T. Rys. 
Banks, Citizens State and Corrigan Natl. Hotel, 
Holoman. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CORSICANA — Navarro County seat; pop., by 
1920 census, 11,356; alt., 418 ft. 55 miles south of 
Dallas on the H. & T. C, the St. L. S. W. and the 
T. & B. V. Rys., and terminal of the Dallas-Corsi- 
cana Interurban. Banks, Corsicana Natl., First 
Natl., First State, State Natl., Central State, Corsi- 
cana Clearing House. Hotels, Beaton, Commer- 
cial, Main, Navarro, Wilson. Corsicana has fine 
opera house and public library, with first rate pub- 
lic utilities for its citizenship, has paved streets, elec- 
trical power, telephone and water systems, etc. Is 
important as an oil and natural gas producing 
center. Corsicana was the first oil center of Tex- 
as, oil having been found in considerable quantities 
long before the discovery at Spindle Top. In 1921 
there was a great deal of activity in oil development, 
and Corsicana has become one of the leading oil 



centers of Texas. The population increased several- 
fold and the industries of the city grew in propor- 
tion, and Corsicana has again come to the front as a 
leading oil city. Corsicana has two daily, a semi- 
weekly and two weekly newspapers. Prominent in- 
dustries, cotton seed products, cotton mills, cotton 
compress, cotton gins, overall factory, candy fac- 
tory, foundries, brick and tile works, planing mills, 
bottling works and lumber yards. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

COTULLA— La Salle County seat; pop., 2,000; 
alt., 425 ft. 87 miles southwest of San Antonio, on the 
I. & G. N. Ry., and the Nueces River. Banks, 
Farmers & Stockmens Bank, and Stockmens Natl. 
Hotels, La Salle, Travellers. Weekly newspaper, 
The Record. Tel., W. U. Express. 

COUPLAND— Williamson County; pop., 150. 30 
miles from Georgetown, the county seat, on the M. 
K. & T. Ry. Bank, Coupland State. Weekly news- 
paper, The Record. Tel., W. U. Express. 

COVINGTON— Hill County; pop., 500. 15 miles 
north of Hillsboro, the county seat, on the T. & B. V. 
Ry. Bank, First Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

CRAND ALL— Kaufman County; pop., 750. 26 
miles south of Dallas, 9 miles north of Kaufman, the 
county seat, on the T. & N. O. Ry. Banks, Citizens' 
Natl., First Natl. Weekly newspaper, The Crandall 
Star. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CRANFILL'S GAP— Bosque County; pop., 97. 18 
miles southwest of Meridian, the county seat, and 
19 miles from Clifton, its shipping point. Bank, 
First Guaranty. Telegraph and telephone connec- 
tions. Express. 

CRAWFORD— McLennan County; pop., 573. 20 
miles from Waco, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. 
Fe Ry. Bank, Farmers' State Bank. Weekly news- 
paper, The Advance. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CROCKETT— Houston County seat, pop., 3,061; 
alt., 350 ft. 162 miles above Houston, on the I. & 
G. N. Ry. Banks, Crockett State and First Natl. 
Hotel, Pickwick. Two newspapers. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

CROSBY— Harris County; pop., 300. 22 miles 
east of Houston, the county seat, on the T. & N. O. 
Ry. Bank, Crosby State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CROSBYTON— Crosby County seat; pop., 697; 
alt., 2,912 feet. 38 miles from Lubbock, on the C. & 
S. P. Ry. Banks, Citizens' Natl., First Natl. Ho- 
tels, City and Star. Weekly newspaper, The Re- 
view. Express. 

CROSS PLAINS— Callahan County; pop., 700. 
36 miles west of De Leon, on the T. C. Ry. Banks, 
Farmers' Natl., First Guaranty State* Has weekly 
newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CROWELL— Foard County seat; pop., 1,175; alt., 
1,456 ft. 23 miles south of Chillicothe on the K. C. 
M. & O. Ry. Banks, Bank of Crowell, First State. 
Hotels, Crowell, Orient, Rasor, Smith. Weekly 
newspaper, Foard County News. Industries, cotton, 
grain and live stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CROWLEY— Tarrant County; pop., 250. 12 % 
miles south of Ft. Worth, on the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. 
Bank, Continental State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CRYSTAL CITY— Zavalla County; pop., 800; alt., 
1,000 ft. 25 miles southwest of Batesville, the 
county seat, on the S. A. U. & G. Ry. Has a bank, 



130 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



Zavalla County Bank, and a weekly newspaper. Ho- 
tels, Cross, Jackson. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CRYSTAL FALLS— Stephens County; pop., 74. 
11 miles north of Breckenridge, the county seat. 
Bank, Bank of Crystal Falls. 28 miles from Al- 
bany the usual shipping point. 

CUERO— DeWitt County seat; pop., 3,671; alt., 
177 ft. 135 miles west of Houston, on the S. A. & 
A. P., and S. P. Rys. Banks, Buchel Natl., First 
State Bank & Trust Co., H. Runge & Co., Bankers. 
Hotels, Butler, Muti. Has two sanitariums, two 
daily and weekly newspapers, The Record and The 
Star; a German weekly, Der Missionfreund, and a 
semi-weekly, Der Deutche Rundschau. Has one of 
the largest cotton mills in the South, also one of 
the largest cotton oil mills, and cotton compress and 
one of the largest electric water power plants in the 
South. Two of the largest turkey dressing plants 
in the world are here. The climate and soil are 
adapted to raising cotton, corn, alfalfa, onions, cab- 
bage and other kinds of truck which are shipped into 
northern markets early. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CUMBY — Hopkins County; pop., 945. 14 miles 
west of Sulphur Springs, the county seat, on the 
M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, Cumby State. Hotels, 
Craves, Mathis. Weekly newspaper, The Rustler. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

CUSHING— Nacogdoches County; pop., 1,500; 
alt., 412 ft. 20 miles northwest of Nacogdoches, 
the county seat, on the T. & N. O. Ry. Banks, Cush- 
ing State, Farmers Guaranty Bank. Hotel, Wal- 
lace. Weekly newspaper, The Enterprise. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

DAINGERFIELD— Morris County seat; pop., 
1,250; alt., 250' ft. 33 miles northwest of Jeffer- 
son, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, Citizen's Natl., 
Natl. Bank of Daingerfield. Hotel, Smith. Has 
weekly newspaper, cotton gin, cotton seed oil mill, 
saw and grist mills, etc. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DALH ART— Dallam County seat; pop., 5,676; alt., 
3,998 ft. 82 miles north of Amarillo, 530 miles 
southwest from Kansas City, at the junction of the 
main lines of the C. R. I. & G. and the Ft. W. & D. 
Hys. Banks, Citizens' State, First Natl., Midway 
Bank. Hotels, DeSoto, Grand. Weekly newspaper, 
The Texan. Dalhart is the center for the growing 
of cattle, horses, hogs, kaffir corn, milo maize and 
other forage crops. From here heavy shipments are 
made of cattle and hogs, kaffir corn and milo maize, 
produce and dairy products. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DALLAS— Dallas County seat; pop., 250,000; alt., 
426 ft. Dallas is located in north central Texas 
on the Trinity River in what is known as the black 
waxey belt of Texas. The first settlement was made 
by John Neely Bryan in 1841; the county was or- 
ganized in 1846 and was named after George M. 
Dallas, vice president of the United States. In 1872 
two steam railways reached the village of 5,000 and 
by 1880 the population was doubled and by 1890 
it was trebled. Within a circle the radius of which 
•extends 100 miles from the city of Dallas, more than 
25 per cent of the people of Texas live, there are 
over 17,000 rated business concerns, 686 national 
and state banks with a combined capital of over 
$38,000,000; in the same territory are 156,373 farms 
or 16.6 per cent of the total number of farms of all 
Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Louisiana combined, 
yielding 17% per cent of America's cotton crop and 



over 1,200 prosperous towns and villages. Banks, 
American Exchange National, Central National, 
City National, Mercantile Natl., Dallas Natl., Dallas 
Trust and Savings, Federal Reserve for the 11th 
District, Republic National, Liberty State, National 
Bank of Commerce, Oak Cliff State Bank and Trust 
Company, North Texas National; Financial Corpora- 
tions, Bankers and Brokers are: Bankers' Trust 
Co., Dallas Joint Stock Land Bank, Dallas Securi- 
ties Co., Dallas Title & Guaranty Co., Dallas Trust 
Co., Dallas Union Trust Co., Texas Finance Corpo- 
ration, U. S. Bond and Mortgage Co., Breg, Garrett 
& Co., Brown Crummer Co., Jas. Schwartz Co., J. P. 
Scranton & Co., R. T. Stewart & Co., Thomas Mort- 
gage Co., Dallas Clearing House Association. Hotels, 
Adolphus, Cadillac, Campbell, Galloupe, Huntley, 
Jefferson, Baker, Park, Hilton, St. George, South- 
land, Texan and Waldorf. 

Dallas is the distributing center of the southwest, 
as its location and transportation facilities make 
it the jobbing and wholesale center for a territory 
larger than the New England and the Middle At- 
lantic states combined. There are 570 wholesalers 
and manufacturers here, 256 of which are of national 
importance. Dallas leads the world in the manufac- 
ture and distribution of leather goods, cotton gin 
machinery, and ships more galvanized corrugated 
tanks to the oil fields than any other city in the 
nation and is the geographical center for the oil 
territory of the Southwest. Dallas is the largest 
film distributing center of the world and is one of 
the three largest depots for farm implements in 
America. 3,000 traveling salesmen make Dallas 
their headquarters. 

Nine railroads entering Dallas give outlet in 
twenty-three different directions and five electric 
interurban railways radiate in seven different direc- 
tions. Within the territory reached from Dallas on a 
lower freight rate than from St. Louis are 6,630,065 
people, 4,082,620 of whom can be reached from 
Dallas on a lower rate than from Gulf points. 
262 telegraph circuits lead out from Dallas and she 
has sixth rank in volume of telegraph business in 
the United States. Dallas has the largest per capita 
development of telephones of any city in the Union. 

Dallas leads the Southwest in population, whole- 
sale business, factory output, freight business, postal 
receipts and new buildings. 172 churches, 112 
schools and colleges, two annual grand opera seasons 
provide for the moral, educational and cultural de- 
velopment. Tel., Mackay, Postal and W. U. Ex- 
press. 

DARROUGETT— Lipscomb County; Post Office, 
Lourwood. Bank, First National Bank. 

DAWSON— Navarro County; pop., 950. 21 miles 
southwest of Corsicana, the county seat, on the St. 
L. S. W. Ry. Banks, First Natl., Liberty Natl. 
Weekly newspaper, The Herald. Industries, cotton 
and grain. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DAYTON— Liberty County; pop., 787; alt., 89 ft. 
Six miles west of Liberty, the county seat, and 36 
miles east of Houston, on the T. & N. O. Ry. Bank, 
Dayton State. Hotels, Hunnicut and Wright. Week- 
ly newspaper, The Daytonite Local. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

DE AN VILLE— Burleson County; pop., 25. Eight 
miles from Caldwell, the shipping point. Bank, 
First State. Telephone connection. 

DECATUR— Wise County seat; pop., 2,205; alt., 



131 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



1.087 ft. 40 miles north of Ft. Worth on the Ft. 
W. & D. C. R. R. Banks, City National, First Na- 
tional. Hotels, City and Dill. Has two weekly news- 
papers and a college, Decatur Baptist College. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

DeKALB— Bowie County; pop., 655; alt., 407 ft. 
ll 1 !' miles northwest of Boston, the county seat, 
on the T. & P. Ry. Banks, DeKalb Exchange, First 
National. Hotels, Allen, Whittle. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

DeLEON— Comanche County; pop., 3,302; alt., 
1,300 ft. 20 miles north of Comanche, the county 
seat, on the T. C. Ry. Banks, Farmers and Mer- 
chants National, Guaranty State. Hotels, City, 
Lambert, Travelers. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DEL RIO— Valverde County seat; pop., 10,589; 
alt., 952 ft. 169 miles west of San Antonio and 3 
miles north of the Rio Grande River, on the G. H. 
& S. A. Ry. Banks, Del Rio Bank and Trust Co., 
Del Rio Natl., First Natl. Hotels, Frank's, Graf, 
Gray, St. Charles, Val Verde. Two weekly news- 
papers. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DENISON— Grayson County; pop., 17,065; alt., 
724 ft. Three miles from the Red River which sep- 
arates it from Oklahoma and as it is at the entrance 
to the state, it is known as "Gate City"; 10 miles 
from Sherman, the county seat, 95 miles north of 
Dallas, on the M. K. & T., the T. & P., the M. O. 
& G., the H. & T. C. and the Frisco lines, and is a 
terminal of the Dallas-Denison interurban. Each 
of these roads, with the exception of the Frisco 
lines, maintains division terminals, locomotive and 
car shops and have a monthly pay roll exceeding 
$300,000; 47 passenger trains daily leave the Union 
Station, one of the finest in the Southwest. Banks, 
Citizens State Bank, National Bank of Denison, 
Security State, State Natl. Hotels, Bruckers, Pal- 
ace, Park. 

DENTON— Denton County seat; pop., 7,626; alt., 
620 ft. 35 miles northwest of Dallas, on the T. & P. 
and M. K. & T. Rys. Banks, Denton County Natl., 
Exchange Nat'l, First Guaranty State, First Nat'l. 
Hotels, City and Cottage. Has two state colleges, 
The College of Industrial Arts for Girls and the 
North Texas State Normal College, a co-educational 
institution having the largest enrollment of any 
normal school in the state. Has a daily and two 
weekly newspapers, with all the facilities of a 
hustling commercial center. Industries, flour mill- 
ing, brick, ice, bottling works, cotton seed products, 
broom factory, mattress factory, monument works, 
etc. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DEPORT— Lamar County; pop., 821; alt., 540 ft. 
16 miles from Paris, the county seat, on the P. & Mt. 
P. Ry., and on Mustang Creek. Banks, First Natl., 
First State. Hotel, Commercial. Weekly news- 
paper, The Times. Express. 

DESDEMONA— Eastland County; pop., 3,008; 
22 miles southeast of Eastland, the county seat, 10 
miles from Gorman, on the Wichita Falls, Ranger & 
Ft. Worth Railroad. One of the leading centers in 
the recent West Texas oil fields. 

DESSAU— Travis County; pop., 1,200, about 20 
miles northeast of Austin, on the M.-K.-T. Ry. 

DETROIT— Red River County; pop., 1,200; alt., 
482 ft. 13 miles west of Clarksville, the county seat, 
and 117 miles from Dallas, on the T. & P. Ry. 
Weekly newspaper, The Herald. Banks, Guaranty 



State, First Natl. Hotel, Duncan. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

DEVINE— Medina County; pop., 995; alt., 653 ft. 

15 miles southeast of Hondo, the county seat, 32 
miles southwest of San Antonio, on the I. & G. N. 
Ry. Bank, Adams Natl. Hotel, Rose. Two weekly 
newspapers, The News and The Reporter. Ships 
cotton, corn, sugar cane and live stock. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

DEWEYVILLE— Newton County; pop., 1,000. 
48 miles south of Newton, the county seat, 35 miles 
from Beaumont, the nearest banking point, on the 
K. C. S. Ry. Ship via Ruliff. Telephone connection. 

DEXTER— Cook County; pop., 350. 15 miles 
north of Whitesboro, the nearest shipping point, and 
24 miles from Gainesville, the county seat. Bank, 
First Guaranty State. Telephone connection. 

D'HANIS— Medina County; pop., 400. Nine miles 
west of Hondo, the county seat, on the G. H. & S. A. 
Ry. Bank, D'Hanis State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DIALVILLE— Cherokee County; pop., 200. Seven 
miles south of Rusk, the county seat, on the St. L. 
S. W. Ry. Bank, Dialville State. Weekly news- 
paper, The News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DIBOLL — Angelina County; pop., 500. Eleven 
miles southeast of Lufkin, the county seat and bank- 
ing point, on the H. E. & W. T. Ry. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

DICKINSON— Galveston County; pop., 1,000. 20 
miles northwest of Galveston, the county seat, on 
the I. & G. N., the M. K. & T. and the G. H. & H. 
Rys. Bank, Dickinson State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DILLEY— Frio County; pop., 600; alt., 569 ft. 

16 miles southwest of Pearsall, the county seat, on 
the I. & G. N. Ry. Bank, Dilley State. Hotel, Run- 
field. Has a weekly newspaper. Express and tel- 
ephone connections. 

DIME BOX— Lee County; pop., 500. 16 miles 
northeast of Giddings, the county seat, and 8 miles 
from Lincoln, the shipping point. Bank, First State. 

DIMMITT— Castro County seat; pop., 500. 22 
miles from Hereford, the nearest shipping point. 
Bank, First State. Has newspaper, The Plainsman. 
Stage daily to Hereford. Telephone connections. 

DOBBIN— Montgomery County; pop., 200. 22 
miles northwest of Conroe, the county seat, on the 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, First State. Telephone 
connection. 

DODD CITY— Fannin County; pop., 495. Six 
miles from Bonham, the county seat, on the T. & P. 
Ry. Banks, First Nat'l., First State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

DODGE— Walker County; pop., 500. Nine miles 
from Huntsville, the county seat, on the I. & G. N. 
Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DODSONVILLE— Collingsworth County; pop., 
700. 17 miles from Wellington, the county seat, on 
the W. & N. W. Ry. Bank, First State. Weekly 
newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DONIE— Freestone County; pop., 19. 18 miles 
from Fairfield, the county seat, on the T. & B. V. 
Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DONNA— Hidalgo County; pop., 1,072. 12 miles 
from Edinburg, the county seat, on the St. L. B, 
& M. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

DORCHESTER— Grayson County; pop., 100. 12 
miles southwest of Sherman, the county seat, on the 



132 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



St. L. & S. F. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

DOUGLASSVILLE— Cass County; pop., 170. 12 
miles from Linden, the county seat, and 14 miles 
from Atlanta, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
First State. Stage daily to Atlanta. 

DUBLIN— Erath County; pop., 3,229; alt., 1,466. 

14 miles southwest of Stephenville, the county seat, 
and 90 miles southwest of Ft. Worth, on the Ft. W. 
& R. G. and T. C. Rys. Banks, Citizens' Natl., 
Dublin Natl., Guaranty State. Hotels, Commercial, 
Evans. Two weekly newspapers, The Telephone and 
The Progress. Industries, cotton and live stock. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

DUFFAU— Erath County; pop., 250; alt., 780 ft. 
Eight miles from Hico, its shipping point. Bank, 
Farmers & Merchants State. Mail daily. Hotel, 
Southland. 

. DUMAS— Moore County seat; pop., 200. 30 miles 
northeast of Channing, the usual shipping point. 
Has a bank, First State, and a newspaper. Stage 
daily to Channing. Telephone connection. 

DUNCANVILLE— Dallas County; pop., 300. 14 
miles southwest of Dallas, the county seat, on the 
G. C. & S. F. Ry. Bank, Farmers'. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

DUNDEE — Archer County; pop., 200. 21 miles 
from Archer City, the county seat, on the W. V. 
R. R. Bank, First State. Tel, W. U. Express. 

DURANGO— Falls County; pop., 200. About 20 
mile southwest of Marlin, the county seat, and 5 
miles from Lott, the nearest shipping point and 
banking center. 

EAGLE LAKE— Colorado County; pop., 2,017; 
alt., 173 ft. At the junction of the S. P., G. C. & S. 
F. and S. A. & A. P. Rys., 60 miles west of Houston, 
and 16 miles east of Columbus, the county seat. 
Banks, Eagle Lake State Bank, First Natl. Hotels, 
Dallas, Drummers', Eagle Lake. Weekly newspaper, 
The Headlight. Is situated on a beautiful lake 
bearing its name, 1 mile in width to 3% miles in 
length, giving beautiful surroundings, fish products, 
and water for rice irrigation. Is on the edge of 
the famous "cane belt" and much sugar cane is 
grown and manufactured into sugar here. Principal 
products, cotton and corn; important products, figs, 
truck products, live stock, dairying and produce. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

EAGLE PASS— Maverick County seat. Pop., 
8,000; alt., 726 ft. 167 miles southwest of San An- 
tonio, on the Rio Grande River and the G. H. & 
S. A. Ry. Banks, Bonnet Banking Co., Border Natl., 
First Natl., State Bank & Trust Co. Hotels, Dolch, 
Eagle. St. Joseph's Academy caters to the Mexican 
education, public and parochial schools care for the 
American families. Weekly newspaper, The News- 
Guide. Tel., W. U. Express. 

EAST BERNARD— Wharton County; pop., 400. 

15 miles southwest of Richmond, on the G. H. & 
S. A. Ry. Bank, Union State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

EASTLAND— Eastland County seat; pop., 9,368; 
alt., 1,420 ft. On the T. & P. Ry., 55 miles east of 
Abilene and 105 miles west of Ft. Worth. Banks, 
Exchange National and Texas State. Hotels, Char- 
lotte, Connellee, Cottage, Eastland, Planters. One 
of the leading oil centers of Texas, with enormous 
output. 

ECTOR— Fannin County; pop., 454. Six miles 



from Bonham, the county seat, on the T. & P. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Telephone connection. 

EDDY— McLennan County; pop., 360. 20 miles 
from Waco, the county seat, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Bank, First Natl. Weekly newspaper, Eddy Journal. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

EDEN— Concho County; pop., 641. 22 miles from 
Paint Rock, on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Weekly 
newspaper, The Eden Echo. Bank, Eden State. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

EDGEWOOD— Van Zandt County; pop., 820. 10 
miles north of Canton, the county seat, 53 miles east 
of Dallas, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, Farmers 
& Merchants' State, First Natl. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

EDINBURG— Hidalgo County seat; pop., 1,406. 
On the St. L. B. & M. Ry. Bank, Edinburg State 
Bank & Trust Co. Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

EDNA— Jackson County seat; pop., 2,000; alt., 
974 ft. Eight miles from the Gulf of Mexico and 
125 miles southwest of Houston, on the G. H. & 
S. A. Railway. Bank, Jackson County State. 
Hotel, McDowell. Weekly newspaper, The Herald. 
Ships cotton, corn, live stock and produce. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

EL CAMPO— Wharton County; pop., 1,766; alt, 
60 ft. 14 miles southwest of Wharton, the county 
seat, and 75 miles from Houston, on the G. H. & 
S. A. Ry. Banks, Com'l State, First Natl. Hotels, 
Cottage and Rice. Has two weekly newspapers 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

EL DORADO — Schleicher County seat; pop., 850; 
alt., 2,500 ft. 49 miles from San Angelo, its ship- 
ping point. Bank, First Natl. Hotel, Holland. 
Weekly newspaper. Stage daily to Sonora and San 
Angelo. Telephone connection. 

ELECTRA — Wichita County; pop., 4,740; alt., 
902 ft. 26 miles west of Wichita Falls, the county 
seat, on the Ft. W. & D. Ry. Banks, First Natl., 
First State. Hotels, Electra, Jefferson, Marriott. 
Spar. A daily and weekly newspaper. Principal 
industry, production of oil and gas. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

ELGIN — Bastrop County; pop., 1,630; alt., 577 ft. 
16 miles north of Bastrop, the county seat, 28 miles 
from Austin, 130 miles from Houston, at the junction 
of the M. K & T. and the H. & T. C. Rys. Banks, 
Elgin Natl., Merchants' & Farmers' State. Hotel, 
McClellan. Manufacture of brick is extensively car- 
ried on. Has weekly newspaper, The Courier. Tel., 
W. U. Express . 

ELIASVILLE— Young County; pop., 1,000. 18 
miles from Graham, the shipping point. Bank, Guar- 
anty State. Mail daily. 

ELKHART— Anderson County; pop., 700. 12 
miles from Palestine, the county seat, on the I. & G. 
N. Ry. Bank, Elkhart Guaranty State. Weekly 
newspaper. Express. 

ELLINGER— Fayette County; pop., 500. 12 miles 
from LaGrange, the county seat, on the G. H. & 
S. A. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ELMO — Kaufman County; pop., 410. 14 miles 
northeast of Kaufman, the county seat, on the T. & 
P. Ry. Bank, First Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

EL PASO— El Paso County seat; pop., 110.000. 
alt., 3,762 ft. 712 miles northwest of Austin, and 
across the Rio Grande River from Jaurez, an im- 



133 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



portant Mexican border city, on the E. P. & S. W., 
the G. H. & S. A., the National of Mexico, the R. G. 
& El P., the S. P. and the T. & P. Rys. Banks, 
American Trust & Savings Bank, Border Natl., City 
Natl., El Paso Bank & Trust Co., Federal Reserve 
Bank of Dallas (branch), First Mortgage Co., First 
Natl., Security Bank & Trust Co., State Natl., Vol- 
ney B. Leonard & Co., El Paso Clearing House. 
Hotels, Alamo, Alberta, Angeles, Arlington, Benson, 
Boston, Bristol Carlyle, Carman Fisher, Grand, 
Green Tree, Herbert, Krahmer, Leon, Laughlin, 
Linden, Lockie, McCoy, Oasis, Oregon, Orndorff, 
Paso Del Norte, St. Charles, St. Regis, Savoy, Shel- 
don, Travelers. Has eight hospitals and sanitariums. 
The press is represented by three dailies, three 
weeklies, a semi-monthly and two monthly publi- 
cations. There are ore smelters, iron foundries, 
cigar factories, brick works, rock drill and machin- 
ery works, planing mills, large government irriga- 
tion works, etc. Tel. and express. 

ELYSIAN FIELDS— Harrison County; pop., 250. 
18 miles from Marshall, on the M. & E. T. Ry. Bank, 
Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

EMHOUSE— Navarro County; pop., 347. 10 miles 
from Corsicana, the county seat, on the T. & B. V. 
Ry. Bank, First State. Weekly newspaper, The 
News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

EMORY— Rains County seat; pop., 800; alt., 464 
ft. 30 miles southeast of Greenville, on the M. K. 
& T. Ry. Banks, First Nalt., Guar. State. Weekly 
newspaper, The Rains County Leader. Hotels, Gill- 
mour, Rodes. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ENCINAL — LaSalle County; pop., 600. 28 miles 
from Cotulla, the county seat, on the I. & G. N. Ry. 
Cotulla is the nearest banking point. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

ENLOE — Delta County; pop., 398. Five miles 
from Cooper, the county seat, on the T. M. R. R. 
Bank, Guaranty State. Telephone, telegraph and 
express facilities. 

ENNIS— Ellis County; pop., 7,224; alt., 584 ft. 
15 miles east of Waxahachie, the county seat, and 
33 miles south of Dallas, on the T. M. and H. & T. 
C. Rys. Banks, Citizens' Natl., First Natl., Farmers 
State, Ennis Clearing House Association. Hotels, 
Central, King. Two newspapers, The Ennis Daily 
News and the Weekly Local. Industry, cotton. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

ERA — Cooke County; pop., 300. 15 miles from 
Gainesville, the county seat, and 7 miles from Valley 
View, the nearest shipping point. Bank, First Guar- 
anty State. Telephone connection. 

ESTELLINE— Hall County; pop., 394. 14 miles 
southeast of Memphis, the county seat, on the Ft. 
W. & D. Ry. Bank, Estelline State. Weekly news- 
paper, The News. Express. 

EUSTACE— Henderson County; pop., 400. 12 
miles northwest of Athens, the county seat, on the 
T. & N. O. Ry. Bank, First State. 

EVANT— Coryell County; pop., 500. 25 miles 
from Gatesville, the county seat, 19 miles south of 
Hamilton, the nearest shipping point. Bank, Evant 
State. Mail daily. 

EVERM AN— Tarrant County; pop., 500. 10 miles 
north of Ft. Worth, the county seat, on the I. & 
G. N. R. R. and the Ft. Worth and Cleburne Inter- 
urban. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FABENS— El Paso County; pop., 100. 22 miles 



from El Paso, on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. Bank, First 
Natl. Telephone and express connection. 

FAIRFIELD— Freestone County seat; pop., 629; 
alt., 390 ft. 12 miles from Teague, the nearest ship- 
ping point. Bank, Fairfield State Bank. Hotel, 
Commercial. Weekly newspaper, The Recorder. 
Stage daily to Teague. Telephone connection. 

FAIRLIE— Hunt County; pop., 248. 22 miles 
northeast of Greenville, the county seat, and 7 miles 
from Wolfe City. Bank, Citizens' Bank. Tel., W. U, 
Express. 

FALFURRIAS— Brooks County seat; pop., 2,500; 
alt., 500 ft. 299 miles south west of Houston and. 
185 miles south of San Antonio, at the terminus 
of the Falfurrias branch of the S. A. & A. P. 
Railway. Bank, First National Bank. Hotels, 
Palace, Park. Falfurrias is noted for having prob- 
ably the largest dairy in the world, milking 1,400 
cows and producing 1,000 pounds of butter daily. 
Produces citrous fruits, cotton, corn, truck farming, 
live stock and dairy products. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FALLS CITY— Karnes County; pop., 500. 12 
miles northwest of Karnes City, the county seat, on 
the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, Falls City Natl. Has 
a weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FARMERS BRANCH— Dallas County; pop., 300. 
12 miles north of Dallas, the county seat, on the 
M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, Riddle Banking Co. Cotton 
and grain are the chief shipments. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

FARMERSVILLE— Collin County; pop., 2,167; 
alt., 636 ft. 16 miles east of McKinney, the county 
seat, and 38 miles from Dallas, on the M. K. & T. 
and the G. C. & S. Fe Rys. Banks, Farmers' & 
Merchants' National and First National. Hotel, 
St. George. Weekly newspaper, The Times. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

FARWELL — Parmer County seat; pop., 600. 90 
miles southwest of Amarillo, on the P. V. and N. E. 
Ry. Its railroad station, express and telegraph of- 
fices are at Texico, N. M., one-half mile distant. 
Bank, Guaranty State. Has a weekly newspaper. 

FATE— Rockwall County; pop., 299. 4% miles 
northeast of Rockwall, the county seat, on the M. K. 
& T. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FAYETTEVILLE— Fayette County; pop., 390; 
alt., 415 ft. 14 miles from LaGrange, the county 
seat, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, Farmers' Natl., 
Fayetteville State. Hotel, Johnson. Has a news- 
paper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FENTRESS — Caldwell County. Twelve miles 
southwest of Lockhart, the county seat, and ten 
miles from Luling, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
Fentress State. Telephone connection. 

FERRIS— Ellis County; pop., 1,586; alt., 471 ft. 
18 miles south of Dallas, 16 miles northeast of 
Waxahachie, the county seat, on the H. & T. C. Ry. 
Banks, Farmers & Merchants State, Ferris Natl. 
Has six brick plants, a broom factory, three cotton 
gins, a weekly newspaper, The Ferris Wheel. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

FLATONIA— Fayette County; pop., 995; alt., 465 
ft. 24 miles south of LaGrange, the county seat, 
120 miles west of Houston, on the S. P. and the 
S. A. & A. P. Rys. Bank, Flatonia State. Hotel, 
Sullivan. A weekly newspaper, The Argus. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

FLORENCE— Williamson County; pop., 650. 18 
miles from Georgetown, the county seat, on the 



134 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



B. W. Ry. and the Salado River. Banks, Farmers' 
State, Florence State. Has a weekly newspaper. 
Telephone connection. 

FLORESVILLE— Wilson County seat; pop., 1,518; 
alt., 363 ft. Banks, City Natl., First Natl., Hotel, 
Miller. Weekly newspaper, The Chronicle-Journal. 
Shipments, cotton and farm produce. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

FLOYD— Hunt County; pop., 300. Eight miles 
from Greenville, the county seat, on the M. K. & 
T. Ry. Bank, Peoples State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FLOYDADA — Floyd County seat; pop., 1,384; 
alt 3 500 ft. 26 miles southeast of Plainview, 110 
miles southeast of Amarillo, on the Plainview branch 
of the A. T. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, First Natl., First 
State. Hotel, Commercial. Ships broom corn, wheat, 
cotton, oats, kaffir, cattle, hogs, dairy products. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

FLUVANNA — Scurry County; pop., 375. 19 ^ 
miles northwest of Snyder, the county seat, on the 
R. S. & P. Ry- Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. 

Express. 

FLYNN— Leon County; pop., 300. 13 miles south- 
west of Centerville, the county seat, on the H. & 
T. C. and the T. & B. V. Rys. Bank, Guaranty State. 
Telephone connection. Express. 

FOCH— Scurry County; pop., 600. Bank, First 

State. 

FOLLETT — Lipscomb County; pop., 500. Banks, 
Farmers' National and Follett National. 

FOREST— Cherokee County; pop., 100. 22 miles 
from Rusk, the county seat, and 5 miles from Wells, 
on the St. L. S. W. Bank, Farmers & Merchants 
State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FORESTBURG— Montague County; pop., 372. _ 14 
miles from Montague, the county seat, and 14 miles 
from St. Jo, the usual shipping point. Bank, First 
State. Stage daily to St. Jo. Telephone connection. 
FORNEY — Kaufman County; -pop., 1,345; alt., 465 
ft. 20 miles northwest of Kaufman, the county seat, 
on the T. & P. Ry., and 21 miles east of Dallas. 
Banks, City Natl., Farmers' Natl., Citizens' Natl., 
Forney State. Hotels, Ball, Forney. Weekly news- 
paper, The Messenger. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FORRESTON — Ellis County; pop., 233. Nine 
miles from Waxahachie, the county seat, on the M. 
K. & T. Ry. Bank, Forreston State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

FORT DAVIS — Jeff Davis County Seat; pop., 
1,060; alt., 4,500 ft. 22 miles northeast of Marfa, 
the nearest shipping point. Has a bank, Fort Davis 
State, and a weekly newspaper. Stage daily to 
Marfa. Hotel, Limpea. 

FORT STOCKTON— Pecos County seat; pop., 
1,297; alt., 3,050 ft. 55 miles southeast of Pecos, 
on the K. C. M. & O. Ry. Bank, First National. 
Hotels, Rooney, Stockton. Two weekly newspapers, 
The Pioneer and The Journal. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

FORT WORTH — Tarrant County seat; pop., 
106,482; alt., 670 ft. Fort Worth is the gateway 
to the great Southwest and has more trunk lines of 
railways than has any other city in Texas, the C. R. 
I. & G., Ft. W. & D. C, the Frisco Lines, the G. C. 
& S. Fe, the H. & T. C, the I. & G. N., the M. K. & 
T., the St. L. S. W., the T. & P. and the T. & B. V. 
Rys. Ft. Worth is the greatest railway center in 
the Southwest and is the interchange point of 80 
per cent of the traffic moving to and from the state. 



Banks, Continental Natl., American Bank & Trust 
Co., Farmers' & Mechanics' Natl., First Natl., Ft. 
Worth Natl., Ft. Worth State, Stockyards Natl., 
Texas National Bank; banking companies are the 
Bankers' Loan & Securities Co., Cattlemen's Trust 
Co., Commerce Trust Co., North Texas Trust Co., 
United Trust Co., Ward-Harrison Mortgage Co., 
Broad & Bomar, W. R. Edrington & Co., and the 
Ft. Worth Clearing House Association. Hotels, The 
Texas, Boston, Chandler, Court, Majestic, Melba, 
Metropolitan, Sandegard, Seibold, Terminal, Trinity, 
Westbrook, Yorkley. 

Ft. Worth is the second live stock and packing 
center in the United States. Swift & Co. and 
Armour & Co., two of the big parent packing plants 
of the country, have extensive branches here. The 
stockyards of Ft. Worth can handle in a single day 
25,000 cattle, 10,000 calves, 15,000 hogs and 7,000 
horses and mules. Each of the railroads centering 
at Ft. Worth run directly to the yards and 600 em- 
ployees are kept busy in the yards caring for the 
stock. The National Feeders' and Breeders' Show 
holds its annual exposition at Ft. Worth. The vol- 
ume of grain handled by Ft. Worth mills and ele- 
vators is second only to that handled by Kansas 
City, the leading grain market in the territory of 
the Southwest. Two big flour mills — the largest 
in this section of the United States — have a capacity 
of 1,000,000 bushels. In addition to its leadership 
in the flour mill industry, Ft. Worth is rapidly be- 
coming the chief corn products milling point of 
this section of the United States. In the way of 
public organizations, Ft. Worth has the greatest 
number of any city in the Southwest. Tel., Mackay, 
Postal, W. U. Express. 

FRANCITAS— Jackson County; pop., 300. 23 
miles southeast of Edna, the county seat, on the 
St. L. B. & M. Ry. Bank, First State. Weekly 
newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FRANKELL— Eastland County; P. O. Ranger. 
Bank, First Natl. 

FRANKLIN— Robertson County seat; pop., 1,131; 
alt., 340 ft. 103 miles northeast of Austin on the 
I. & G. N. Ry. Banks, First Natl., First State, 
Mitchell Bros. Bank. Hotel, National. Weekly 
newspaper, The Central Texan. Tel.. W. U. Ex- 
press. 

FRANKSTON— Anderson County; pop., 818; alt., 
530. 24 miles southeast of Athens on the T. & N. 
O. Ry. Bank, Frankston State. Hotel, White House. 
Weekly newspaper. Express. 

FREDERICKSBURG— Gillespie County seat; pop., 
2,500; alt., 1,742 ft. 70 miles north of San Antonio, 
on the S. A. F. & N. Ry. Banks, Bank of Fred- 
ericksburg, Citizens' Bank. Hotel, Ostrow. Two 
weekly newspapers. The noted Bear Mountain Red 
Granite quarries are four miles north of the city. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

FREEPORT — Brazoria County; pop., 1,789; alt., 
64 ft. 16 miles southwest of Angleton, the county 
seat, 50 miles from Galveston, 60 miles from Hous- 
ton, on the H. & B. V. and on the Brazos River. 
Bank, Freeport Natl. Hotel, Tarpon. It is the 
location of the largest sulphur mines in the world, 
of the largest storage tanks of the Freeport Mexi- 
can Oil Co., and headquarters and terminal of the 



135 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



H. & B. V. Ry. Has a weekly newspaper, The 
Freeport Facts." Tel., W. U. Express. 

FRIONA— Parmer County; pop., 200. 26 miles 
from Farwell, the county seat, on the P. & N. T. 
Ry. Bank, Friona State. Weekly newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

FRISCO— Collin County; pop., 733. 16 miles from 
McKinney, the county seat, on the St. L. S. F. & T. 
Ry. Banks. First Natl., Frisco Guaranty State. 
Weekly newspaper, The Journal. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

FROST— Navarro County; pop., 913. 21 miles 
west of Corsicana, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
W. Ry. Banks, Citizens' State, First Natl. Two 
weekly newspapers, The Star and The News. Ship- 
ment, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FULBRIGHT— Red River County; pop., 300. 15 
miles from Clarksville, the county seat, 4% miles 
from Deport, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
Guaranty State. Telephone connection. 

GAIL — Borden County; pop., 126. 22 miles south- 
west of Fluvanna, the nearest shipping point, on the 
Colorado River. Bank, Gail Bank. Stage daily to 
Big Springs. Weekly newspaper, The Borden 
Citizen. 

GAINESVILLE— Judicial seat of Cooke County; 
pop.. 8,648; alt., 738 ft. Six miles from Red River 
on the G. C. & S Fe and the M. K. & T. Rys., 700 
miles southwest of St. Louis. Banks, First Natl., 
First State and Lindsay Natl. Hotels, Lindsay, 
Turner. Chief products, cotton, wheat, corn, hay, 
every known fruit and vegetable. Is known as the 
"Banner County" from the fact that she has won 
first prize at the Texas State Fair and the Inter- 
national Fair at San Antonio in every contest 
entered with her agricultural products and horses. 
Is a leader in manufacture. Is noted for her at- 
tractiveness and sanitary condition. Has public 
library. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GALLATIN— Cherokee County; pop., 300. Eight 
miles from Rusk, the county seat, on the T. & N. 
O. Ry. Bank, Farmers & Merchants State. Ex- 
press. 

GALVESTON — Judicial seat of Galveston Coun- 
ty; pop., 44,255; alt., six feet. Located on the east 
end of Galveston Island, about two miles from the 
mainland of the Texas coast in the Gulf of Mexico, 
the chief seaport of Texas and of the United States 
on the Gulf of Mexico. Is the greatest cotton ex- 
porting port in the world and ranks second among 
American ports in the total of its foreign com- 
merce, being exceeded by New York City alone. 
Banks, Citv Nal., First Natl., People's Bank, Security 
Trust Co., South Texas Natl. Bank, U. S. Natl., Gal- 
veston Trust & Safe Deposit Co., Hutchings, Sealy 
& Co., C. P. Mann & Co., Ed. McCarthy & Co., 
W. L. Moody & Co., and the Galveston Clear- 
ing House Association. Hotels, Atlanta, Atlantic, 
Bashos, Beach, Beacon, Boulevard, Galvez, Grand, 
Highland, Loves, Oriental, Panama, Plaza, Ridge- 
way, Royall, Salt Air, Seaside, Snug Harbor, South- 
ern, Terminal, Tremont and Vinson. Fifty-six lines 
of steamers ply regularly between Galveston and 
foreign ports while five lines ply regularly between 
Galveston and other United States ports. Four 
daily newspapers and several weeklies. Medical 
Department of the State University is located here. 
The climate is exceptionally even; the salt atmos- 



phere eradicates all malarial influences, and on 
account of the low altitude, Galveston is a mecca 
for those suffering from nervous trouble, catarrh 
or hay fever. 

The dock frontage provides berthing space for 
more than 100 ocean-going steamers at one time. 
Custom houses, bonded warehouses, appraisers 
stores, immigration buildings and quarantine sta- 
tions are maintained by the Federal Government 
as well as the Federal courts and officers. The 
island is connected to the mainland by a concrete 
causeway about two miles in length, carrying tracks 
for both steam and electric railways, and a roadway 
for vehicles and pedestrians. Since the storm of ■ 
1900 which resulted in large loss of life and prop- 
erty, Galveston has a concrete seawall 17 feet high 
and five miles in length, along the entire gulf side 
of the city. Twenty million cubic yards of sand 
fillings was deposited back of the seawall, raising 
the grade of the city from the old level to that of 
the seawall. 

Galveston is enjoying an unprecedented era of 
prosperity. Principal lines of business, cotton com- 
press, several of which are among the largest in 
the world, grain elevators of enormous capacity, 
cotton seed cake mills, sacking mills, rice mills, 
flour mills, marine ways, ship yards, machine shops, 
cotton concentration plants, cigar manufacturing, 
broom factories, fish and oyster plants. Surf bath- 
ing, fishing and hunting are exceptionally good and 
attractive and bring many thousands of visitors to 
the city every year. Tel., Mackay, Postal, W. U. 
Mexican and Marconi Wireless. Express. 

GANADO — Jackson County; pop., 716; alt., 86 ft. 
Ten miles east of Edna, the county seat, and 93 
miles southwest of Houston, on the G. H. & S. A. 
Ry. Banks, Citizens' State, Farmers' State. Hotels, 
Mitchell, Southside. Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

GARDEN CITY— Glasscock County seat; pop., 
100. 33% miles south of Big Springs, the nearest 
shipping point. Bank, First State. 

GARLAND— Dallas County; pop., 1,421; alt., 536 
ft. 16 miles northeast of Dallas, the county seat, 
on the G. C. & S. Fe, and M.-K.-T. Rys. Banks, 
First Natl, and State Natl. Weekly newspaper, The 
Garland News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GARRISON— Nacogdoches County; pop., 603; alt., 
378 ft. 19 miles from Nacogdoches, the county 
seat, on the H. E. & W. T. Ry., 150 miles from 
Houston and 72 miles southwest of Shreveport, La. 
Bank, First State. Hotels, City, Wiley. Is in the 
timbered area of Texas; principal industries, large 
saw mills, planing mills, cotton gins and brick mak- 
ing plant with capacity of 50,000 bricks daily. Ship- 
ments, cotton, corn, sugar cane, peanuts, fruits of 
all kinds. Here are the noted mineral springs, 
"Weatherly Wells", are annually visited by large 
numbers of people for stomach and kidney healings. 
Newspaper, The Garrison Weekly Newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

GARWOOD— Colorado County; pop., 400. 21 miles 
from Columbus, the county seat, on the G. C. & 
S. Fe Ry. Bank, Garwood State. Weekly news- 
paper, The Garwood Express. Tel., W. U. Express. 
GARY — Panola County; pop., 350. Ten miles 
from Carthage, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. 
Fe Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., W. U._Ex- 
press. 
GARZA— Denton County; pop., 300. Ten miles 



136 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



from Denton, the county seat, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Bank, Garza Bank. Express and telephone con- 
nections. 

• GATESVILLE— Coryell County seat; pop., 2,499; 
alt., 795 feet. 125 miles north of Austin, 47 miles 
west of Waco on the St. L. S. W. and S. N. & 
S. T. Rys. Banks, First Natl., Gatesville Natl., 
Guaranty State Bank & Trust Co. Hotels, Bennet, 
Elliott, Moar, Sloan. Weekly newspaper, The Gates- 
ville Messenger. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GAUSE— Milam County; pop., 750; alt., 376 ft. 
20 miles southeast of Cameron, the county seat, on 
the I. & G. N. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Hotel, 
Wright. Weekly newspaper, The Gause Guide. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

GEORGETOWN — Judicial seat of Williamson 
County; pop., 2,871; alt., 442 ft. 25 miles north of 
Austin, on the M. K. & T. and the I. & G. N. Rys. 
Banks, Farmers' State, First >;atl., Guaranty State. 
Hotels, Commercial, Makemson, Swenson. Has all 
civic improvements of a modern city, is the seat of 
the Southwestern University; has two weekly news- 
papers, The Williamson County Sun and The Com- 
mercial. Industries, cotton seed oil mills, cotton 
gins, steam laundry, planing mills, ships cotton, 
grain, live stock and produce. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GEORGE WEST— Live Oak County; pop., 500. 
Bank, First State. 

GERONIMO— Guadalupe County; pop., 150. Six 
miles from Seguin, the county seat and shipping 
point. Bank, Geronimo State. 

GIDDINGS— Lee County seat; pop., 1,650; alt., 
510 ft. 60 miles east of Austin, 107 miles west of 
Houston, on the H. & T. C. and the S. A. & A. P. 
Rys. Banks, Citizens' State, First Natl. Hotels, 
Perkins, Robinson. Two weekly newspapers. Im- 
portant industries, cotton, corn, dairying, live stock 
and pressed brick. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GILMER— Upshur County seat; pop., 2,268; alt., 
378 ft. 100 miles east of Dallas on the St. L. S. W. 
and M. & E. T. Rys. Banks, Farmers & Merchants 
Natl., First Natl., Gilmer State. Hotels, Bell, Com- 
mercial. Two newspapers, ice plant, cotton gin, 
shingle and saw mills, grist mills, cotton seed oil 
mills, crate and basket factories. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

GIRARD— Kent County; pop., 60. 20 miles from 
Clairemont, the county seat, and 11 miles from Jay- 
ton, on the W. V. Ry. Bank, Girard Bank. Express. 

GLADEWATER— Gregg County; pop., 560; alt., 
334 ft. 15 miles west of Longview, the county seat, 
on the T. & P. Ry. Banks, The Riddle Exchange, 
and The Everett Banking Co. Hotel, Bray. Weekly 
newspaper, The Gladewater Gazette. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

GLAZIER— Hemphill County; pop., 140. 14 miles 
northeast of Canadian, the county seat, on the S. 
K. Ry. Bank, Glazier State. Newspaper, Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

GLEN FLORA— Wharton County; pop., 700. 6 
miles northwest of Wharton, the county seat, on 
the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, Glen Flora State. Tel. 
W. U. Express. 

GLEN ROSE— Somervell County seat; pop., 
1,000. 17% miles south of Granbury, its shipping 
point. Bank, First Natl. Two newspapers. Tele- 
phone connection. 

GODLEY— Johnson County; pop., 600. 12 miles 
northwest of Cleburne, the county seat, on the G. 



C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, Citizens Nat'l. Newspaper. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

GOLDEN— Wood County; pop., 400. 10 miles 
southwest of Quitman, the county seat, on the M. 
K. & T. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Newspaper. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

GOLDTHWAITE— Mills County seat; pop., 1,214; 
alt., 1,581 ft. 98 miles northwest of Temple, on the 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, Goldthwaite Natl., Trent 
State. Hotels, Commercial, Saylor. Two weekly 
newspapers, The Goldthwaite Eagle and the Rustler. 
Shipments, cotton, grain, cattle. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

GOLIAD— Goliad County seat; pop., 2,500; alt., 
230 ft. About 150 miles west of Houston, and 150 
miles southeast of San Antonio, on the S. P. Ry. 
Banks, Commercial Bank, First Natl., Goliad Bank 
& Trust Co. Hotel, Denham. Was settled by the 
Spanish over 200 years ago, by Americans, in 1836. 
Has cotton gins, broom factory, laundry, bottling 
works. Two weekly newspapers, The Advance, and 
The Guard. Principal shipments, cotton, corn, 
broom corn and livestock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GONZALES— Gonzales County seat; pop., 3,128; 
alt., 300 ft. On the Guadalupe River and the Gon- 
zales branch of the S. P. and the Lockhart branch 
of the S. A. & A. P. Rys. Banks, Dilworth Bank, 
Farmers' Natl., Gonzales State Bank & Trust Co. 
Hotels, Arlington, Plaza, and Richter. Here oc- 
curred many battles for Texas Independence from 
Mexico. Daily newspaper, The Inquirer; two week- 
lies, The Inquirer and The Reformer. A number of 
factories. Ships cotton, live stock and dairy pro- 
ducts. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GOODLET— Hardeman County; pop., 100. Nine 
miles northwest of Quanah, the county seat, on the 
Ft. W. & D. C. Ry. Bank, First State Bank. Ex- 
press. 

GOODNIGHT— Armstrong County; pop., 300. 12 
miles east of Claude, the county seat, on the Ft. W. 
& D. Ry. Bank, Goodnight State. Weekly news- 
paper, The Free Press. Express. 

GOOSE CREEK— Harris County; pop., 2,000. 27 
miles east of Houston, the county seat, on Dayton 
and Goose Creek Railway. Banks, Guaranty State, 
Citizens State and Goose Creek State. Telephone 
connection. Is on Galveston Bay. 

GORDON— Palo Pinto County; pop, 1,000; alt., 
955 ft. 19 miles north of Palo Pinto, the county 
seat, and 73 miles west of Ft. Worth, on the T. & P. 
Ry. Banks, First Natl., Gordon Banking & Mer- 
cantile Co., the Guaranty State Bank. Hotel, Kelly- 
Ray, McDonald. Weekly newspaper. Shipments 
cotton and livestock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GORDONVILLE— Grayson County; pop., 300. 12 
miles from Whitesboro, the nearest shipping point, 
and 25 miles northwest of Sherman, the county 
seat. Bank, Guaranty State. Telephone connec- 
tion. 

GOREE— Knox County; pop., 614. 23 miles from 
Benjamin, the county seat, on the W. V. Ry. Bank, 
First Natl. Express. 

GORMAN— Eastland County; pop., 3,200; alt., 
1,420 ft. 22 miles northwest of Eastland, the 
county seat, on the T. C. Ry. Banks, Continental 
State, First National. Hotels, Commercial, Gorman, 
Palace. Weekly newspaper, The Progress. Indus- 
try, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 



137 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



GRAFORD— Palo Pinto County; pop., 63; alt., 
1.049 ft. 15 miles from Palo Pinto, the county seat, 
on the W. M. W. & N. W. Ry. Bank, First Natl. 
Hotel, Bond. Newspaper, The Herald. Express. 

GRAHAM — Young County seat; pop., 2,544; alt., 
1.040 ft. 26 miles west of Jaeksboro, on the C. R. 
I. & G. and W. S. Rys. Banks, First Natl., Gra- 
ham National. Hotels, Belmont, Commercial, Dal- 
man. Henderson, Robown, Walker. Has flour mill, 
oil mill, gins, weekly newspaper, The Leader. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

GRANBl RY— Hood County; pop., 1,364; alt., 698 
ft.. 41 miles southwest of Ft. Worth on the Ft. W. 
& R. G. Ry. Banks, City Natl., First Natl. Hotel, 
Colonial. Has oil mill, flour mill, five cotton gins, 
two weekly newspapers, The Graphic-Democrat, and 
The News'. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GRAND PRAIRIE— Dallas County; pop., 1,263; 
alt., 519 ft. 13 miles west of Dallas, the county 
seat, on the T. & P. Ry. and on the Ft. Worth-Dal- 
las Interurban, and the Dallas-Ft. Worth Concrete 
Pike. Banks, First State, Guaranty State. Has 
furniture factory, planing mill, gins, ships cotton, 
grain and live stock. Weekly newspaper, The Grand 
Prairie Texan. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GRAND SALINE— Van Zandt County; pop., 1,528, 
alt., 399 ft. 12 miles south of Emory, 63 miles 
east of Dallas on the Texas & Pacific and 
Texas Short Line Rys. Banks, First State, National 
Bank of Grand Saline. Hotels, Berry, Commercial. 
Has salt works, foundry and two weekly newspapers. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

GRAND VIEW— Johnson County; pop., 1,084; 16 
miles southeast of Cleburne, the county seat, and 
36 miles south of Ft. Worth, on the M. K. & T. 
Ry. Banks, Farmers & Merchants Natl., First Natl. 
Hotel, Commercial. Weekly newspaper, The Tribune. 
Shipments, cotton and grain. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

GRANGER— Williamson County; pop., 1,944; alt., 
539 ft. 15 miles north of Georgetown, the county 
seat, and 47 miles north of Austin, on the M. K. & 
T. Ry. Banks, Farmers' State, First Natl., Granger 
Natl. Hotel, Commercial. Industry, cotton. Weekly 
newspaper, The Granger News. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

GRAPELAND— Houston County; pop., 1,200; 12 
miles from Crockett, the county seat, on the I. & 
G. N. Ry. Banks, Farmers & Merchants State, 
Guaranty State. Weekly newspaper, The Grape- 
land Messenger. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GRAPEVINE— Tarrant County; pop., 821. 21 
miles ea.^t of Ft. Worth, the county seat, on the 
St. L. S. W. Ry. Banks, Farmers' Natl., Grape- 
vine Home, Tarrant County State. Newspaper, The 
Grapevine Sun. Shipments, cotton and grain. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

GRAYBURG — Hardin County; pop., 1,406. 18 
miles northeast of Kountze, the county seat, and 1 
mile from Sour Lake, on the S. P. & F. Ry. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

GREENVILLE— Hunt County seat; pop., 12,384; 
alt., 549 ft. 54 miles northeast of Dallas, on the 
M. K. & T., the St. L. S. W. and T. M. R. Rys., and 
on the Eastern Texas and Greenville & Whitewright 
Traction Co.'s Lines. Banks, Citizens' State, Com- 
mercial Natl., First Natl., Greenville Natl. Ex- 
change, the Hunt Co. State Bank & Trust Company. 



Hotel, Beckham. Has nine railway outlets, 33 pas- 
senger trains daily. Has municipal owned electric 
light plant and water works, a splendid street rail- 
way system, 65 acres of parks and playgrounds. 
Is the seat of Wesley, Peniel and Burleson Colleges. 
Has a Carnegie Library, 4 cotton gins, the largest 
cotton compress in the world, the largest cotton 
seed oil refinery in the south, a beehive factory, 
sheet metal factory, brick works, mattress factory, 
broom factory, four machine shops. Newspapers, 
Greenville Banner, (daily and weekly), The Green- 
ville Herald, (daily and weekly) The Greenville 
Messenger, weekly. Tel., W. U. and Postal. Ex- 
press. 

GREGORY— San Patricio County; pop., 26; alt., 
36 ft. 16 miles southeast of Sinton, the county 
seat, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, First Natl. 
Hotel, Green. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GROESBECK— Limestone County seat; pop., 1920 
census, 1,522; alt., 480 ft. 96 miles south of Dallas, 
on the H. & T. C. Ry. Banks, Citizens Nat'l, Con- 
tinental State, Farmers' Guaranty State. Hotel, 
Brown. Weekly newspaper, The Groesbeck Jour- 
nal. Tel., W. U. Express. In the development of 
the oil fields in Limestone County in 1921, Groes- 
beck became a prosperous and progressive oil city. 
Much production has been developed in the imme- 
diate vicinity of Groesbeck, and the population as 
well as the industries of the city, has increased 
many-fold. Groesbeck is destined to be one of the 
prosperous and progressive oil centers of Texas. 

GROOM— Carson County; pop., 100. 20 miles 
from Panhandle, the county seat, on the C. R. I. & 
G. Ry. Banks, First Natl, and the State Bank of 
Groom. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GROVETON— Trinity County seat; pop., 1,103; 
alt., 331 ft. 100 miles north of Houston, 265 miles 
from Austin, on the G. L. & N. and M. K. & T. 
Rys. Banks, First Nat'l, Guaranty State. Hotel, 
City, Locke and Swinney. Two newspapers. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

GUFFEY — Jefferson County; pop., 1,200. 5 miles 
from Beaumont, the county seat, on the T. & N. O. 
Ry. Express and telephone connection. 

GUNTER— Grayson County; pop., 575. 20 miles 
south of Sherman, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
F. & T. Ry. Banks, Continental State, Gunter 
State. Weekly newspaper, The Grayson County 
Advocate. Express. 

GUSTINE— Comanche County; pop., 750. 12 
miles from Comanche, the county seat, on the St. L. 
S. W. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Newspaper, The 
Gustine Gazette. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HAGERMAN— Grayson County; pop., 150. 16 
miles northwest of Sherman, the county seat, on 
the M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, Hagerman State. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

HALE CENTER— Hale County; pop., 250. 16 
miles southwest of Plainview, the county seat, on 
the P. & N. T, Ry. Bank, First State. Has a news- 
paper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HALLETTSVILLE— Lavaca County seat; pop., 
1,444; alt., 2,235 ft. 101 miles west of Houston, 
137 miles southeast of San Antonio, on the main 
line of the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Banks, First Natl., 
First State, Rosenberg Bros. Bank. Hotels, Brick, 
Finks, Sokol. Lavaca County is noted as the best 
watered county in the state, with ten living running 



138 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



streams of water in its boundary, all well bridged 
and timbered along the streams. Hallettsville has 
more newspapers than has any other town its size 
in the state — there being eight publications with 
circulation of 25,000. Prominent for turkey raising 
and shipping large quantities of produce. Cotton 
is the staple crop, considerable live stock is raised, 
and dairying is carried on. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HAMILTON — Judicial seat of Hamilton County; 
pop., 2,018; alt., 1,200 ft. 130 miles southwest of 
Dallas, on the St. L. S. W. Ry. Banks, Hamilton 
Bank & Trust Co., Hamilton Natl, and Perry Natl. 
Cotton compress, ice plant, flour mill and weekly 
newspapers, The Herald and The Record. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

HAMLIN — Jones County; pop., 1,633; alt., 1,800 
ft. 17 miles northwest of Anson, the county seat, 
on the K. C. M. & O., and the T. C, and the A. & 
S. R. Rys. Banks, First Nat'l, First State. Hotels, 
Hamlin, Morgan. Has cotton gins, cotton oil mill, 
cotton compress, ice plant, flour mill and weekly 
newspaper, The Herald. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HANDLEY — Tarrant County; pop., 1,000; alt., 581 
ft. 7 miles east of Ft. Worth, the county seat, 
on the T. & P. Ry., and the Dallas-Ft. Worth Inter- 
urban; is also on the Dallas-Fort Worth concrete 
highway. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 
HANSFORD— Judicial seat of Hansford County; 
pop., 41. 35 miles southeast of Texhoma, Okla., the 
nearest shipping point. Banks, First Nat'l, Guar- 
anty State. Weekly newspaper, and telephone con- 
nection. 

HAPPY— Swisher County; pop., 250. 17 miles 
from Tulia, the county seat, on the P. & N. T. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HARLETON — Harrison County; pop., 360. 18 
miles northwest of Marshall, on the M. & E. T. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HARLINGEN — Cameron County; pop., 1,784; alt., 
36 ft. 25 miles north of Brownsville, the county 
seat, on the St. L. B. & M. Ry. Banks, Valley 
State and the First National. Hotel, Moreland. 
Weekly newspaper, The Star. Produces good crops 
of corn, cotton, sugar cane, dairy products and for- 
age crops. Great irrigation district. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

HARPER— Gillespie County; pop., 300. 21% miles 
from Kerrville, its shipping point, and 25 miles 
west of Fredericksburg, the county seat. Bank, First 
State. Mail daily. 

HARRISBURG— Harris County; pop., 1,461. 5% 
miles from Houston, the county seat, on the G. H. 
& S. A., the I. & G. N., the G. H. & H., and the 
M K & T Rys., and on the Houston Ship Canal. 
Bank,' Harrisburg Natl. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HARROLD— Wilbarger County; pop., 250. lb 
miles from Vernon, the county seat, on the Ft. W. 
& D. C. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. .. 

HARWOOD— Gonzales County; pop., 200. 9 miles 
from Luling on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. Bank, First 
State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HASKELL— Judicial seat of Haskell County; pop., 
2 300- alt., 4,010 ft. 16 miles north of Stamford, 
on the W.' V. Ry. Banks, Farmers State, Haskell 
Nat'l Hotels, Commercial, Haskell, Hunt. Weekly 
newspapers, The Free Press. Principal shipment, 
cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 



HASLET — Tarrant County; pop., 100. 16 miles 
from Ft. Worth, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. 
Fe Ry. Bank, Haslet State. Express. 

HASSE — Comanche County; pop., 350. 8 miles 
from Comanche, the county seat, on the Ft. W. & 
R. G. Ry. Bank, Merchants' & Planters' Bank. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

HAWKINS— Wood County; pop., 300. 27 miles 
southeast of Quitman, the county seat, on the T. & 
P. Ry. Bank, First Natl. In the east Texas fruit 
district. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HAWLEY— Jones County; pop., 100. 11 miles 
from Anson, the county seat, on the W. V. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U., Express. 

HEARNE— Robertson County; pop., 2,741; alt., 
303 ft. 13 miles west of Franklin, the county seat, 
and 119 miles north of Houston, on the H. & T. C, 
the I. -G. N. and the H. & B. V. Rys. Bank, 
Planters & Merchants State Bank. Hotels, Junc- 
tion, Oriental, Oxford. A weekly newspaper, The 
Hearne Democrat. Is division headquarters for the 
H. & T. C. Ry. and repair shops are located here. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

HEATH— Rockwall County; P. O., Rockwall. Pop., 
98. Bank, Farmers' Guaranty State. 

HEBBRONVILLE— Judicial seat of Jim Hogg 
County; pop., 600; alt., 440 ft. 47 miles southwest 
of San Diego. Bank, Hebbronville State. On the 
T. M. Ry. Hotel, Veggo. 

HEBRON— Denton County; pop., 150. 25 miles 
from Denton, the county seat, on the Frisco Lines. 
Bank, Hebron State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HEDLEY— Donley County; pop., 594; alt., 2,170 
ft. 14 miles from Clarendon, the county seat, on 
the Ft. W. & D. C. Ry. Banks, First State, Guar- 
anty State. Hotels, Hedley, Neppert. Has a news- 
paper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HEIDENHEIMER— Bell County; pop., 249. Ten 
miles from Rogers, on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Bank, 
Heidenheimer State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HEMPHILL— Sabine County; pop., 2,000; alt., 340 
ft. 20 miles southeast of San Augustine, on the 
L. H. & G. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, State Guaranty 
Bank. Hotel, Williams. Two newspapers. Tele- 
phone connection. 

HEMPSTEAD— Waller County; pop., 2,000; alt., 
254 ft. 51 miles northwest of Houston at the junc- 
tion of the Austin branch and main line of the H. 
& T. C. Railway. Bank, Citizens' State. Hotels. 
Arlington, Crescent, Parks and Royal. Famous 
as a watermelon center in the United States, 1,000 
carloads are shipped annually from this point to 
northern markets. Truck farming, berries, small 
fruits do exceptionally well. Weekly newspaper, 
The News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HENDERSON — Rusk County seat; pop.. 2,373; 
alt., 380 ft. 45 miles southeast of Tyler, on the 
I. & G. N. Ry. Banks, Farmers' & Merchants' Nat'l, 
First Natl., Guaranty State. Hotels, Southwestern 
Whitson. Two weekly newspapers, Henderson 
Times, Rusk County News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HENRIETTA — Clay County seat; pop., 2,563; alt., 
880 ft. 96 miles northwest of Ft. Worth, on the 
Ft. W. & D. C, the M. K. & T. and the H. & S. W. 
Rys. Banks, Dale Bros. & Co., Merchants' & Plant- 
ers' Bank, W. B. Worsham & Co. Hotels, Elm- 
wood, Imperial, St. Elmo. Two weekly newspapers, 

139 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



The Henrietta Independent and The Peoples Re- 
view. Tel.. W. U. Express. 

HEREFORD— Judicial seat of Deaf Smith Coun- 
ty; pop., 1,696; alt.. 3.400 ft. 47 miles southwest 
of Amarillo, on the main line of the A. T. & S. Fe 
Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, First State Bank & Trust 
Co.*, Western Nat'l. Hotel, Cordova. Is the center 
of the famous irrigated plains section. For many 
miles in every direction, the city is surrounded by a 
plain sloping' to the southeast, as if built by nature 
for irrigation. There underlies an inexhaustible sup- 
ply of purest water, with many wells pumping daily 
1.000 to 2,000 gals, a minute. Soil is fertile as the 
Nile, fields level as a table, climate unsurpassed 
for plant growth. Produces wheat, oats, rye, barley, 
alfalfa, kaffir, maize and other forage crops, melons, 
fruits, celery and highly adapted to intensive farm- 
ing. Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HICO— Hamilton County; pop., 1,635; alt., 790 ft. 
23 miles northeast of Hamilton, 83 miles west of 
Waco, on the T. C. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l., Hico 
Nat'l. Hotels, Commercial, Midland. Principal in- 
dustries, flour mills, oil mills, cotton gins, ice plant. 
Weekly newspaper, The News-Review. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

HIGGINS— Lipscomb County; pop., 688; alt., 2,568 
ft. 20 miles southeast of Lipscomb, the county seat, 
on the Santa Fe Railway. Banks, Citizens' Natl., 
First Nat'l. Hotels, Commercial, Higgins, Roberts. 
Weekly newspaper, The Times. Is the center of 
fine farming district, producing wheat, corn, alfalfa, 
broom corn, cattle, horses, mules, cream and pro- 
duce. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HIGHLAND PARK— Pop., 2,321, an incorporated 
town surrounded by the city of Dallas, Dallas Coun- 
ty. See Dallas. 

HILLSBORO — Hill County seat; pop., 6,952; alt., 
634 ft. 35 miles north of Waco, 55 miles south of 
Ft. Worth, 65 miles southeast of Dallas, on the 
M. K. & T., T. & B. V., St. L. S. W. Rys., and the 
Dallas-Waco Interurban, in the midst of the black 
land district. Banks, Citizens' Nat'l, Colonial Trust, 
Farmers' Nat'l, First State. Hotels, the J. K. House, 
the W T ear. Industries, cotton, cotton mill, oil mill, 
ice factory, planing mill. Is the home of Texas 
Novelty Company, founded 1898, which has grown 
to be the largest house of its kind in the Southwest. 
Three newspapers, The Daily Mirror, the Hillsboro 
Mirror, weekly, and The Hillsboro Dispatch, weekly. 
Shipments, cotton, grain, live stock. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

HITCHCOCK— Galveston County; pop., 350. 14 
miles west of Galveston, the county seat, on the 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, H. L. Roberts & Co. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

HOLDER— Brown County; pop., 500. 16 miles 
north of Brownwood, the county seat, four from 
Hutson, the nearest shipping point, and 8 miles 
from May, the nearest banking point. Telephone 
connection. 

HOLLAND— Bell County; pop., 690. 26 miles 
south of Belton, the county seat, on the M. K. & 
T. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, First State. Weekly 
newspaper, The Holland Progress. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

HONDO— Medina County seat; pop., 3,000; alt., 
001 ft. 50 miles west of San Antonio, on the S. P. 
Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, Hondo State. Hotels, Arm- 



strong, Richter. Two weekly newspapers, The Hondo 
Times and The Anvil-Herald. Has foundry and bolt 
works. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HONEY GROVE— Fannin County; pop., 3,000; 
alt., 656 ft. 16 miles east of Bonham, the county 
seat, 86 miles northeast of Dallas, on the T. & P., 
the G. C. & S. Fe Rys. Banks, First Nat'l, Planters' 
Nat'l, State Nat'l. Hotels, Vaughn, Yeager. Two 
newspapers, The Honey Grove Weekly, the Weekly 
Texas Citizen. Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

HOOKS— Bowie County; pop., 100. Eight miles 
from Boston, the county seat, on the T. & P. Ry. 
Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. News- ■ 
paper. 

HOUSTON— Harris County seat; pop., 250,000; 
alt., 53 ft. Founded by the Allen family and Gen- 
eral Sam Houston, one of the first products of the 
Republic of Texas, and the first capital of the New 
Republic, at the head of the Buffalo Bayou waters, 
an arm of the gulf. This bayou, now Houston Ship 
Channel, with a depth of 30 feet and a width at the 
bottom of 200 feet is Houston's greatest commercial 
asset, traffic over its waters amounting to over 
$350,000,000 annually. It has given Houston the 
water rate and made it a port of entry. Free wharf 
facilities are guaranteed by the city and the gov- 
ernment forever. Here seventeen railroads meet 
the sea — over 100 passenger trains operate in and 
out daily. Here are the headquarters for the Sunset- 
Central Lines, the I. - G. N. R. R., the Gulf Coast 
Lines, and the T. & B. V. Ry. The only general of- 
fice building of the Southern Pacific is at Houston, 
the nine-story half-million dollar general offices of 
the Sunset-Central Lines; the Southern Pacific here 
has a modern half-million dollar hospital. 

Houston is the financial center of the Southwest, 
with more banking capital, greater clearings, greater 
deposits than any city in Texas. Banks, Bankers 
Mortgage Co., Channel State, Citizens State, Federal 
Int. Credit Bank, Federal Land Bank, Federal Re- 
serve Bank of Dallas (branch), Fidelity Trust Co., 
First National, First Texas Joint Stock & Land 
Bank, Guaranty National, Guardian Trust Co., Guar- 
anty Trust Co., Gulf State, Houston Land & Trust 
Co., Houston National, Marine Bank & Trust Co., 
National Bank of Commerce, Public National, Sam 
Houston Trust Co., San Jacinto Trust Co., Seaport 
National, Second National, South Texas Commercial 
National, State National, Varner Trust Co., Blanton 
Banking Co., H. C. Burt & Co., Carter Investment 
Co., Dunn & Co., Fenner & Beane, M. L. Goldman 
Co., Gray & Wilmerding, Interstate Trust Co., Link- 
Ford Co., Neuhaus & Co., Public Trust Co., Sherwood 
& Co., Houston Clearing House Association. Hotels, 
The Bender, Brazos, Bristol, Cotton, De George, 
Field, Macatee, Milby, Rice, Rusk, Sam Houston, 
San Jacinto, Stratford, Tennison and Wm. Penn. 

Houston is the largest inland port cotton market 
in the world, handling the bulk of the cotton crop 
of Texas and Oklahoma. Houston is a chief oil 
center in the Lone Star State with 23 oil corpora- 
tions with combined capital of $70,000,000 in the 
city. It is the lumber center of the Southwest, with 
49 lumber corporations with capital of $40,000,000. 
The city is a great industrial and manufacturing 
center. It is the heart of the sugar and rice ter- 
ritory for Texas. It has a Municipal Auditorium 
with seating capacity for 7,000. Houston is called 



140 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



an all-the-year-round city, a pleasant winter resort 
and cool in the summer. The Rice Institute, with 
$14,000,000 endowment, is located here. Houston 
is one of the wonderful new cities of the South. Tel., 
Mackay, Postal, W. U. Express. 

HOUSTON HEIGHTS— Pop., 6,984. An incor- 
porated suburb of Houston, a part of which it is. 
See Houston. 

HOWE — Grayson County; pop., 583. 54 miles 
north of Dallas, 8 miles south of Sherman, the 
county seat, on the H. T. C. and on the Texas Trac- 
tion Company. Banks, Farmers' Nat'l, Home Guar- 
anty State. Weekly newspaper, The Howe Herald. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

HOWLAND — Lamar County; pop., 525. Ten miles 
from Paris, the county seat, on the T. M. Ry. Bank, 
Howland State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HUBBARD— Hill County; pop., 2,072; alt., 638 ft. 
25 miles southeast of Hillsboro, the county seat, 28 
miles northeast of Waco, on the St. L. S. W. and 
T. & B. V. Rys. Banks, First Nat'l, First State. 
Hotels, Alford, Bounds, Carroll, City, Magnolia. 
Daily newspapers, The Pantograph, and a weekly 
newspaper, The Hubbard City News. Has hot wells 
spring for the treatment of nervous and stomach dis- 
eases. Industry, cotton and grain. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

HUGHES SPRINGS— Cass County; pop., 831. 20 
miles west of Linden, the county seat, 150 miles east 
of Dallas, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, First Nat'l 
Weekly newspaper, saw, shingle and flour mills, 
cotton gins, etc. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HULL— Liberty County; pop., 1,000. 14 miles 
from Liberty, the county seat, 8 miles from Batson. 
Bank, Hull State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HUMBLE— Harris County; pop., 3,000; alt., 93 ft. 
18 miles northeast of Houston, the county seat, on 
the H. E. & W. T. Ry. Bank, Humble State. Hotels, 
Arlington, Lone Star, Matthews. Weekly newspaper. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

HUNTINGTON— Angelina County; pop., 400. Ten 
miles southeast of Lufkin, the county seat, on the 
T. & N. O. and the T. & L. Rys. Banks, Guaranty 
State. Weekly newspaper, Tel., W. U. Express. 

HUNTSVILLE— Walker County seat; pop., 4,689; 
alt., 400 ft. 134 miles north of Houston, on the 
I. -G. N. R. R. Banks, First Natl., Huntsville 
State. Hotels, Keep, Lindley. Two weekly news- 
papers, The Herald and The Post-Item. Site of the 
State Penitentiary. State normal. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

HUTCHINS— Dallas County; pop., 500. 11 miles 
from Dallas, the county seat, on the H. & T. C. Ry., 
and the Southern Traction Co. Banks, Citizens' 
Guaranty State and Bank of Hutchins. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

HUTTO— Williamson County; pop., 571. 15 miles 
north of Georgetown, the county seat, on the I. & 
G. N. Ry. Banks, Farmers' & Merchants' State, 
Hutto Nat'l. Hotel, Higgins. Express. 

HYATT— In Tyler County; pop., 3,500. 

INDEPENDENCE— Washington County; pop., 
715. About 15 miles north of Brenham, the county 
seat, usual shipping point and banking center. 

INDIAN GAP— Hamilton County; pop., 150. 
Bank, German-American State. 



INDUSTRY— Austin County; pop., 600. 16 miles 
from Bellville, the county seat, and 7 miles from 
New Ulm, the nearest shipping point. Bank, First 
Guaranty. Telephone connection. 

INEZ — Victoria County; pop., 200. 15 miles east 
of Victoria, the county seat, on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. 
Bank, Inez State. Telephone and express. 

IOLA — Grimes County; pop., 300. 23 miles north- 
west of Anderson, the county seat, on the H. & T. C. 
and T. & B. V. Rys. Bank, Iola State. Express and 
telephone. 

IOWA PARK— Wichita County; pop., 2,041; alt., 
950 ft. Ten miles northeast of Wichita Falls, the 
county seat, on the Ft. W. & D. C. Ry. Banks, 
First Nat'l, First State. Weekly newspaper, Iowa 
Park Herald. Hotel, Park. Tel., W. U. Express. 

IREDELL — Bosque County; pop., 571. 26 miles 
northwest of Meridian, the county seat, 78 miles 
from Ft. Worth, on the T. C. Ry. Banks, Continental 
State. Hotel, Iredell. Tel., W. U. Express. 

IRELAND— Coryell County; pop., 250. 16 miles 
west of Gatesville, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
W. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

IRENE— Hill County; pop., 264; 21 miles east of 
Hillsboro, the county seat, on the I. & G. N. Ry. 
Bank, First Nat'l. Weekly newspaper, The Irene 
Motor. Tel., W. U. Express. 

IRVING— Dallas County; pop., 357; alt., 425 ft. 
Nine miles from Dallas, the county seat, on the 
C. R. I. & G. and the Frisco Lines. Bank, Irving 
State. Hotel, Irving. Newspaper, The Irving In- 
dex. Express. 

ITALY— Ellis County; pop., 1,350; alt., 583 ft. 15 
miles south of Waxahachie, the county seat, and 46 
miles southwest of Dallas, on the I. & G. N. and the 
M. K. & T. Rys., and the Waco-Dallas Interurban. 
Banks, Farmers' State, First Nat'l. Hotel, Com- 
mercial. Weekly newspaper, Italy News-Herald. 
Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ITASCA— Hill County; pop., 1,599; alt., 711 ft. 
Ten miles north of Hillsboro, the county seat, 44 
miles south of Ft. Worth, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Banks, First Nat'l, Itasca Nat'l. Hotel, Ross. Weekly 
newspaper, The Item. Three gins, oil mill, cotton 
mill. Shipments, cotton and grain. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

JACKSBORO — Jack County seat; pop., 1,373; alt., 
1,050 ft. 72 miles northwest of Ft. Worth on the 
C. R. I. & G. and the G. T. W. Rys. Banks, First 
Nat'l, Jacksboro Nat'l. Hotels, Jacksboro, St. 
Frances, Fanner. Two newspapers, The Gazette 
and The News. Two cotton gins, a stone crusher, 
cotton oil mill, flour mill. Tel., W. U. Express. 

JACKSONVILLE— Cherokee County; pop.. 3,723; 
alt., 525 ft. 15 miles northwest of Rusk, the county 
seat, and 27 miles northeast of Palestine and 208 
miles northeast of Austin, on the I. & G. N. and the 
T. & N. O. and the Lufkin branch of the St. L. S. 
W. Rys. Banks, Farmers' Guaranty State. First 
Guaranty State, First Nat'l. Hotels, Commercial, 
Liberty, Park. Two weekly newspapers, one daily. 
Has a Baptist college, 2 box factories, 2 planing 
mills, 2 cotton gins, an ice plant, cotton seed oil 
mill, 2 bottling works and a laundry. A great fruit 
center in the productive East Texas district. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 



141 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



JAKEHAMON— Ranger P. O., Comanche County; 
pop., 100. 

JARRELL — Williamson Comity; pop., 400; 16y 2 
miles south of Georgetown, the county seat, on the 
B. & W. Ry. Bank, First State. Weekly newspaper. 
Telephone connection. 

JASPER — Jasper County seat; pop., 5,225; alt., 
320 ft. 150 miles north of Galveston, on the G. C. 
& S. Fe Ry. Banks, Citizens' Nat'l and Jasper State. 
Hotels, Belle-Jim, Richardson, Swann. Newspaper. 
Industry, lumber and truck. Tel., W. U. Express. 

JAYTON— Kent County; pop., 750. 11% miles 
northeast of Clairemont, the county seat, on the 
W. V. Ry. Bank, First Nat'l. Newspaper. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

JEAN — Young County; pop., 200. 14 miles north- 
west of Graham, the county seat, and 8 miles from 
Loving, on the G. T. & W. Ry. Bank, Jean State. 
Express. 

JEFFERSON— Marion County seat; pop., 2,549; 
alt.. 219 ft. 162 miles east of Dallas on the M. K. 
& T.,' the J. & M. W. and the T. & P. Rys. Banks, 
Commercial Nat'l, Guaranty State, Rogers Nat'l. 
Hotel, Excelsior. Two weekly newspapers. Indus- 
try, lumber. Tel., W. U. Express. 

JER3IYN-^Jack County; pop., 400; 16 miles west 
of Jacksboro, the county seat, on the G. T. & W. Ry. 
Bank, Oliver Loving & Co. Newspaper, The News. 
Express. 

JEWETT— Leon County; pop., 460; alt., 496 ft. 
12% miles northwest of Centerville, the county 
seat, on the I. & G. N. and H. & T. C. Rys. Bank, 
Jewett State. Hotels, Adkinson, Logan. News- 
paper, telegraph and express. 

JOAQUIN— Shelby County; pop., 300; 24 miles 
northeast of Center, the county seat, on the H. E. 
& W. T. Ry. Bank, First State. Newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

JOHNSON CITY— Blanco County seat; pop., 400. 
28 miles south of Marble Falls, the nearest shipping 
point, with which place it is connected by daily mail 
stage. Bank, Johnson City State. Newspaper, tele- 
phone connection. 

JOSEPHINE— Collin County; pop., 600. 12 miles 
southwest of McKinney, the county seat, on the 
St. L. S. W. Ry. Bank, Josephine State. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

JOSHUA-^Iohnson County; pop., 600. Eight 
miles north of Cleburne, the county seat, and 24 
miles south of Ft. Worth, on the G. C. & S. F. Ry., 
and the Ft. Worth S. Traction Line. Weekly news- 
paper, The Joshua Star. Bank, Citizens Banking 
Co., Tel., W. U. Express. 

JOURD ANTON— Judicial seat of Atascosa Coun- 
ty; pop., 682; alt., 659 ft. 40 miles south of San 
Antonio, on the S. A. U. & G. and the A. B. Rys. 
Bank, Atascosa State. Hotel, Yeates. Weekly news- 
paper, The Atascosa Monitor. Shipments, cotton and 
live stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

JUNCTION— Kimble County seat; pop., 1,500. 
40 miles south of Menard, the nearest shipping point. 
Banks, First Nat'l, Junction State. Two newspapers. 
Telephone connection. 

JUSTIN— Denton County; pop., 476. 17 miles 
southwest of Denton, the county seat, and 25 miles 
north of Ft. Worth, on the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, 
Justin State. Weekly newspaper, The Tribune, Tel., 
W. U. Express. 



KARNES CITY— Judicial seat of Karnes County; 
pop., 1,000; alt., 650 ft. 55 miles southeast of San 
Antonio, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, Karnes 
County National and Guaranty State. Hotel, Farr. 
Weekly newspaper, The Karnes Citation. Shipments, 
cotton and farm products. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KATY— Harris County; pop., 400. 28 miles from 
Houston, the county seat, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Bank, Katy State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KAUFMAN — Judicial seat of Kaufman County; 
pop., 2,501; alt., 430 ft. 35 miles southeast of Dallas, 
on the T. & N. O. and the T. M. Rys. Banks, Farm- 
ers & Merchants Nat'l, First Nat'l First Sate. 
Hotels, Blakeley, Kaufman, Mathis. Newspapers, 
The Post, daily and The Herald weekly. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

KEENE — Johnson County, pop., 1,500. Five miles 
from Cleburne, the county seat, the banking and 
shipping point. 

KELLER— Tarrant County; pop., 350. 14 miles 
from Ft. Worth, the county seat, on the T. & P. and 
the M.-K.-T. Rys. Bank, Guaranty State. Weekly 
newspaper. Express. 

KELTYS— Angelina County; pop., 1,000. Two 
miles from Lufkin, the county seat and banking point 
on the St. L. S. W. and A. & N. R. Rys. Express 
and telephone connection. 

KEMP— Kaufman County; pop., 1,500; alt., 436 
ft. 47 miles south of Dallas and 12 miles south of 
Kaufman, the county seat, on the T. & N. O. Ry. 
Banks, Farmers Guaranty State, First Natl. Hotel, 
Bowlby. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KEMPNER— Lampasas County; pop., 103. 11 
miles from Lampasas, the county seat, on the G. C. & 
S. Fe Ry. Bank, Kempner State., Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

KENEDY— Karnes County; pop., 2,015; alt., 275 
ft. 62 miles southeast of San Antonio, 88 miles 
north of Corpus Christi, 7 miles south of Karnes 
City, the county seat, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry., being 
the junction of the Houston and Corpus Christi 
lines. Banks, First National Bank and Nichols 
National Bank. Hotels, Commercial, Goffe, Junc- 
tion and Parker. Weekly newspaper. Shipments, 
cotton, cotton seed products, farm products, live 
stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KENNARD— Houston County; pop., 600. 30 miles 
west of Lufkin, on the E. T. Ry. Bank, Farmers 
Guaranty State. Express. 

KENNEY— Austin County; pop., 200. Nine miles 
from Bellville, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. F. 
Ry. Bank, Kenney State. Express and telephone 
connection. 

KERENS — Navarro County; pop., 1,343. 15 miles 
east of Corsicana, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
W. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, First State, Kerens Nat'l. 
Newspaper. Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KERRVILLE— Kerr County; pop., 2,353; alt., 
1,650 ft. 70 miles north of San Antonio, on the S. 
A. & A. P. Ry., and on the Guadalupe river. 
Banks, First State, Charles Schreiner Bank. Two 
weekly newspapers, The Advance and The Kerrville 
Mountain Sun. Hotels, Hill, McRea, St. Jo. 

KILGORE— Gregg County; pop., 725; alt., 371 ft. 
18 miles west of Longview, on the I. & G. N. Ry. 
Bank, Kilgore State and Guaranty State. Hotels, 
Hobbs and Wood. Tel., W. U. Express. 



142 



CITIES AND TOWNS 






KILLEEN— Bell County; pop., 1,298; alt., 835 ft. 
18 miles west of Belton, the county seat, on the G. 
C. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, First Natl., Guar. State, 
First State. Weekly newspaper. Hotels, Califor- 
nia. Hudson, Killeen, Newby. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KINGSBURY— Guadalupe County; pop., 250; 10 
miles from Seguin, the county seat, on the G. H. & 
S. A. Ry. Bank, First Nat'l. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

KINGSVILLE— Kleberg County seat; pop., 4,770; 
alt., 30 ft. 253 miles southwest of Houston, 59 
miles southwest of Corpus Christi, on the St. L. B. & 
M. Ry. Banks, First State, Robert J. Kleberg & Co. 
Hotel, Casa Ricardo. City is in the center of the 
King ranch, the largest individually owned ranch in 
the United States. General shops of the St. L. B. & 
M. Ry., are here. Weekly newspaper, cotton gins, 
cotton oil mill, ice plant, laundry and creamery. 
Favorably situated for dairying, cotton and corn 
raising and truck farming. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KIRBYVILLE— Jasper County; pop., 1,165; alt., 
360 ft. 18 miles from Jasper, the county seat, on 
the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, Kirbyville, State, 
Peoples State. Hotels, Commercial, Dubose, Gilbert. 
Newspaper, Telegraph and Express. 

KIRKLAND— Childress County; pop., 600. 11 
miles east of Childress, the county seat, on the Ft. 
W. & D. C. Ry. Bank, First State. Express and 
telephone connection. 

KIRVIN — Freestone County; pop., 288. 12 miles 
west of Fairfield the county seat, on the T. & B. V. 
Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Express. 

KLEBURG— Dallas County; pop., 350. 15 V2 
miles southeast of Dallas, the county seat, on the 
T. & N. O. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

KLONDIKE— Delta County; pop., 154. Five miles 
southwest of Cooper, the county seat, on the T. M. 
Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KNOX CITY— Knox County; pop., 698; alt., 3,964 
ft. 13 miles south of Benjamin, the county seat, 
on the K. C. M. & O. Ry. Bank, First Natl., Guar- 
anty State. Hotel, Boyd. Newspaper, Telegraph 
and Express. 

KOPPERL — Bosque County; pop., 329. 15 miles 
from Meridian, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. Fe 
Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Express and telephone 
connection. 

KOSSE— Limestone County; pop., 872; alt., 503 ft. 
16 miles south of Groesbeck, the county seat, and 
112 miles south of Dallas, on the H. & T. C. Ry. 
Banks, First Natl. Guaranty State. Hotels, Armada, 
Commercial. Weekly newspaper, The Kosse Cyclone. 
Shipment, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KOUNTZE — Judicial seat of Hardin County; pop., 
225, alt., 46 ft. 25 miles north of Beaumont on the 
T. & N. O. and the G. C. & S. Fe Rys. Bank, Hardin 
County State. Hotels, Commercial, Sims. News- 
paper, The Texas News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KRESS— Swisher County; pop., 200. 12 y 2 miles 
from Tulia, on the T. & N. T. Ry. Bank, Farmers 
State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KRUM — Denton County; pop., 600. Nine miles 
northwest of Denton, the county seat, and 38 miles 
north of Ft. Worth, on the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, 
Farmers & Merchants State. Tel., W. U. Express. 
Shipments, wheat, corn, hay, livestock. 



KYLE — Hays County; pop., 744. Eight miles 
northeast of San Marcos, on the I. & G. N. Ry. 
Bank, Kyle State. Newspaper, Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

LACOSTE— Medina County; pop., 400. 23 miles 
east of Hondo, the county seat, and 25 miles west of 
San Antonio, on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. Bank, La- 
Coste Nat'l. It is the shipping point for the great 
Medina Dam. Principal industries, farming and 
stockraising. Weekly newspaper, The Medina Val- 
ley Herald. Shipments, cotton, corn, oats, pecans 
and honey. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LADONIA— Fannin County; pop., 1,713; alt., 620 
ft. 18 miles south of Bonham, the county seat, and 
63 miles northeast of Dallas, on the G. C. & S. Fe 
Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, First State. Hotel, Hardy, 
Weekly newspaper, The Ladonia News. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

LA FERIA— Cameron County; pop., 1,200. 35 miles 
from Brownsville, the county seat, on the St. L. B. 
& M. Ry. Bank, Cameron County Bank. Weekly 
newspaper, The Leader. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LAGRANGE — Judicial seat of Fayette County; 
pop., 1,669; alt., 276 ft. 100 miles west of Houston, 
on the M. K. & T. and the S. P. Rys. Banks, First 
Natl., John Schumacher State. Hotels, Kainer, Les- 
ter. Settled in 1822. Three weekly newspapers. 
Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LAKEVIEW— Hall County; pop., 150; 15 miles 
southwest of Memphis, the county seat and shipping 
point. Bank, First State. Telephone connection. 

LAMESA— Dawson County seat; pop., 1,188; 30 
miles south of Tahoka, on the P. & N. Ry. Banks, 
First Nat'l, First State. Newspaper, telegraph and 
express. 

LAMKIN— Comanche County; pop., 200. 21 
miles south of Comanche, the county seat, on the St. 
L. S. W. Ry. Bank, First State. Telephone con- 
nection. 

LAMPASAS — Judicial seat of Lampasas County; 
pop., 2,107; alt., 1,025 ft. 43 miles west of Temple, 
on tke G. C. & S. Fe and the H. & T. C. Rys. Banks, 
First Nat'l, Peoples Nat'l, Stokes Bros., Bankers. 
Hotels, Commercial, Lampasas, Moore, Smith, Wach- 
en, Wachendorfer. Two weekly newspapers. In- 
dustry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LANCASTER— Dallas County; pop., 1,190; alt., 
579 ft. 15 miles south of Dallas, the county seat, 
on the M. K. & T. the H. & T. C. Rys., and on the 
Dallas-Waco Interurban. Banks, First Nat'l, R. P. 
Henry & Sons, White & Co. Hotel, Head. Weekly 
newspaper, The Lancaster Herald. Cotton Oil Mill, 
three cotton gins, flour mill. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LA PORTE — Harris County; pop., 900. 22 miles 
south of Houston, the county seat; alt., 30 ft. Bank, 
First National. Hotel, Mathews. Has newspaper, 
telegraph and express. 

LA PRYOR— Zavalla County; pop., 400. 15 miles 
west of Batesville, the county seat, on the S. A. U. & 
G. Ry. Bank, La Pryor State. Weekly newspaper, 
The Zavalla County Sentinel. Stage daily to Bates- 
ville. Tel. W. U. Express. 

LAREDO — Judicial seat of Webb County; pop., 
22,710; alt., 438 ft. 153 miles southeast of San 
Antonio, located on the Rio Grande River, the I. & G. 
N., the T. M., the G. R. & E. P., and the N. R. of M. 
Rys. Banks, First State & Trust Co., Laredo Nat'l, 



143 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Merchants State Bank & Trust Co., and First Natl. 
Hotels. Bender, Hamilton, St. Anthony, Travelers. 
Two daily newspapers, The Progress and The Times, 
as well as a number of weeklies. Here is located the 
Laredo Seminary for Girls and Boys, Industrial In- 
stitutions, large brick works, roller mills, ice plants, 
foundry and machine shops, gas engine works, cigar 
factories, bottling works, flour mills, railroad shops 
and coal mines. Magnificent climate, cheap fuel, 
electric power, a splendid opportunity for manufac- 
turing enterprises. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LARUE — Henderson County; pop., 500. Bank, 
Citizens State. 

LAVRELLA— Polk County; pop., 500. 

LAVERNI A— Wilson County; pop., 500. 25 
miles east of San Antonio, and 18 miles north of 
Floresville, the county seat, on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. 
Bank. La Vernia State. Shipments, wool, cotton 
and corn. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LA VON— Collin County; pop., 200. 25 miles 
southeast of McKinney, the county seat, on the St. L. 
S. W. Ry. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LAWN— Taylor County; pop., 175. 28% miles 
from Abilene, the county seat, and five miles from 
Ovalo, on the P. & N. T. Ry. Bank, Security State. 
Express. 

LEAGUE CITY— Galveston County; pop., 800. 
24 miles northwest of Galveston, the judicial seat, 
on the G. H. & H., the I. & G. N., and the M. K. & 
T. Rys. Bank, Citizens State. Newspaper, tele- 
graph and express. 

LEAKEY — Real County seat; pop., 150. 40 miles 
northwest of Sabinal, on the Rio Frio River. Banks, 
First State. Daily stage connection with Sabinal, 
the nearest railroad point. 

LEANDER— Williamson County; pop., 200. 12 
miles west of Georgetown, the county seat, on the 
H. & T. C. Ry. Bank, First State. Express. 

LEARY— Bowie County; pop., 25. 10% miles to 
Texarkana, 12 miles east of Boston, the county seat, 
on the T. & P. Ry. Bank, The Guaranty State. 

LEESBURG— Camp County; pop., 320. Seven 
and one-half miles from Pittsburg, the county seat, 
on the M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, First Guaranty State. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

LEGGETT— Polk County; pop., 300. Eight miles 
from Livingston, the county seat, on the H. E. & W. 
T. Ry. Bank, Farmers' State. Express. 

LELIA LAKE — Donley County; pop., 150; seven 
miles from Clarendon, the county seat, on the Ft. W. 
& D. C. Ry. Bank, Farmers & Merchants State. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

LEMING — Atascosa County; pop., 300. 12 miles 
northeast of Jourdanton, the county seat, on the 
S. A. U. & G. Ry. Bank, Farmers. Telephone and 
express connection. 

LEONARD— Fannin County; pop., 1,383. 20 
miles southwest of Bonham, the county seat, 34 miles 
southeast of Denison, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, 
First Natl., Leonard Natl. Hotel, Rock. Shipments, 
cotton and livestock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LEROY — McLennan County; pop., 250. 15 miles 
northeast of Waco, the county seat, on the I. - G. 
N. Ry. Bank, LeRoy Bank. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LEWISVILLE— Denton County; pop., 1,500; alt., 
477 ft. 15 miles south of Denton, the county seat, 22 



miles north of Dallas, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, 
First Nat'l, Lewisville State. Hotels, Prague, Sal- 
mon. Weekly newspaper, The Enterprise. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

LEXINGTON— Lee County; pop., 600; 456 feet 
elevation. 18 miles north of Giddings, the county 
seat, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, Lee County 
State. Hotel, Commercial. Newspaper, telegraph 
and express. 

LIBERTY — Judicial seat of Liberty County; pop., 
1,117; alt., 38 ft. 42 miles east of Houston, on the 
T. & N. O. Ry. Banks, First State and Liberty 
State. Weekly newspaper, The Vindicator. Tel., 
W. U. Express. Hotels, Commercial, Liberty, Mc- 
Arthur, Norman. 

LIBERTY HILL— Williamson County; pop., 500. 
38 miles northwest of Austin, on the H. & T. C. Ry. 
Banks, First State, Connell & Hickman, Bankers. 
Weekly newspaper, telegraph and express. 

LILLIAN-Johnson County; pop., 340. 20% 
miles southeast of Ft. Worth, on the I. & G. N. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Tel., Express. 

LINDALE— Smith County, pop., 701. 14 miles 
northwest of Tyler, the county seat, on the I. & G. 
N. Ry. Bank, Citizens' Guaranty. Weekly news- 
paper, The Lindale Reporter. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LINDEN — Judicial Seat of Cass County; pop., 
702; alt., 220 ft. 18 miles north of Jefferson, on 
the J. & M. W. Ry. Banks, Cass County State, First 
Natl. Hotels, Commercial, Jackson. Two weekly 
newspapers, The Cass County Sun and the Weekly 
Memo. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LINGLEVILLE— Erath County; pop., 400. 12 
miles from Dublin, its shipping point. Bank, First 
State. Telephone connection. 

LIPAN— Hood County; pop., 750. 19% miles 
northwest of Granbury, the county seat, and 12 miles 
from Bluff Dale, the usual shipping point. Banks, 
First Nat'l, Lipan State. Telephone. 

LIPSCOMB— Lipscomb County seat; pop., 200; 
18% miles northwest of Higgins, the nearest ship- 
ping point. Bank, Bank of Lipscomb. Weekly news- 
paper. Has a daily mail stage route, Higgins to 
Ochiltree. 

LITTLEFIELD— Lamb County; pop., 2,000. 18 
miles southwest of Olton, the county seat, and 35 
miles from Lubbock, on the P. & N. T. Ry. Bank, 
Littlefield State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LIVINGSTON— Polk County; pop., 928; alt., 192 
ft. 72 miles north of Houston, on the H. E. & W. T. 
and the B. & G. N. Rys. Banks, First Nat'l, Guar- 
anty State. Hotels, Cottage, Denham, Oleander. 
Weekly newspaper, The Polk County Enterprise. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

LLANO — Llano County seat; pop., 2,100; alt., 
1,040 ft. 100 miles northwest of Austin, on the H. 
& T. C. Ry. Banks, Citizens Natl., Moore State. Ho- 
tels, Dobbs, Don Carlos, Southern. Marble and 
granite works, stone quarries, abound. Has three 
cotton gins, ice plant, sanitarium, and weekly news- 
paper, The Llano News. Tel., W. U. Express.. 

LLANO GRANDE— Hidalgo County; pop., 1,645. 
25 miles southeast of Edinburg, the county seat, and 
three miles from Mercedes, the nearest banking 
point. 

LOCKHART— Caldwell County; pop., 3,731. 30 
miles south of Austin, 60 miles northeast of San An- 



144 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



tonio, on the M. K. & T. and S. A. & A. P. Rys. 
Banks, First National, Lockhart National and Lock- 
hart State. Hotels, Carter and Griesenbeck. Cot- 
ton oil mill, compress, and several gins. Here was 
originated the famous Mebane cotton seed for plant- 
ing and is grown extensively and exported through- 
out the cotton growing country. Two weekly news- 
papers, The Register and The Post. Has a Catholic 
Academy. Shipments, cotton, cotton seed, livestock. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

LOCKNEY— Floyd County; pop., 1,118; alt., 3,300 
ft. 14 miles northwest of Floydada, the county seat, 
on the P. & N. T. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, Lockney 
State. Hotels, Brewster, Commercial. Weekly 
newspaper, telegraph, express. 

LOM ETA— Lampasas County; pop., 995; alt., 310 
ft. 18 miles northwest of Lampasas, the county 
seat, on the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, First Nation- 
al. Hotels, DeBaun, Holiday and Page. Has a 
weekly newspaper, The Lometa Reporter. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

LONE OAK— Hunt County; pop., 1,017; 15 miles 
south of Greenville, the county seat, and 68 miles 
northeast of Dallas, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, 
Farmers' Nat'l, Guaranty State. Weekly news- 
paper, The News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LONG VIEW— Gregg County seat; pop., 5,713; 
alt., 336 ft. 120 miles southeast of Dallas, on the 
I. & G. N., the T. & P., and the G. C. & S. Fe Rys. 
Banks, Rembert National, Commercial Guaranty 
State and First National. Hotels, Bodie, Daniels, 
Magnolia, Mobberly, Palace, Schmidt. Two weekly 
newspapers, two cotton gins, a cotton compress, 
warehouse, ice factory, bottling works, box factory, 
iron works, plow works, etc. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LORAINE— Mitchell County; pop., 1,200; alt., 
2,265 ft. 10 miles from Colorado, the county seat, on 
the T. & P. Ry. Bank, First State. Hotel, Thornton. 
Weekly newspaper, telegraph and express. 

LORENA— McLennan County; pop., 342. 15 
miles south of Waco, the county seat, on the M. K. 
& T. Ry. Bank, First National. Newspaper, The 
Register. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LORENZO— Crosby County; pop., 300. 18 miles 
from Crosbyton, the county seat, on the Crosbyton 
South Plains Ry. Bank, First State. Express. 

LOTT— Falls County, pop., 1,093; alt., 522 ft. 12 
miles west of Marlin, the county seat, and 28 miles 
south of Waco, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Banks, 
First Nat'l, Lott State. Hotel, Commercial. Weekly 
newspaper, The Post. Industries, cotton and grain. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

LOUISE— Wharton County; pop., 300. 24 miles 
southwest of Wharton, the county seat, and 85 miles 
southwest of Houston. Banks, Louise State and 
Peoples' Bank. Rice warehouses, cotton gins, hay 
shippers, machine shops. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LOVELADY— Houston County; pop., 625. 14 
miles from Crockett, the county seat, on the I. & G. 
N. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, Lovelady State. Week- 
ly newspaper, The Lovelady Light. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

LUBBOCK — Lubbock County seat; pop., 7,500; 
alt., 3106 ft. 123 miles south of Amarillo, on the 
A. T. & S. Fe and the South Plains and Crosbyton 
Rys. Banks, Citizens' Nat'l, Lubbock State, Secur- 
ity State Bank & Trust Co. Hotels, Alpins, City, 



Clyde, Jackson, Leidet, Lubbock. Weekly newspa- 
per, The Avalanche. Has an inexhaustible supply 
of water at depth of sixty feet and great are the 
irrigation possibilities. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LUEDERS— Jones County; pop., 200; alt., 1,720. 
18 miles northeast of Anson, the county seat, on the 
T. C. Ry. Bank, Farmers State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

LUFKIN— Angelina County seat; pop., 4,878; 
alt., 326 ft. 290 miles northeast of Austin, 118 
miles north of Houston, on the H. E. & W. T., the 
Cotton Belt, the I. & G. N., and the T. S. E. Rys. 
Banks, Citizens' Guaranty Bank & Trust Co., Luf- 
kin Nat'l. Hotels, Bonner, Mahaffey, Sickles. Has 
large saw mills. Shipments, cotton and lumber. 
Two newspapers. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LULING— Caldwell County; pop., 1,502; alt, 421 
ft. 15 miles south of Lockhart, the county seat, and 
58 miles east of San Antonio. Banks, Citizens' 
State, Lipscomb Bank & Trust Co. Industry, cot- 
ton, oil. Hotel, Wilson. Weekly newspaper, The 
Signal. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LYFORD— Cameron County; pop., 300; alt., 40 ft. 
41% miles north of Brownsville, the county seat, on 
the St. L. B. & M. Ry. Bank, First State. Hotel, 
Lyford. Express. 

LYONS— Burleson County; pop., B00. 12% miles 
southwest of Caldwell, the county seat, on the G. C. 
& S. Fe Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LYTLE — Atascosa County; pop., 700; 35 miles 
north of Jourdanton, the county seat, on the I. & G. 
N. Ry. Bank, Lytle State. Weekly newspaper, 
The Herald. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MAGNOLIA PARK— pop., 4,080. 

MALAKOFF— Henderson County; pop., 750. 10 
miles west of Athens, the county seat, on the St. L. 
S. W. Ry. Banks, First Natl., First State. News- 
paper, Malakoff News. Has express and telephone 
connections. 

MALONE— Hill County; pop., 488. 18 miles 
from Hillsboro, the county seat, on the T. & B. V., 
and the I. - G. N. Rys. Bank, Malone State. Weekly 
newspaper, The Malone Register. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

MANNING— Angelina County; pop., 1,000. 19 
miles southwest of Lufkin, the county seat, and its 
nearest banking point, on the S. H. & G. Ry. Tel- 
ephone and express connections. 

MANOR— Travis County; pop., 827. 15 miles 
east of Austin, the county seat, and 149 miles west 
of Houston, on the H. & T. C. Ry. Bank, Farmers' 
National. Weekly newspaper, The Enterprise. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

MANSFIELD— Tarrant County; pop., 719; alt., 
587 ft. 19 miles southeast of Ft. Worth, on H. & T. 
C. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, State Bank of Mans- 
field. Hotel, Royal. Weekly newspaper, the Mans- 
field News. Chief industry, cotton oil business. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

MARATHON— Brewster County; pop., 218. 30 
miles from Alpine, the county seat, on the G. H. & 
S. A. Ry. Bank, Marathon State. Newspaper. The 
Hustler. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MARBLE FALLS— Burnet County; pop., 639; 
alt., 770 ft. 30 miles south of Burnet, the county 
seat, on the H. & T. C. Railway. Banks, Ebeling 
Banking Co., First National. Hotel, Roper. Granite 
quarries. Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 



145 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Granite quarries. Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

MARFA — Presidio County seat; pop., 3,553; alt., 
4,6S9 ft. 22 miles southwest of Ft. Davis, on the G. 
H. & S. A. Ry. Banks, Marfa Nat'l, Marfa State. 
Hotel. St. George. Marfa is known as the illumi- 
nated city of the plains, from the large number of 
its lights burning brightly. Has most handsome 
opera house for its size of any city in the state. 
Two newspapers. Telegraph, Express. 

MARIETTA— Cass County; pop., 124. 10 miles 
from Naples, the nearest shipping point, and 16 
miles from Linden, the county seat. Bank, Mari- 
etta State. 

MARION— Guadalupe County; pop., 500. 25 
miles east of San Antonio, 12 miles north of Seguin, 
the county seat. Bank, Marion State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

31 ARLIN— Falls County seat; pop., 4,310; alt., 
460 ft. 28 miles south of Waco, on the I. & G. N. 
and H. & T. C. Rys. Banks, Citizens' Nat'l, First 
Nat'l, First State, Marlin Nat'l. Hotels, Arlington, 
Artesia, Exchange, Imperial, Lamb, Majestic, May- 
Bell, Sebesta. Daily and semi-weekly newspaper, 
The Democrat. Marlin is noted as a health resort 
owing to its mineral waters. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MARQUEZ— Leon County; pop., 700. 18 miles 
west of Centerville, the county seat, on the I. & 
G. N. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MARSHALL — Judicial seat of Harrison County; 
pop., 14,271; alt., 375 ft. 47 miles south of Tex- 
arkana, on the T. & P. and the M. K. & T. Rys. 
Banks, Citizens' State, First Nat'l, Guaranty State 
& Savings Bank, Marshall Nat'l. Hotels, Belmont, 
Elgin, Gonocchia, Lake, Marshall, White Way. 
Newspapers, The Messenger, daily, The Sunday Sen- 
tinel, semi-weekly and Louisiana Watchman (negro 
publication). Industries, saw mills, cotton gins, 
locomotive and car shops, car wheel works, grist and 
planing mills, cotton compress and oil mills, foun- 
dries, pottery, popcorn, candy, ice, shingle and fer- 
tilizer factories. Tel. W. U. Express. 

MART— McLennan County; pop., 3,105; alt., 410 
ft. 20 miles east of Waco, the county seat, on the 
I. & G. N. Ry. Banks, Farmers & Merchants Nat'l, 
First Nat'l, First State. Hotel, Abrams. Two 
weekly newspapers, The Enterprise and The Herald. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

MARTINDALE— Caldwell County; pop., 500. 8 
miles from San Marcos, the nearest shipping point 
and 15 miles from Lockhart, the county seat. Bank, 
Merchants & Planters Bank. Telephone connection. 

MASON— Judicial seat of Mason County; pop., 
1,200; alt., 1,400 ft. 32 miles south of Brady, the 
nearest shipping point. Banks, Commercial Bank of 
Mason, First State, Mason Nat'l. Hotels, Denver, 
Ricks, Southern. Two weekly newspapers. Stages 
to surrounding points. 

MATADOR— Motley County seat; pop., 692. 38 
miles west of Paducah, on the M. & N. Ry. Banks, 
First Nat'l, First State. Weekly newspaper, The 
Motley County News. Telephone connection. 

MATAGORDA— Matagorda County; pop., 1,000. 
22 miles south of Bay City, 95 miles southwest of 
Houston, on the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. and on the Inter- 
costal canal, near where the Colorado River enters 
Matagorda Bay. Bank, Bank of Matagorda. Set- 



tled in 1832. Important fish and oyster market of 
the Gulf states. Oil wells and sulphur mines near 
by. Shipments, fish, oysters, mud shells for road 
building and farm produce. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MATHIS— San Patricio County; pop., 500; alt., 
42 ft. 26 miles northwest of Sinton, the county 
seat, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Banks, First State, 
First National. Hotels, Alexander and Whitworth. 
Newspaper, telegraph, express. 

MAUD— Bowie County; pop., 378. 11 miles from 
Boston, the county seat, on the St. L. S. W. Ry. 
Bank, Maud Nat'l. Express and telephone. 

MAXWELL— Caldwell County; pop., 250. Eight 
and a half miles from Lockhart, the county seat, on 
the M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, C. T. Schawe, Banker. 
Express. 

MAY — Brown County; pop., 600. 17% miles 
north of Brownw r ood, the county seat, on the B. N. 
& S. Ry. Bank, First Nat'l. Newspaper, telephone. 

McALLEN— Hidalgo County; pop., 5,331; alt., 400 
ft. 12 miles north of Edinburg, the county seat, on 
the St. L. B. & M. Ry. Banks, First State Bank 
& Trust Co., First Nat'l. Hotels, Casa De Palms, 
Clark, Palmas. Newspaper, Monitor. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

McCAULLEY— Fisher County; pop., 200. 14 
miles northeast of Roby, the county seat, on the 
K. C. M. & O. Ry. Bank, First Guaranty. Tel., 
and Express. 

McDADE — Bastrop County; pop., 600. 14 miles 
from Bastrop, the county seat, on the H. & T. C. Ry. 
Bank, McDade Guaranty State. Express. 

McGREGOR— McLennan County, pop., 2,081; alt., 
713 ft. 20 miles southwest of Waco, the county 
seat, on the G. C. & S. Fe and the St. L. S. W. Rys. 
Banks, First Nat'l, First State. Hotel, White. 
Newspaper, The McGregor Mirror. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

McKINNEY— Collin County seat; pop., 6,677; 
alt., 592 ft. 32 miles north of Dallas on the H. & 
T. C, the M. K. & T. Rys., and the Texas Traction 
Co.'s interurban lines. Banks, Collin County Nat'l, 
Central State, First National. Hotels, Commercial, 
Throckmorton. All modern public utilities. Some 
manufacturing. Daily newspaper, Courier-Gazette, 
and two weeklies, the Democrat-Gazette, and The 
McKinney Examiner. Ships hay, cotton and dairy 
products. Tel. and Express. 

McLEAN— Gray County; pop., 74; alt., 2,780 ft. 
23 miles south of Lefors, the county seat, on the 
C. R. I. & G. Ry. Banks, American Nat'l, and Citi- 
zens' State. Hotels, Hindman, Smith. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

MEDICINE MOUND— Hardeman County; pop., 
200; 15 miles from Quanah, the county seat, on the 
K. C. M. & O. Ry. Bank, First Guaranty State. 
Express. 

MEGARGEL— Archer County; pop., 300. 25 miles 
southwest of Archer City, the county seat, on the 
G. T. & W. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

MELISSA— Collin County; pop., 500. Five miles 
north of McKinney, the county seat, and 37 miles 
north of Dallas, on the H. & T. C. Ry., and on the 
Texas Traction Co., Interurban. Bank, Melissa 
Nat'l. Tel., W. U. Express. 



146 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



MELVIN— McCulloch County; pop., 300. 18 miles 
from Brady, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. Fe 
Ry. Bank, First State. Telephone connection. 

MEMPHIS— Hall County seat; pop., 2,839; alt., 
1,800 ft. 137 miles west of Wichita Falls, on the 
Ft. W. & D. Ry. Banks, Citizens' State, First Nat'l, 
Hall County Nat'l. Hotels, Cobb and Stephens. 
Opera house, public library and two weekly news- 
papers, the Herald and The Democrat. Industry, 
cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MENARD — Judicial seat of Menard County; pop., 
1,164. 228 miles southwest of Ft. Worth, on the Ft. 
W. & R. G. Ry. Banks, Bevans Nat'l, and the Me- 
nard Nat'l. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MERCEDES— Hidalgo County; pop., 3,414, alt., 
36 ft. 23 miles southwest of Edinburg, the county 
seat, on the St. L. B. & M. Ry. Bank, First Nat'l. 
Hotels, American, Mercedes. Weekly newspaper. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

MERCURY— McCulloch County; pop., 450. 25 
miles from Brady, the county seat, on the Ft. W. & 
R. G. Ry. Banks, Bank of Mercury. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

MERIDIAN— Bosque County seat; pop., 1,024; 
alt., 793 ft. 65 miles south of Ft. Worth, on the 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, Farmers Guaranty State, 
First Nat'l. Hotel, Meridian. Weekly newspaper, 
The Meridian Times. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MERIT— Hunt County; pop., 450; 16 miles from 
Greenville, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. Fe 
Ry. Bank, First Nat'l. Express. 

MERKEL— Taylor County; pop., 1,810; alt., 1,871 
ft. 18 miles west of Abilene, the county seat, on the 
T. & P. Ry. Banks, Farmers & Merchants Nat'l, 
Farmers' State. Hotels, Collins, Commercial. No- 
ted as having the healthiest climate in Texas; public 
library, modern improvements. Two newspapers, 
The Mail and The Herald. Shipments, cotton, stock, 
farm produce. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MERTENS— Hill County; pop., 500. 15 miles 
east of Hillsboro, the county seat and 60 miles south 
of Ft. Worth, on the I. & G. N., and the St. L. S. W. 
Rys. Bank, First Guaranty State. Weekly news- 
paper, The News. Shipments, cotton and grain. 
Telegraph and Express. 

MERTZON— Irion County; pop., 400; alt., 1,850 
ft. Two and one-half miles from Sherwood, the 
county seat, on the K. C. M. & O. Ry. Bank, First 
Nat'l. Newspaper, The Weekly Star. Daily stage 
to Sherwood. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MESQUITE— Dallas County; pop., 674; alt., 483 
ft., 12 miles east of Dallas, the county seat, on the 
T. & P. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, Guaranty State. 
Hotel, Mesquite. Brick works. Weekly newspaper. 
Tel., W. U., Express. 

MEXIA — Limestone County; pop., by 1920 census 
3,482, but estimated in 1922 as 30,000; alt., 536 
ft. Twelve miles north of Groesbeck, the county 
seat, and 96 miles south of Dallas, on the T. & B. V. 
and the H. & T. C. Rys. Banks, Farmers State, 
Prendergast-Smith Nat'l, City Nat'l. Two news- 
papers, Evening News (weekly and daily) and The 
Herald (weekly). Tel., W. U. Express. In the 
fall of 1920 oil was discovered by Col. Humphreys 
a short distance from Mexia, and thus opened up 
the greatest oil fields of Texas with Mexia as the 



center of activities. Mexia rapidly increased in all 
lines of activities and has grown to be one of the 
leading centers of the Southwest. 

MIAMI— Roberts County seat; pop., 935. 76 
miles east of Amarillo, on the A. T. & S. F. Ry. 
Banks, Bank of Miami, First State. Industry, cat- 
tle, and the raising of corn, wheat, kaffir corn, milo 
maize, oats, hay and broom corn. Ships over 300 
carloads of cattle annually and over fifty carloads 
of broom corn. Good climate. Weekly newspaper, 
The Chief. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MIDLAND— Midland County seat; pop., 1,795; 
alt., 2,779 ft. 152 miles west of Abilene, on the T. & 
P. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, Midland Nat'l. Hotels, 
City, Llano, Yeakel. Weekly paper, The Reporter. 
Has an opera house. Ships cotton, grain and live 
stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MIDLOTHIAN— Ellis County; pop., 1,298; alt., 
737 ft. 11% miles northwest of Waxahachie, the 
county seat, on the H. & T. C. and the G. C. & S. Fe. 
Rys. Banks, Farmers' Guaranty State, First Nat'l. 
Hotels, Cowart, Mullin. Newspaper, The Argus. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

MIDWAY— Madison County; pop., 500. 12 miles 
from Madisonville, the county seat and nearest ship- 
ping point. Bank, Midway State. Telephone con- 
nections. 

MILANO— Milam County; pop., 500; alt., 497 ft. 

14 miles from Cameron, the county seat, on the G. C. 
& S. Fe and the I. & G. N. Rys. Bank, First State. 
Hotels, Hudson, Milano. Weekly newspaper, The 
Gazette. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MILES — Runnels County; pop., 853. 17 miles 
west of Ballinger, the county seat, on the S. F. Ry. 
Bank, Guar. State. Hotel, Childress. Newspaper, 
The Messenger. Tel. and express. 

MILFORD— Ellis County; pop., 800; alt., 581 ft. 
20 miles south of Waxahachie, the county seat, on 
the M. K. & T. Ry., and the Southern Traction Line, 
electric. Banks, First State Bank, Citizens' Bank. 
Hotel, Milford. Weekly newspaper, The Courier. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

MILLSAP— Parker County; pop., 800; alt., 811 ft. 

15 miles west of Weatherford, the county seat, 46 
miles from Ft. Worth, on the T. & P. Ry. Bank, 
First State. Hotels, Dewey, Millsap. Large brick 
plants, cotton gins. Weekly newspaper, The Millsap 
News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MINEOLA— Wood County; pop., 2,299; alt., 406 
ft. 14 miles south of Quitman, the county seat, and 
78 miles east of Dallas, on the I. & G. N., and M. K. 
& T. Railways. Banks, First National and Min- 
eola State. Hotels, Abney, Bailey, Beckman, City. 
Weekly newspaper, The Mineola Monitor. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

MINERAL WELLS— Palo Pinto County; pop., 
7,890; alt., 1,400 ft. 13 miles northwest of Palo Pin- 
to, the county seat, and 53 miles northwest of Ft. 
Worth, on the W. M. W. & N. W. and the G. T. & 
W. Rys. Banks, Bank of Mineral Wells, First Nat'l, 
First State Bank & Trust Co., Security State. Ho- 
tels, Carlsbad, Crazy Well, Damron, Fairfield, Mill- 
er, Oxford and Piedmont. Noted health resort, its 
mineral waters having a nation-wide reputation. 
Daily and weekly newspaper, The Index. Coal mines 
in the vicinity and a superior quality of sandstone is 
quarried. Tel., W. U. Express. 



147 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



MIXGUS— Palo Pinto County; pop., 210. 22 miles 
southwest of Palo Pinto, the county seat, on the T. & 
P. Ry. Bank, First State. Opera House; stage 
daily to Thurber. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MISSION— Hidalgo County; pop., 3,847; alt., 80 
ft. 15 miles southwest of Edinburg, the county 
seat, on the St. L. B. & M. and the S. B. & R. G. V. 
Rys. Banks, First Nat'l, First State. Hotel, Mis- 
sion. Industries, cotton, and truck produce. Can- 
ning. Newspapers, The Citizen and The Times. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

MOBEETIE— Wheeler County; pop., 200. 13 miles 
from Wheeler, the county seat, and 20 miles from 
Miami, its shipping point. Bank, First State. 
Weekly newspaper, The News. 

MONTAGUE— Montague County seat; pop., 500. 
Nine miles south of Nocona, its nearest shipping 
point. Bank, Citizens' State. Weekly newspaper, 
The Montague Enterprise. Stage daily to Nocona 
and Bowie. 

MONTGOMERY— Montgomery County; pop., 500. 
18 miles west of Conroe, the county seat, and 56 
miles northwest of Houston, on the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. 
Bank, First State. Shipments, cotton and farm 
products. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MOODY— McLennan County; pop., 1,106. 30 
miles southwest of Waco, the county seat, on the G. 
C. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, Farmers State, First Nat'l. 
Weekly newspaper, The Moody Courier. Industry, 
cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MOORE— Frio County; pop., 150; 12 miles from 
Pearsall, the county seat, on the I. & G. N. Ry. 
Bank, Moore Nat'l. Weekly newspaper, telegraph 
and express. 

MORAN— Shackelford County; pop., 950; alt., 299 
ft. 16 miles southeast of Albany, the county seat, 
on the T. C. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, Moran State. 
Hotel, Commercial. Has newspaper. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

MORGAN— Bosque County; pop., 672. Seven 
miles north of Meridian, the county seat, and 59 
miles south of Ft. Worth, on the G. C. & S. Fe and 
the T. C. Rys. Bank, First Nat'l. Weekly news- 
paper, The Morgan Mirror. Ships cotton, grain and 
live stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MORGAN MILL— Erath County; pop., 300. 12 
miles north of Stephenville, the county seat and 
shipping point. Bank, Guaranty State Bank. Tele- 
phone connection. 

MOULTON— Lavaca County; pop., 800; 18 miles 
northwest of Hallettsville, the county seat, and 160 
miles west of Galveston, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Weekly newspaper, The Eagle. 
Industry, cotton and poultry raising is extensive. 
Ships more eggs than any other town its size in the 
state. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MOUNT CALM— Hill County; pop., 626. Six 
miles southeast of Hillsboro, the county seat, and 
35 miles west of Corsicana, on the Navasota River, 
and on the St. L. S. W. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l and 
First State. Weekly newspaper, The Banner. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

MOUNT ENTERPRISE— Rusk County; pop., 655; 
alt., 282 ft. 21 miles southeast of Henderson, the 
county seat, on the Cairo Northern Branch of the 
T. & N. O. Ry. Bank, Merchants & Planters State. 
Hotel, Moss. Weekly newspaper, The Herald. In- 
dustries, lumber and cotton. 



MOUNT PLEASANT— Titus County; pop., 4,099; 
alt., 397 ft. 133 miles northeast of Dallas, on the 
St. L. S. W. and the P. & M. P. Rys. Banks, First 
National and Guaranty State. Hotels, City, 
Crossett, Jefferson, Main. Speer School for Boys 
here. Two weekly newspapers, The Journal and 
The Times-Review. Shipments, cotton, fruit, truck, 
nursery stock, staves and heading. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

MOUNT SELMAN— Cherokee County; pop., 500. 
22 miles from Rusk, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
W. Ry. Bank, Farmers & Merchants State. Ex- 
press. 

MOUNT VERNON— Franklin County; pop., 1,212; 
alt., 540 ft. 139 miles east of Ft. Worth, on the 
St. L. S. W. Ry. Newspaper, The Optic-Herald. 
Banks, First Nat'l, Merchants & Planters Nat'l. 
Hotel, Palmer. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MUENSTER— Cooke County; pop., 1,000. 15 
miles west of Gainesville, the county seat, on the 
M.-K.-T. Ry. Bank, Mueuster State Bank. Ships 
cotton, grain and farm produce. Tel., W. U Ex- 
press. 

MULE SHOE— Bailey County; pop, 200. Bank, 
Black Water Valley State Bank. 

MULLIN— Mills County; pop., 558. 11 milea 
from Goldthwaite, the county seat, on the G. C. & 
S. Fe Ry. Bank, First State. Newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

MUNDAY— Knox County; pop,, 998; alt., 3,992 ft. 
20 miles southeast of Benjamin, the county seat, 
and 21 miles northeast of Haskell, on the W. V. Ry. 
Banks, First Nat'l, First State. Hotel, Munday. 
Newspaper (weekly), The Times. Shipment, cotton. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

MURCHISON— Henderson County; pop., 500. 
Nine miles northeast of Athens, the county seat, on 
the St. L. S. W. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

MURPHY— Collin County; pop., 150. 12 miles 
from McKinney, the county seat, on the St. L. S. W. 
Ry. Bank, Liberty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MYRA — Cooke County; pop., 700. 12 miles from 
Gainesville, the county seat, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Bank, First Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NACOGDOCHES — Nacogdoches County seat; 
pop., 3,546; alt., 283 ft. 138 miles north of Houston, 
and 150 miles southeast of Dallas, on the H. E. & W. 
T., the T. & N. O. and the N. & S. E. Rys. Banks, 
Commercial Guaranty State, Guaranty State, 
Stone Fort Nat'l. Hotels, Banta, Redland. Was the 
old Spanish stone fort, erected in 1819 under Span- 
ish rule. Is the distributing point for a large sur- 
rounding territory. Two weekly newspapers, The 
Weekly Sentinel and The Redland Herald, and a 
daily, The Daily Sentinel. Brick works, bottling 
works, many saw mills. Industries, lumber, farm- 
ing, truck produce, hides. Tel. and express. 

NAPLES— Morris County; pop., 887; alt., 407 ft. 
20 miles north of Daingerfield, the county seat, on 
the St. L. S. W. Ry. Banks, Morris County Nat'l, 
First State. Hotels, Davis, Floyd. Weekly paper, 
The Monitor. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NASH — Bowie County; pop., 481. 17 miles east 
of Boston, the county seat and 5 miles from Texar- 
kana, on the T. & P. Ry. Bank, Nat'l Exchange. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 



148 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



NAVASOTA— Grimes County; pop., 5,060; alt., 
216 ft. 11 miles south of Anderson, the county seat, 
and 71 miles northwest of Houston, on the H. & 
T. C, the I. & G. N., and the G. C. & S. Fe Rys. 
Banks, Citizens Nat'l, Farmers State Guaranty. 
First Nat'l, Texas Loan & Trust Co. Hotel, Camp. 
Daily newspaper, The Examiner-Review (with week- 
ly edition also). Center of cotton and corn produc- 
ing district. Ships cotton, live stock, dairy produce, 
lumber and barrel hoops and headings. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

NECESSITY— Stephens County, P. 0., Caddo; 
pop., 1,500. Banks, First Nat'l, Guaranty State 
Bank of Cottonplant. 

NECHES— Anderson County; pop., 400. 12 miles 
north of Palestine, the county seat, on the I. & G. 
N. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Express. 

NEEDVILLE— Fort Bend County; pop., 300. 15 
miles from Richmond, the county seat, and 12 miles 
from Rosenberg, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
Needville State Bank & Trust Co. Mail daily. 

NEVADA— Collin County; pop., 578. 25 miles 
from McKinney, the county seat, on the St. L. S. W. 
Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, First. Weekly newspaper, 
The Citizen. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NEWARK— Wise County; pop., 600. 20 miles 
south of Decatur, the county seat and 21 miles north 
of Ft. Worth, on the C. R. I. & G. Ry. Bank, First 
State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NEW BOSTON— Bowie County seat; pop., 960; 
alt., 352 ft. 22 miles northwest of Texarkana, on 
the T. & P. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, New Boston 
Nat'l, State Exchange. Weekly newspaper, The 
Bowie County News. Shipments are garden prod- 
ucts, grain and live stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NEW BRAUNFELS— County seat of Comal Coun- 
ty; pop., 3,590; alt., 645 ft. 31 miles northeast of 
San Antonio, 50 miles southwest of Austin, on the 
I. & G. N. and the M. K. & T. Rys., the confluence 
of the Comal and the Guadalupe Rivers. Banks, 
First Nat'l, New Braunfels State. Was founded in 
1845 by Prince Solms Braunfels, for whom it was 
named. Is in an agricultural district, is strictly Ger- 
man, and is beautiful due to its location and delight- 
ful climate. The Comal River is only three miles in 
length with a source of artesian springs which flow 
60,000 cubic feet of crystal clear water a minute. 
This stream, well stocked with game fish and within 
the city, is one of the most beautiful natural parks 
in the world. Lime plant, rock crusher, two can- 
neries, whip cord factories, horse collar factory, 
broom and brush factories, cotton, roller and cotton 
oil mills, ice plant, power plant, all run by natural 
power. Diversified agriculture and stock raising 
extensively carried on. Two weekly newspapers, 
The Herald (English) and The Zeitung (German). 
Hotels, Plaza, Prince Solms, Wills. Principal 
shipments, grains, mill products, cotton seed prod- 
ucts, farm produce, crushed rock, lime, fertilizer, live 
stock and hay. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NEW CASTLE— Young County; pop., 1,452; alt., 
860 ft. 15 miles northwest of Graham, the county 
seat, on the W. F. & S. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, 
First State. Hotels, Arlington, Grand, Harris, Im- 
perial, Jeter. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NEWLIN— Hall County; pop., 200. Ten miles 
southwest of Memphis, the county seat, on the Ft. 



W. & D. C. Ry. Bank, Farmers' State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

NEW PORT— Clay County; pop., 500. 35 miles 
southwest of Henrietta, the county seat, and 14 miles 
from Bowie, the nearest shipping point. Bank, First 
Guaranty State. Daily mail; stage to Bowie. Tele- 
phone connection. 

NEWSOME— Camp County; pop., 165. Ten miles 
west of Pittsburg, the county seat, on the M. K. & 
T. Ry. Bank, First Nat'l. Weekly newspaper, The 
Argus. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NEWTON — Judicial seat of Newton County; pop., 
800; alt., 260 ft. 60 miles northeast of Orange, on 
the O. & N. W. Ry. Bank, Newton County State. 
Hotels, Powell, Snell, Tatum. Weekly newspaper. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

NEW ULM— Austin County; pop., 500. 70 miles 
west of Houston, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, New 
Ulm State. Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

NEW WAVERLY— Walker County; pop., 600. 14 
miles southeast of Huntsville, the county seat, on 
the I. & G. N. Ry. Bank, New Waverly State. 
Newspaper. Telegraph and express. 

NILES — Milam County; pop., 715. 25 miles south- 
west of Cameron, the county seat, and 4 miles from 
Thorndale, the nearest banking point, on the I. & 
G. N. Ry. Telephone connection. 

NIXON— Gonzales County; pop., 1,124; alt., 306 
ft. 24 miles southwest of Gonzales, the county seat, 
on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, Nixon 
State. Hotel, Talley. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

NOCONA— Montague County; pop., 1,422; alt., 
930 ft. Nine miles north of Montague, the county 
seat, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, Farmers & 
Merchants Nat'l, Peoples Nat'l. Hotel, Nocona. Two 
newspapers. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NOLANVILLE— Bell County; pop., 133. Eight 
miles from Belton, the county seat, on the G. C. & 
S. Fe Ry. Bank, Farmers' Bank. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

NORDHEIM— Dewitt County; pop., 443; alt., 160 
ft. 25 miles southwest of Cuero, the county seat, on 
the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, First National, Oster- 
loh & Neutzler, Bankers. Hotel, City. Newspaper. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

NOMANGEE— Leon County; pop., 662; alt., 380 
ft. 20 miles southwest of Centerville, the county 
seat, and 107 miles north of Houston, 144 miles 
south of Dallas, on the T. & B. V. and the H. & T. C. 
Rys. Banks, First Nat'l, First State. Hotel, Com- 
mercial. Newspaper, The Star. Shipments, cotton, 
corn, live stock and farm products. Soil very fertile. 
Crop failures unknown. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NORTH PLEASANTON— Atascosa County; pop., 
364. Bank, First State. 

NORTH ZULCH— Madison County; pop., 400. 13 
miles from Madisonville, the county seat, on the 
T. & B. V. and the H. & T. C. Rys. Bank, Farmers 
Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NOVICE — Coleman County; pop., 200. 20 miles 
northwest of Coleman, the county seat, on the P. 
& N. T. Ry. Bank, Novice State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 



149 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



OAKHURST— San Jacinto County; pop., 500. 
9% miles northeast of Huntsville, the usual bank- 
ing- point, on the T. & B. V. Ry. Express and tele- 
phone. 

OAKWOOD— I.eon County; pop., 1,110. 30 miles 
from Centerville, the county seat, on the I. & G. N. 
Ry. Banks, Guaranty State, Oakwood State. Weekly 
newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

O'BRIEN— Haskell County; pop., 300. 22 miles 
northwest of Haskell, the county seat, on the K. C. 
M. & O. Ry. Bank, First State. Express and tele- 
phone. 

OCHILTREE: — Judicial seat of Ochiltree County; 
pop., 600. 45 miles from Glazier, its nearest ship- 
ping point. Settled in 1885. See Perryton. 

ODELL — Wilbarger County; pop., 500. 25 miles 
northwest of Vernon, the county seat, on the K. C. 
M. & O. Ry. Banks, Bank of Odell, Farmers' State. 
Two newspapers. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ODEM— San Patricio County; pop., 300. TVz 
miles from Sinton, the county seat, on the St. L. B. 
& M. and the S. A. U. & G. Rys. Bank, Odem State. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

ODESSA— County seat of Ector County; pop., 750. 
60 miles southwest of Big Springs, on the T. & P. 
Ry. Bank, Citizens Nat'l. Weekly newspaper, The 
Herald. Tel., W. U. Express. 

O'DONNELL— Lynn County; pop., 400. 14V 2 
miles south of Tahoka, the county seat, on the P. 
& N. T. Ry. Bank, First State. Express. 

OGLESBY— Coryell; pop., 360. 18 miles from 
Gatesville, the county seat, on the St. L. S. W. Ry. 
Bank, Bank of Oglesby. Tel., W. U. Express. 

OKLAUNION— Wilbarger County; pop., 300; lYz 
miles east of Vernon, the county seat, on the Ft. 
W. & D. C. Ry. Bank, First Guaranty. Hotel, Ash- 
ley. Tel., W. U. Express. 

OLDEN— Eastland County; pop., 1,850. Banks, 
First State, Guaranty State. 

OLNEY— Young County; pop., 1,164; alt., 1,200 
ft. 28 miles north of Graham, the county seat, and 
42 miles south of Wichita Falls, on the G. T. & W. 
and the W. F. & S. Rys. Bank, First National. 
Hotels, Central, Linzy, Yates. Weekly newspaper, 
The Enterprise. Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

OMAHA— Morris County; pop., 492; alt., 407 ft. 
15 miles north of Daingerfield, the county seat, on 
the St. L. S. W. Ry. Bank. State Bank of Omaha. 
Hotels, Beasley, Omaha. Weekly newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

ON ALASKA— Polk County; pop., 800. 14 miles 
northwest of Livingston, the county seat, on the B. 
& G. N. Ry. Bank, Onalaska Exchange Bank. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

OPLIN— Callahan County; pop., 100. 25 miles 
southwest of Baird, the county seat, and 12 miles 
from Novice, the shipping point. Bank, First State. 
ORANGE — Orange County seat; pop., 15,000; alt., 
10 ft. 105 miles east of Houston and 255 miles west 
of New Orleans, La., 20 miles from the Gulf of 
Mexico and by river 32 miles to the open sea on the 
O. & N. W. and the T. & N. O. Rys. Banks, First 
Nat'l, Orange Nat'l, Guaranty Bank & Trust Co. 
Hotels, Bailey, Dillard, Holland, Jellison. Is at the 
junction of the Sabine River and the Intercoastal 
Canal; it has a 26 ft. deep water canal to the open 



sea, such that ocean vessels have access to the city. 
Daily newspaper, The Daily Leader, The Orange 
Leader is a weekly publication. Industries, saw 
mills, planers, paper mill, bag manufacture, rice 
mill, box factory, shipyard, oil refinery, iron works 
and an electric power plant. The output of the 
Orange saw mills exceed 125,000,000 feet of mer- 
chantable lumber annually. Oil in paying quanti- 
ties is in the county; the rice crop annually ap- 
proximates one million dollar valuation. Shipments, 
lumber, rice, paper, paper boxes, box shooks. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

ORANGE GROVE— Jim Wells County; pop., 800; 
alt., 38 ft. 17 miles from Alice, the county seat, 
on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, State Bank of 
Orange Grove. Hotel, Germania. Weekly news- 
paper, The Orange Grove Record. Express. 

ORE CITY— Upshur County; pop., 500. 20 miles 
northeast of Gilmer, the county seat, on the T. & 
G. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Chief industry, lum- 
ber. Tel., W. U. Express. 

OSCEOLA— Hill County; pop., 400. 11 miles 
from Hillsboro, the county seat, on the T. & B. V. 
Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Hotel, Lone Star. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

OTTO— Falls County; pop., 1,000. 14 miles north 
of Marlin, the county seat, on the I. & G. N. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Express. 

OVALO— Taylor County; pop., 300. 20 miles south 
of Abilene, the county seat, on the A. & S. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

OVERTON— Rusk County; pop., 525. 15 miles 
northwest of Henderson, the county seat, on the I. 
& G. N. and T. & H. Rys. Bank, First Guaranty 
State. Hotel, Hull. Newspaper, The Overton Tele- 
gram. Tel., W. U. Express. 

OVILLA— Ellis County; P. O., Midlothian; pop., 
200. Bank, Guaranty State. 

OZONA— Crockett County seat; pop., 1,200. 31 
miles south of Barnhart, the nearest shipping point, 
located at the head of Devil's River. Bank, Ozona 
Nat'l. Newspaper. Stage daily to Barnhart, tri- 
weekly to Comstock and Sheffield and weekly to 
Pandale. Telephone connection. 

PADUCAH— Cottle County seat; pop., 1,357; alt., 
1,900 ft. 42 miles west of Quanah, on the Q. A. 
& P. Ry. Banks, First National and First State. 
Hotel, Paducah. Weekly newspaper, The Post. 
Ships cotton, grain and live stock. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

PAIGE— Bastrop County; pop., 400. Bank, Guar- 
anty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PAINT ROCK— Concho County seat; pop., 750. 
20 miles south of Ballinger on the C. S. S. & L. V. 
Ry. Bank, Guarantee State. Newspaper, The Con- 
cho Herald. Express. 

PALACIOS— Matagorda County; pop., 1,325; alt., 
10 ft. 32 miles southwest of Bay City, the county 
seat, and 115 miles southwest of Houston, on the 
G. H. & S. A. Ry., and on the Tres-Palacios Bay, a 
branch of the Matagorda Bay. Bank, Palacios State. 
Hotels, Lone Star, Palacios. Is a very popular 
camping and outing resort. The Baptist Young 
People's Union of Texas meets here annually for ten 
days. Shipments, cotton, corn, fig preserves, fish, 
oysters and live stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 



150 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



PALESTINE — Anderson County seat; pop., 
11,939; alt., 510 ft. 181 miles northeast of Austin, 
on the T. S. & I., and I. - G. N. Rys. Banks, East 
Texas National, First National, Royall National 
Robinson Guaranty State Bank & Trust Co., Pales- 
tine Clearing House Association. Hotel, Palestine. 
Five weekly newspapers and three dailies. Has all 
the facilities and appointments of a modern busi- 
ness city. Important industries, saw and grist mills, 
foundry and machine shop, brick works, cotton com- 
press, cotton gins, railroad shops, salt works and 
creamery. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PALMER— Ellis County; pop., 748. 12 miles 
west of Waxahachie, the county seat, on the H. & T. 
C. Ry. and the Southern Traction Co.'s Line. Banks, 
Citizens' Bank, First Guaranty State. Newspaper, 
The Hustler. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PALO PINTO— Palo Pinto County seat; pop., 500. 
Four miles from the Brazos River, 35 miles west of 
Weatherford, and 14 miles from Mineral Springs, 
the nearest shipping point. Bank, Banking House 
of Cunningham Bros. Has weekly newspaper and 
stage daily to Mineral Wells. 

PAMPA— Gray County; pop., 987; alt., 2,700 ft. 
13 miles from Lefors, the county seat, on the S. K. 
Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, Gray County State Bank. 
Hotels, Liberty, Schneider. Weekly newspaper. 
Stage daily to Lefors. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PANHANDLE— Carson County; pop., 638. 27 
miles east of Amarillo, 426 miles southwest of 
Kansas City, on the A. T. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, First 
State, Panhandle Bank. Is the center of an ex- 
tensive grazing country. 700 cars of cattle and 15 
cars of hogs are usually shipped from this town 
annually. Wheat, oats, corn, kaffir corn, broom corn 
are extensively grown. Weekly newspaper, The 
Herald. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PARADISE— Wise County; pop., 500. 12 miles 
south of Decatur, the county seat, and 38 miles 
north of Ft. Worth, on the C. R. I. & G. Ry. Banks, 
First National, People's Bank. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PARIS — Lamar County seat; pop., 15,040; alt., 
592 ft. 100 miles northeast of Dallas and 91 miles 
west of Texarkana, on the T. & P., the P. & Mt. P., 
the T. & M., the G. C. & S. Fe and the Frisco Rys. 
Banks, American National, First National, First 
State, Lamar State Bank & Trust Co., Red River 
Valley Trust Co., Scott & Baldwin. Hotels, Eagle, 
Gibraltar, Imperian, Morgan, Phoenix, Woodland. 
Was settled in 1845 and is one of the most prosper- 
ous cities in North Texas. Has two daily and three 
weekly newspapers. Important industrial concerns, 
cotton gins, cotton compress, cotton oil mills, plan- 
ing mills, flour mills, ice plant, handle factory, crate, 
box, peanut and chair factories, bottling works, 
mattress factory, canning factory, brick works, foun- 
dries, etc. Tel., Postal and W. U. Express. 

PARK SPRINGS— Wise County; pop., 200. 25 
miles west of Decatur, the county seat, and 60 miles 
northwest of Ft. Worth, on the C. R. I. & G. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PASADENA — Harris County; pop., 250. 10 miles 
southeast of Houston, the county seat, on the G. H. 
& S. A. Ry. Bank, Pasadena State. Express. 

PATTONVILLE— Lamar County; pop., 110. 11 



miles southeast of Paris, the county seat. Bank, 
First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PEARLAND— Brazoria County; pop., 150; 37 
miles northwest of Angleton, the county seat, 10 
miles from Alvin, and 13 miles from Houston, on 
the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, Pearland Bank. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

PEARSALL— Frio County seat; pop., 2,160; alt., 
629 ft. 53 miles southwest of San Antonio, on the 
I. & G. N. Ry. Banks, Pearsall Nat'l, People's 
State. Newspaper, The Pearsall Leader. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

PEASTER— Parker County; pop., 250. 10 miles 
northwest of Weatherford, the county seat and ship- 
ping point. Bank, Farmers' Bank of Peaster. Tele- 
phone connection. 

PECAN GAP— Delta County; pop., 500. 12 miles 
west of Cooper, the county seat, and 70 miles north- 
east of Dallas. Weekly newspaper, The Delta 
County News. Bank, Pecan Gap State. Shipments, 
cotton, grain and hay. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PECOS — Reeves County seat; pop., 1,445; alt., 
2,581 ft. 90 miles east of Van Horn, on the T. & P., 
A. T. & S. F., and the P. V. S. Rys. Is in center of 
one of the largest irrigated belts in Texas. Banks, 
First National, Pecos Guaranty State. Hotels, 
Orient, Pecos. Semi-weekly newspaper. Famed for 
the Pecos Valley cantaloupes, shipped to all parts 
of the United States. Shipments, cotton, grain, 
live stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PENDLETON— Bell County; pop., 210. 14 miles 
northwest of Belton, the county seat, on the G. C. & 
S. Fe Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PENELOPE— Hill County; pop., 400. 20 miles 
south of Hillsboro, the county seat, on the I. & G. N. 
Ry. Bank, Penelope State. Newspaper. Telegraph. 
Express. 

PENIEL — Hunt County; pop., 571. Two miles 
north of Greenville, the county seat and banking 
point, with which it is connected by street car line. 
On the M. K. & T. Ry. Is the home of Peniel Uni- 
versity and Peniel Orphans Home. Newspaper. 
Telephone connection. 

PERRIN— Jack County; pop., 250. 15 miles 
southeast of Jacksboro, the county seat, on the G. 
T. & W. Ry. Express and telephone connections. 

PERRY— Falls County; pop., 400. Eight miles 
north of Marlin, the county seat, on the H. & T. C. 
Ry. Bank, Farmers' State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PERRYTON— Ochiltree County; pop., 600. Banks, 
First National and Perryton National. 

PERSONVILLE— Limestone County; pop., 600. 
13 miles from Groesbeck, the county seat, on the H. 
& T. C. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Express. 

PETERSBURG— Hale County; pop., 200. 27 
miles southwest of Plainview, the county seat, 15% 
miles to Abernathy, the nearest shipping point. 
Bank, Guaranty State. Stage daily to Piainview. 
Telephone connection. 

PETROLIA— Clay County; pop., 914; alt., 912 ft. 
19 miles from Henrietta, the county seat, on the W. 
V. Ry. Bank, Continental State. Hotel, Leath. 
Has newspaper. Is very productive of oil and gas. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

PETTY — Lamar County; pop., 500. 15 miles west 
of Paris, the county seat, on the T. & P. Ry. Bank, 



151 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Citizens' Nat'l. Two newspapers. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

PFLUGERVILLE— Travis County; pop., 500.; 18 
miles northeast of Austin, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Bank, Farmers' State. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

PHARR— Hidalgo County; pop., 1,565; alt., 425 ft. 
15 miles northwest of Edinburg, the county seat, on 
the St. L. B. & M. Ry. Banks, First National and 
Pharr State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PICKTON— Hopkins County; pop., 500. 15 miles 
from Sulphur Springs, the county seat, on the M. K. 
& T. Ry. Banks, Farmers & Merchants, First State. 
Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PILOT POINT— Denton County; pop., 2,000; alt., 
684 ft. 17 miles north of Denton, the county seat, 
on the T. & P., and the M. K. & T. Rys. Banks, 
Farmers & Merchants, First State, Pilot Point Nat'l. 
Hotels, Commercial, Yeary. Weekly newspaper, 
The Post-Signal. Shipments, cotton and grain. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

PINEHILL— Rusk County; pop., 251. 12y 2 miles 
southeast of Henderson, the county seat. Bank, 
First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PINELAND— Sabine County; pop., 1,500. Ten 
miles southwest of Hemphill, the county seat, and 
8 miles from Brookeland, the nearest banking point. 
Express. 

PITTSBURG— Camp County seat; pop., 2,540; 
alt., 397 ft. 127 miles east of Dallas, on the M. K. 
& T. and the St. L. S. W. Rys. Banks, Camp Coun- 
ty Bank, First Guaranty State, First Nat'l, Pitts- 
burg Nat'l. Hotel, Main. Newspaper, The Gazette. 
Some manufacturing. Industry, lumber and farm- 
ing. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PLAINS — Yoakum County seat; pop., 150. 85 
miles east of Lubbock, the nearest shipping point. 
Has a newspaper and two banks, First State Bank 
of Plains, Stockmen's Exchange. 

PLAINVIEW— Hale County seat; pop., 7,000; alt., 
3,200 ft. 78 miles south of Amarillo, on the A. T. 
& S. F. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, Guaranty State, 
Third Nat'l. Hotels, Broadway, Missouri, Nash, 
Plainview, Ware, Wayland. Plainview is the second 
largest city on the Texas plains and is the center 
of the wealthiest agricultural district in west Texas. 
It is the home of Wayland Baptist College and Seth 
Ward Methodist College. Has lumber yards, whole- 
sale houses, flour mills, grain elevators, planing 
mil 1 , sub-irrigation and drainage, tile factory, steam 
laundry, opera house, modern city conveniences, 
semi-weekly newspaper, The Herald; one weekly, 
The News, and one semi-monthly religious publica- 
tion, The Plains Baptist. Climate and atmosphere 
invigorating. The entire district is underlaid with 
an inexhaustible water supply from a depth of 30 
to 60 feet, which is being developed for irrigation 
purposes, a number of wells supplying 1,000 to 1,500 
gals, a minute. This union of pure water and per- 
fect soil produces increditable crops. Industries, 
live stock breeding, raising and feeding, growing of 
fruits, berries, melons, celery, peanuts, vegetables 
and alfalfa. Marketing facilities and transporta- 
tion rates good; direct railroad connection to Den- 
ver, Chicago and Kansas City to the north and 
northwest, to Ft. Worth and Dallas and the bulk of 
Texas to the east, to Houston, San Antonio, Galves- 



ton and other cities of the South. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

PLANO— Collin County; pop., 1,715; alt., 692 ft. 
12 miles south of McKinney, the county seat, and 15 
miles north of Dallas, on the H. & T. C. and the 
St. L. S. W. Rys., and the Texas Traction Co.'s line. 
Banks, Farmers' & Merchants' Nat'l, Piano Nat'l. 
Hotel, Piano. Weekly newspaper, The Star-Courier. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

PLANTERSVILLE— Grimes County; pop., 400. 
15 miles south of Anderson, the county seat, on the 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry., and 15 miles from Navasota. 
Bank, First State. Express and telephone connec- 
tions. 

PLEASANTON— Atascosa County; pop., 1,036. 
3% miles from Jourdanton, the county seat, on the 
S. A. U. & G. Ry. Bank, First Nat'l. Two news- 
papers and express. 

POINT — Rains County; pop., 500. Seven miles 
from Emory, the county seat, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Newspaper and express. 

POLYTECHNIC— Tarrant County; pop., 4,338. 
Bank, First State. Is a branch of the Ft. Worth 
postoffice. See Ft. Worth. 

PONDER— Denton County; pop., 200. 12 miles 
northwest of Denton, the county seat, and 32 miles 
north of Ft. Worth, on the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, 
Ponder State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PONTA — Cherokee County; pop., 400. Five miles 
from Rusk, the county seat, on the T. & N. O. Ry. 
Bank, Guaranty State. Express. 

POOLVILLE— Parker County; pop., 400. 17 miles 
from Weatherford, the county seat and shipping 
point. Bank, First State. Telephone connections. 

PORT ARTHUR— Jefferson County; pop., 30,000; 
alt., 8 ft. 18% miles southwest of Beaumont, the 
county seat, 103 miles from Houston, on the bank 
of Sabine Lake and on the K. C. S. and S. P. Rys. 
and the Beaumont-Port Arthur Interurban. Banks, 
First Nat'l, Merchants' State. Hotels, Lakeview, 
Plaza, Thornton. Ranks as the twelfth port of 
the United States and is one of the largest oil 
refining points in the country. The inland location 
12% miles from the Gulf of Mexico affords abso- 
lute protection from Gulf storms. The harbor and 
docks are reached through a canal 270 feet wide 
and 27 feet deep, a canal owned and maintained by 
the Federal Government. Two newspapers. Port 
Arthur is famous as a summer resort. Lake Sabine 
is one of the finest sheets of water on the entire 
gulf coast, safe for yachting, rowing, boating, bath- 
ing and aquatic sports of every kind. Stocked with 
Spanish mackerel, trout, flounders, bass, redfish, 
sheephead, tarpon and other fish. In winter climate 
is everything that could be desired, fishing and boat- 
ing as well as hunting, still good. The local indus- 
tries provide the largest monthly payroll of any 
city in the South of the same size. Roads in the 
vicinity are all macadamized. Tel., Postal, Mackay, 
W. U. Express. 

PORTLAND— San Patricio County; pop., 300. 20 
miles from Sinton, the county seat, and 3 miles 
from Gregory on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, Port- 
land State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PORT LAVACA— Calhoun County seat; pop., 
1,213; alt., 40 ft. 140 miles southeast of San An- 
tonio, on Lavaca Bay, and on the G. H. & S. A. Ry., 
and on the Intercostal Canal. Banks, First State, 



152 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



First State. Hotels, Lavaca, Navidad. Weekly 
newspaper, The Wave. Tel., W. U. Express. In- 
dustry, cotton. 

PORT NECHES— Jefferson County; pop., 1,500. 
12 miles from Beaumont, the county seat, on the 
Neches River. Bank, First Nat'l. Telephone con- 
nection. 

POST— Garza County scat; pop., 1,436; alt., 2,700 
ft. 25 miles southeast of Tahoka, on the P. & N. T. 
Ry. Banks, First State, First Nat'l. Hotel, Al- 
gerita. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

POTEET— Atascosa County; pop., 800. Ten miles 
from Jourdanton, the county seat, on the Artesian 
Belt Ry. Banks, Farmers Bank, First State. Week- 
ly newspaper, The Register. Tel., W. U. Express. 

POTH — Wilson County; pop., 300. Eight miles 
southeast of Floresville, the county seat, on the 
S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, First Nat'l. 

POTTSBORO— Grayson County; pop., 454. 20 
miles northwest of Sherman, the county seat, on 
the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, Farmers' State, Potts- 
boro Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

POWELL— Navarro County; pop., 500. Eight 
miles east of Corsicana, the county seat, on the 
St. L. S. W. Ry. Bank, Powell State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

POYNOR — Henderson County; pop., 200. 18 miles 
from Athens, the county seat, on the T. & N. O. 
Ry. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PRAIRIE HILL— Limestone County, Mart, P. O. 
Pop., 152. Bank, Guaranty State. 

PREMONT — Jim Wells County, pop., 600. 27 
miles from Alice, the county seat, on the S. A. & 
A. P. Ry. Bank, Premont State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

PRIDDY— Mills County; pop., 28. 17 miles from 
Goldthwaite, the county seat and usual shipping 
point, and 9 miles from Indian Gap. Bank, Farmers 
& Merchants Bank. Telephone connection. 

PRINCETON — Collin County; pop., 500. Eight 
miles east of McKinney, the county seat, on the 
M.-K.-T. Ry. Bank, Citizens State. Weekly news- 
paper, The Princeton News. Tel., W. U. Express. 
PRITCHETT — Upshur County; pop., 245; 6 miles 
from Gilmer, the county seat, on the St. L. S. W. 
Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PROCTOR — Comanche County; pop., 300. 13 
miles northeast of Comanche, the county seat, on the 
Ft. Worth and R. G. Ry. Bank, State Bank of 
Proctor. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PROSPER— Collin County; pop., 315. 14 miles 
from McKinney, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
F. Ry. Bank, Continental State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

. PURDON — Navarro County; pop., 600; 15 miles 
from Corsicana, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
W. Ry. Bank, First National. Newspaper. Ex- 
press. 

PUTNAM— Callahan County; pop., 363; alt., 800 
ft. 12 miles east of Baird, the county seat, and 
125 miles northwest of Ft. Worth, on the T. & P. 
Ry. Bank, Farmers State. Hotel, Mission. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

QUANAH — Hardeman County seat; pop., 3,691; 
alt., 1,528 ft. 195 miles northwest of Ft. Worth, 
between the Red River and the Pease River, on the 
F. W. & D. C, the Quanah Acme & Pac, and the 



St. L. S. F. Rys. Banks, First National and Se- 
curity National. Hotel, Quanah. Two weekly news- 
papers, The Tribune-Chief and The Observer. Ship- 
ments, cotton, grain, live stock, hay. The largest 
alfalfa and hog ranch in the United States is near 
here. Cement, plaster and flour mills, railroad 
shops, laundry, creamery, overall factory, ice cream 
factory, bottling works, power house and an unusual 
complement of mercantile firms are the industrial 
factors. Tel., W. U. Express. 

QUEEN CITY— Cass County; pop., 398. 22% 
miles south of Texarkana, on the T. & P. Ry. Bank, 
Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

QUINLAN— Hunt County; pop., 580. 18 miles 
south of Greenville, the county seat, on the T. M. 
Ry. Bank, First National. Weekly newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

QUITMAN— Wood County seat; pop., 800. Ten 
miles north of Mineola, the nearest shipping point. 
Bank, First National. Newspaper. Telephone con- 
nection. 

RALLS— Crosby County; pop., 800. 10 V 2 miles 
from Crosbyton, the county seat, on the Crosbyton 
South Plains Ry. Banks, First State, Guaranty 
State Bank & Trust Co. Weekly newspaper. Tele- 
phone connection. 

RANDOLPH— Fannin County; pop., 221. 10 miles 
from Bonham, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
W. Ry. Bank, Continental State. Express and 
telephone connections. 

RANGER — Eastland County; pop., 16,205; alt., 
1,426 ft. Ten miles east of Eastland, the county 
seat, and 96 miles west of Ft. Worth on the T. P. 
Ry. Bank, Ranger State. Hotels, Bernardo, Ghol- 
son, McCleskey, Paramount and Southland. News- 
papers, daily and weekly. Ranger is one of the 
leading oil centers of Texas, in the midst of an oil 
producing territory that ranks with the world-famed 
fields of Mexico and Russia. It was the coming in 
of this territory in oil production that brought 
Texas to the first ranks among Uncle Sam's oil ter- 
ritories. 

RATCLIFF— Houston County; pop., 500. 21 
miles from Crockett, the county seat, on the Eastern 
Texas Ry. Bank, First State. Newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

RAVENNA — Fannin County; pop., 412. Ten miles 
from Bonham, the county seat, on the M. K. & T. 
Ry. Bank, Ravenna State. Tel., W. U. Express. 
RAYMONDVILLE— Cameron County; pop., 1,000 
46 miles north of Brownsville, the county seat, on 
the St. L. B. & M. Ry. Banks, Raymondville State, 
Raymondville Trust Co. Weekly newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. Hotel, Raymondville. 

REAGAN— Falls County; pop., 500. Ten miles 
from Marlin, the county seat, on the H. & T. C. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

RED OAK— Ellis County; pop., 400. Ten miles 
from Waxahachie, the county seat, on the M. K. & 
T. Ry. and Southern Traction Co's. line. Banks, 
First State, and L. F. White & Sons. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

RED ROCK— Bastrop County; pop., 350. 16 
miles from Bastrop, the county seat, on the M. K. 
& T. Ry. Bank, First State. Express and tele- 
phone connection. 

RED WATER— Bowie County; pop., 258. 12 



153 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



miles southeast of New Boston, the county seat, on 
St. L. S. W, Ry. Bank, Citizens Guaranty Bank. 
Tel.. W. U. Express. 

REFUGIO— Refugio County seat; pop., 933; alt., 
169 ft. 60 miles northwest of Corpus Christi, on 
the Mission River, and on the St. L. B. & M. Ry. 
Bank. First National. Hotel, Refugio. One cf 
the oldest towns in Texas, dating its settlement from 
1790; was the battleground of many fierce strug- 
gles in the war for Texan independence. Here Cap- 
tain King and his followers were massacred by the 
Mexicans; the state of Texas has erected a beautiful 
monument in memory of Captain King and his mar- 
tyrs. Industry, cattle. Newspaper, The Review. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

REINHARDT— Dallas County; pop., 100. Eight 
miles from Dallas, the county seat, on the G. C. & 
S. F. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. 

REXNER— Collin County; pop., 200. 20 miles 
from McKinney, the county seat, on the St. L. & 
S. W. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Express and 
telephone. 

RHOME — Wise County; pop., 400. 15 miles south 
of Decatur, the county seat, and 25 miles from 
Ft. Worth on the Ft. W. & D. C. Ry. Bank, First 
Nat'l. Tel., W. U. Express. 

RHOXESBORO— Upshur County; pop., 225. 13 
miles from Gilmer, the county seat, on he M. & E. 
T. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

RICE — Navarro County; pop., 611. Ten miles 
from Corsicana, the county seat, on the H. & T. C. 
Ry. and the Corsicana-Dallas Interurban line. 
Banks, First Nat'l, First State. Newspaper, tele- 
graph, W. U. Express. 

RICHARDS— Grimes County; pop., 500. 11% 
miles southeast of Singleton on the T. & B. V. Ry. 
Bank, Richards State. Weekly newspaper. Ex- 
press. 

RICHARDSON— Dallas County; pop., 400; alt, 
632 ft. 12 miles from Dallas, the county seat, on 
the H. & T. C. Ry. and Texas Traction Co's. line. 
Bank, Citizens State. Weekly newspaper. Hotel, 
Driscoll. Express. 

RICHLAND— Navarro County; pop., 750; alt., 
377 ft. 12 miles from Corsicana, the county seat, 
on the H. & T. C. Ry. Banks, First State and First 
National. Hotel, Swink. Has newspaper, telegraph 
(W. U.) and express. 

RICHLAND SPRINGS— San Saba County; pop., 
600. 15 miles from San Saba, the county seat, 
on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Bank, First State. News- 
paper, express and telephone connection. 

RICHMOND— Ft. Bend County seat; pop., 1,272; 
alt., 86 ft. 33 miles southwest of Houston, on the 
G. H. & S. A., the G. C. & S. F., and the N. Y. T. 
& M. Rys., on the Brazos River. Banks, Ft. Bend 
National, First National. Hotel, National. News- 
paper, telegraph and express. 

RIDGEWAY— Hopkins County; pop., 150. Ten 
miles northwest of Sulphur Springs, the county seat, 
on the St. L. S. W. Ry. Bank, Ridgeway State. Tel. 
W. U. Express. 

RIESEL — McLennan County; pop., 268. 15 miles 
from Waco, the county seat, on the H. & T. C. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Hotel, Shepard. Newspaper, 
express and telephone. 

RINGGOLD — Montague County; pop., 400. 20 
miles west of Montague, the county seat, and 90 



miles north of Ft. Worth, on the M. K. & T. and the 
C. R. I. & G. Ry. Bank, Ringgold State. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

RIO GRANDE— Starr County seat; pop., 3,000; 
alt., 3,462 ft. 24% miles northwest of Samfordyce, 
the nearest shipping point, on the Rio Grande River. 
Banks, First Nat'l, First State Bank & Trust C. 
Hotel, Phillips. Mail daily. 

RIO HONDO— Cameron County; pop., 250. 25 
miles from Brownsville, the county seat, and 9 miles 
from San Benito, where connection is made with the 
St. L. B. & M. Ry., on the S. B. & R. G. Ry. Bank, 
Farmers & Traders. The city is on the San Be- 
nito Land & Water Co. Irrigation system which sup- 
plies all the surrounding country with water. Tel. 
W. U., Express. Hotel, Arroyo Inn. 

RIO VISTA— Johnson County pop., 750. 9 miles 
from Cleburne, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. F. 
Ry. Bank, Guaranty State Bank. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

RISING STAR— Eastland County; pop., 906; alt., 
1,500 ft. 23 miles from Eastland, the county seat, 
on the T. C. Ry. Banks, Continental State, First 
Nat'l. Hotels, Commercial, Livingston. Newspa- 
per, express and telephone connections. 

RIVERSIDE— Walker County; pop., 100. 21% 
miles northeast of Huntsville, the county seat, on the 
I. & G. N. Ry. Bank, Riverside State Bank. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

RIVIERA— Kleberg County; pop., 400. 15% 
miles south of Kingsville, the county seat, on the St. 
L. B. & M. and R. B. & W. Rys. Bank, Riviera 
State. Has newspaper, telegraph, W. U., and ex- 
press. 

ROANOKE— Denton County; pop., 500. 16 miles 
south of Denton, the county seat, and 20 miles 
north of Ft. Worth, on the M. K. & T. and the T. & 
P. Rys. Bank, Continental State. Weekly news- 
paper, The Enterprise. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ROARING SPRINGS— Motley County; pop., 500. 
8% miles southwest of Matador, the county seat, 
on the Q. A. & P. Ry. Bank, First State. News- 
paper, express and telephone. 

ROBERT LEE— Coke County seat; pop., 582 
13% miles west of Bronte, the nearest shipping 
point with which place it has daily mail-stage con- 
nection. Is on the Colorado River. Bank, First 
Guaranty State. Has weekly newspaper and tele- 
phone connection. 

ROBSTOWX— Nueces County; pop., 2,500; alt., 36 
ft. 16 miles west of Corpus Christi, the county 
seat, on St. L. B. & M. and T. M. Rys. Banks, First 
State, Guar. State, First Nat'l. Weekly newspaper, 
The Reporter. Hotels, Brendle, Hardesty. Robs- 
town is the receiving and distributing point for a 
rich surrounding territory and ships large quantities 
of cotton, corn, dairy and truck products and live- 
stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ROBY— Fisher County seat; pop., 635. 4% 
miles south of North Roby, on the T. C. Ry., and 7 
miles west of Longworth, on K. C. M. & O. Ry., the 
shipping points, and about 225 miles west of Ft. 
Worth. Bank, First State. Farming, fruit grow- 
ing and livestock raising are the leading industries. 
Mail daily from Longworth and from North Roby. 
Has a weekly newspaper. Telephone connections. 



154 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



ROCHELLE— McCulloch County; pop., 700. 10 
miles from Brady, the county seat, on the Ft. W. & 
R. G. Ry. Banks, Bank of Rochelle, and Rochelle 
State Bank. Newspaper, telegraph, W. U., and ex- 
press. 

ROCKDALE— Milam County; pop., 2,323; alt., 
460 ft. 15 miles southwest of Cameron, the county 
seat, at the junction of the I. & G. N. and the S. 
A. & A. P. Rys. Banks, Citizens' State, First Nat'l, 
Rockdale State. Is center of the great lignite dis- 
tricts of Texas. A number of companies are suc- 
cessfully operating here, and over 7,000 cars of 
lignite are shipped from this city annually. The 
city is the center of a rich agricultural district; 
cotton is the principal crop. General farming and 
stock raising are carried on. Weekly newspaper, 
The Reporter. Hotel, Wolf. Tel., W. U. Express. 
ROCK ISLAND— Colorado County; pop., 500. 14 
miles from Columbus, the county seat, on the S. A. 
& A. P. Ry. Bank, Rock Island State. Express 
and telephone connection. 

ROCKPORT— Aransas County seat; pop., 1,545; 
alt., 6 ft. 31 miles east of Corpus Christi, on the 
shore of Aransas Bay and the S. A. & A. P. Ry. 
Bank, First National Bank of Rockport. Hotel, 
Craig. Is picturesquely located, and is a popular 
summer resort; has an extensive fishing interest and 
a good port for small boats. Trucking is largely 
carried on, its produce reaching the farthest nor- 
thern markets. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ROCKSPRINGS— Edwards County; pop., 600 
75 miles west of Kerrville, the usual shipping point. 
Rocksprings is the judicial seat of its county; 
banks, First Nat'l, First State. Has a newspaper, 
The Rustler-Standard. Stage daily to Kerrville; 
telephone connection. 

ROCKWALL— Rockwall County seat; pop., 1,388; 
alt., 545 ft. 2 miles from Trinity River and 25 
miles northeast of Dallas, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Banks, Farmers Nat'l, Guaranty State. Hotels, 
Cottage, Stephenson. Two weekly newspapers, The 
Success and The Tribune. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ROCKWOOD— Coleman County; pop., 200. 20 
miles from Santa Anna, 28 miles from Coleman, the 
county seat; stage daily to Santa Anna. Bank, 
Rockwood State. Telephone connection. 

ROGERS— Bell County; pop., 1,256; alt., 539 ft. 
25 miles southeast of Belton, the county seat, on 
the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, Rogers 
State. Hotel, Ater. Weekly newspaper, The En- 
terprise. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ROMA— Starr County; pop., 1,000. 15 miles 
west of Rio Grande, the county seat and nearest 
banking point, and 41 miles from Samfordyce, the 
nearest rail approach, on the Rio Grande River. 
Telephone connection. 

ROSCOE— Nolan County; pop., 1,079; alt., 2,600 
ft. 9 miles southwest of Sweetwater, the county 
seat, on the T. & P. and R. S. & P. Rys. Bank, 
Roscoe State, Farmers State. Hotel, Rex. News- 
paper, telegraph, W. U., and express. 

ROSEBUD— Falls County; pop., 1,516; alt., 391 
ft. 22 miles southwest of Marlin, the county seat, 
and 37 miles south of Waco, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. 
Banks, First Nat'l, Planters Nat'l, Rosebud State. 
Weekly Newspaper, The News. Hotels, Clark, Waze. 
Is the centsr of a fine farmers' country; cotton and 



corn are the principal crops but livestock and poul- 
try raising, dairying, fruit and truck farming are 
carried on to a considerable extent. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

ROSENBERG— Ft. Bend County; pop., 1,279; alt., 
108 ft. 3 miles southwest of Richmond, the county 
seat, and 30 miles southwest of Houston, on the 
G. H. & S. A. and the G. C. & S. F. Rys., % mile 
from the Brazos River. Banks, Rosenberg State, 
Farmers State. Hotels, Benson and Plaza. Week- 
ly newspaper, The News-Herald, telegraph, W. U., 
and express. 

ROSEWOOD— Upshur County; pop., 225. 9 miles 
from Gilmer, the county seat of the M. & E. T. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Telegraph, W. U. Express. 

ROTAN— Fisher County; pop., 2,000; alt., 1,950 
ft. 235 miles west of Ft. Worth, 12 miles north of 
Roby, the county seat, and is the terminal of the 
T. C. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, Rotan State. Week- 
ly newspaper, The Advance. Cotton and cattle are 
the principal shipments. Hotels, Hamilton, Liming. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

ROUND ROCK— Williamson County; pop., 900; 
alt., 720 ft. 10 miles south of Georgetown, the 
county seat, on the I. & G. N. Ry., at the junction of 
the main line and the Georgetown branch. Bank 
Farmers State. Newspaper, The Round Rock 
Leader. Cotton gins, broom factory and extensive 
lime works are the leading industries. Is the seat 
of Trinity College. Hotels, Euhl, Harrell. T2L, W. 
U. Express. 

ROUND TOP— Fayette County; pop., 150. 16V 2 
miles from La Grange, the county seat, and 6% 
miles from Carmine, the nearest shipping point. 
Bank, Round Top State. Telephone connection. 

ROWENA— Runnels County; pop., 400. 8 miles 
from Ballinger, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. F. 
Ry. Bank, First National. Weekly newspaper, The 
Review. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ROWLETT— Dallas County; pop., 108. 21 miles 
from Dallas, the county seat, on the M. K. & T. 
Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ROXTON— Lamar County; pop., 1,600; alt., 499 
ft. 14 miles south of Paris, the county seat, on 
the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Banks, Roxton State, First 
Nat'l. Hotels, Roxton, Tugwell. Has weekly news- 
paper, telegraph, W. U., and express. Industry, 
cotton. 

ROYSE CITY— Rockwall County; pop., 1,289; alt., 
547 ft. 10 miles northeast of Rockwall, on the M. 
K. & T. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, First State. Ho- 
tel. Industry, cotton and grain. Has two news- 
papers, telegraph, W. U. Express. 

RULE— Haskell County; pop., 890; alt., 1,803 ft. 
10 miles west of Haskell, the county seat, and 61 
miles northwest of Sweetwater, on the K. C. M. & 
O. Ry. Banks, Farmers' State, First Nat'l. Ho- 
tels, Earnest, Rock, Willingham. Weekly newspa- 
per, telegraph, W. U., and express. 

RUNGE— Karnes County; pop., 1,070; alt., 308 ft. 
18 miles east of Karnes City, the county seat, 166 
miles southwest of Houston, and 71 miles southeast 
of San Antonio, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Banks, 
First State, Runge Nat'l. Hotels, Bailey. Lyons. 
Weekly newspaper, The Karnes County News. 
Shipment, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

RUSK— Cherokee County seat; pop., 2,000; alt., 
494. 15 miles southeast of Jacksonville, 223 miles 



155 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



northeast of Austin, on the Lufkin branch of the 
St. L. S. W. Ry., and the Rusk branch of the T. & 
N. 0. Ry. and on the Texas State Ry. Banks, Citi- 
zens' Guaranty State, Farmers & Merchants' Bank 
& Trust Co. Hotel, Claiborne. 2 foundries, ma- 
chine shops, iron furnace, box factory and several 
saw and gin mills comprise the industrial institu- 
tions. A Baptist Academy and the East Texas 
State Prison are located here. Iron ore is mined in 
the vicinity. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SABINAL— Uvalde County; pop., 1,500; alt., 964 
ft. 21 miles east of Uvalde, the county seat, on the 
S. P. Ry. Banks, First State, Sabinal Nat'l. Hotel, 
Mitchell. Weekly newspaper, The Sentinel. Sabinal 
Christian College is located here. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

SACUL — Nacogdoches County; pop., 250. 25 
miles from Nacogdoches, the county seat, on the 
T. & N. O. Ry. Bank, Sacul Guaranty State. Ex- 
press and telephone connections. 

SADLER— Grayson County; pop., 400; 18 miles 
from Sherman, the county seat, on the M. K. & T. 
Ry. Bank, First Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

SAGERTON— Haskell County; pop., 300. 16 
miles southwest of Haskell, the county seat, on the 
K. C. M. & O. and the S. & N. W. Rys. Bank, Con- 
tinental State Bank. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SAINT JO— Montague County; pop., 985; alt., 
1,146 ft. 13 miles northeast of Montague, the 
county seat, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, Citizens' 
Nat'l, First Nat'l, Hotel Clonts. Has newspaper, 
Tel., W. U. and Express. 

SALADO— Bell County; pop., 471; 9 miles from 
Belton, the county seat and nearest shipping point. 
Bank, First State. Mail daily. 

SALTILLO— Hopkins County; pop., 250. 16 miles 
from Sulphur Springs, the county seat, on the St. 
L. S. W. Ry. Bank, First State. Newspaper, tele- 
graph, W. U. and Express. 

SAN ANGELO— Tom Green County; population, 
9,392; alt., 1,847 ft. 243 miles southwest of Ft. 
Worth, 451 miles northeast of El Paso, near the con- 
fluence of the North, South, and Middle Concho 
Rivers on the K. C. M. & O. of T. and the G. C. & 
S. F. Rys. The city was founded in 1882, when it 
succeeded the town of Ben Flicken as county seat 
of Tom Green County. Banks, Central Nat'l, First 
Nat'l, Guaranty State, San Angelo Nat'l, Concho 
Valley Loan and Trust Co. Hotels, Central, Good- 
win, Herrman, Hickman, London, Model, Myers, 
Newton Nimitz, St. Angelus, Sealy. San Angelo is 
the natural metropolis of southwest Texas. In 
1868, the Federal Government established Ft. Con- 
cho near the forks of the Concho Rivers, which site 
is now near the heart of the present day city. The 
city is the center of a vast sheep and cattle pro- 
ducing country. Raising of Angora goats is de- 
veloping. San Angelo is one of the largest wool 
•centers in the United States. This section of the 
state is a health resort to those afflicted with tu- 
bercular, asthmatic or catarrhal troubles. The at- 
mosphere is dry and invigorating. Has newspaper, 
The Standard (daily and weekly), wholesale gro- 
ceries, dry goods, two ice plants, two steam laundries 
planing mills, foundry and machine shop, grain ele- 
vators, cotton gins, bottling works, two sanitariums, 
cotton seed oil mill, cotton compress, paved streets, 



and modern public utilities. Here are located the 
Fair Grounds for Southwest Texas. Established 
automobile passenger and mail lines operate between 
this city and towns far removed from railroads. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

SAN ANTONIO— Bexar County seat; pop., 
250,000; alt., 654 ft. 79 miles southwest of Aus- 
tin on the G. H. & S. A., the I. & G. N., the M. K. & 
T., the S. A. & A. P. and the S. A. U. & G. Rys. 
This is a place of great historic interest, being the 
location of the famed Alamo where Travis, Crockett 
and Bowie and a handful of men withstood the as- 
sault of 3,000 Mexicans, leaving nearly a thousand 
of the enemy dead and dying before they perished in 
the cause of Texas Freedom. Shortly afterwards, 
the battle of San Jacinto, with the Texas Battle cry 
of "Remember the Alamo," won independence for 
Texas. The Alamo chapel has been purchased by 
the State as has also the barracks in which much 
of the fighting occurred. Banks, State Nat'l, Ala- 
mo Nat'l, American Savings Bank, Army Bank of 
Ft. Sam Houston, Central Trust Company, City 
Nat'l, Commercial Loan & Tr. Co., Commercial 
Nat'l, Commonwealth Bank & Trust Co., First State 
Bank, Frost Nat'l, Groos Nat'l, Guaranty State, 
International Bank & Tr. Co., Lockwood Nat'l, Mer- 
chants and Mechanics', National Bank of Commerce, 
San Antonio Joint Stock Land Bank, San Antonio 
Loan & Tr. Co., Standard Trust Co., S. A. Nat'l, 
Texas State Bank & Tr. Co., Union Securities Co., 
H. P. Crosby Investment Co., Elliott & Hayes, In- 
vestment bankers, J. E. Jarrett & Co., Investment 
bonds, T. G. Leighton, stocks and bonds, D. A. Op- 
penheimer, bankers, D. Sullivan & Co., bankers, and 
the San Antonio Clearing House Association. Ho- 
tels, Alamo, Angelus, Arthur, Bowie, Crockett, Fair- 
mont, Garden, Gunter, Hutchins, Imperial, La Barre, 
Lanier, Losoya, Majestic, Maverick, Menger, Nueces, 
Randoll, St. Anthony, Savoy, Southern and Travel- 
ers. 

San Antonio is the busiest, richest and at the 
same time cleanest city of its size in the Union, 
with no phase of modern conveniences lacking. A 
perfectly equipped street railway service, public 
buildings not surpassed in beauty or efficiency by 
any of the larger cities, the most perfect system of 
paving and draining, parks and squares that would 
be impossible in the rigorous climes of the North 
and East, social environment expressive of all that 
is best and most wholesome in American life tell 
the story of civilization and prosperity, and civic 
development. Institutions, Public Library, over 80 
public and private schools and colleges, 72 churches 
and missions, Chamber of Commerce ranking among 
the livest in the country and the largest military 
post in the United States. — Fort Sam Houston, lo- 
cated in the suburbs of the city. 18,000 acres of 
land was purchased by Congress for this post. As 
a health resort, San Antonio enjoys a nation-wide 
fame, particularly for lung and throat troubles. 
There are a number of large, fully equipped hos- 
pitals in the city besides many private hospitals and 
sanitariums for treatment of special cases. 

Today San Antonio is the center of a thriving 
set of manufacturing institutions. 

No city of its size in the world has a greater acre- 
age of beautiful and public parks than San Antonio, 



156 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



which gardens are scattered throughout the city, 
due to the old Spanish love for fountains, rare fo- 
liage and flowers, — gems of landscape gardening. 
These are due to the native richness of the soil and 
the fructifying balminess of the climate and the al- 
most perennial Spring-time. The waters of San 
Antonio River and San Pedro creek flow through 
the city in every direction so that 2,000 bridges are 
required for the city traffic and which streams lend 
to the picturesqueness of the environs. 

San Antonio is the recognized headquarters and 
distributing point for the cattle business of central 
and southwestern Texas. Yet this phase of San An- 
tonio's activity is surpassed in volume and values by 
other branches. Shipments, cotton, wool, hides, raw 
materials of various types and manufactured pro- 
ducts. Tel., Mackay, Tel. & Cable Co., Postal and 
W. U. Express. 

SAN AUGUSTINE— San Augustine County seat; 
pop., 1,268; alt., 300 ft. 180 miles northeast of 
Houston, on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Banks, Commer- 
cial Guaranty State, First Nat'l. Hotel, Mars. 
Grist mills, cotton gins, two weekly newspapers, tele- 
graph, W. U. and express. 

SAN BENITO— Cameron County; pop., 5,080; 
alt., 37 ft. 18 miles northwest of Brownsville, the 
county seat, on the St. L. B. & M. Ry. Banks, 
Farmers State Guaranty, San Benito Bank & Tr. Co. 
Hotels, Central and San Benito. Cotton gins, can- 
ning factory, box factory, ice plant, weekly news- 
paper, The Light, are factors in the industrial and 
civic life of the city. Is located in the famed irrigat- 
ed district of the Rio Grande Valley, adapted to the 
growing of cotton, corn, citrous fruit, sugar cane, 
vegetables and forage crops. Live stock and dairy- 
ing do well here. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SANDERSON— Terrell County seat; pop., 500; 
alt., 2,781 ft. 72 miles southeast of Ft. Stockton, on 
the G. H. & S. A. Ry. Bank, Sanderson State. Ho- 
tels, Kerr, Terrell. Has a weekly newspaper, tele- 
graph, W. U. Express. 

SANDIA— Jim Wells County; pop., 200. 21 miles 
northeast of Alice, the county seat, on the S. A. & 

A. P. Ry. Banks, Sandia State, W. T. Mumme, 
Banker. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SAN DIEGO— Duval County seat; pop., 1,971; alt., 
312 ft. 108 miles east of Laredo, and 52 miles west 
of Corpus Christi, on the Texas-Mexican Ry. Banks 
San Diego State, Croft & Co. Hotels, Martinet, Mi- 
rets. Is surrounded by a good grazing and farming 
country. Weekly newspaper, La Voz de Duval. 
Shipments, cattle and cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SAND LAKE— pop., 3,000. Southeast of Dallas. 

SAN ELIARION— El Paso County; pop., 843. 
21 miles from El Paso, the county seat, and 3 miles 
from Clint, the nearest banking and shipping point. 
Telephone connection. 

SANGER— Denton County; pop., 1,500; alt., 664 
ft. 14 miles northwest of Denton, the county seat, 
and 47 miles north of Ft. Worth, on the G. C. & S. 
F. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, First Guar. State, Sanger 
Nat'l. Hotels, Harris, White. Industry, cotton. 
Weekly newspaper, The Courier, telegraph, W. U., 
and express. 

SAN JUAN— Hidalgo County; pop., 1,203. 10 
miles from Edinburg, the county seat, on the St. L. 

B. & M. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 



SAN MARCOS— Hays County seat; pop., 4,527. 
30 miles south of Austin and 50 miles north of San 
Antonio, on the M. K. & T. and the I. & G. N. Rys., 
and on the San Marcos and Blanco Rivers, in a rich 
farming territory. Banks, First Nat'l, State Bank 
& Tr. Co. Hotels, Armstrong, Hofheinz, Williamson 
A number of large mercantile establishments; a 
large U. S. Fish Hatchery is located here. A daily 
The Times-Herald, and two weekly newspapers, The 
Times-Leader and the Record-Herald, and a Mexi- 
can paper, The Pierrott, and several college papers 
represent the press. Here is located the Southwest 
Texas State Normal School, as also San Marcos 
Baptist Academy, the Coronal Institute, Lone Star 
Schools Business College and excellent high and ward 
schools. Shipments, cotton, cotton seed products, 
livestock, grain and farm products. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

SAN SABA— San Saba County seat; pop., 2,011; 
alt., 1,712 ft. 67 miles northwest of Temple, on 
the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Banks, City Nat'l, First 
Nat'l, San Saba Nat'l. Hotels, San Saba, Urqu- 
hart. Two weekly newspapers, The News and The 
Star. Shipments, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SANTA ANNA— Coleman County; pop., 1,407; 
alt., 1,744 ft. 9 miles east of Coleman, the county 
seat, on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, 
First State. Hotel, Shields. Principal industries of 
this section are agricultural and stock raising. Has 
a weekly newspaper, The Santa Anna News, tele- 
graph, W. U., and express. 

SANTO— Palo Pinto County; pop., 328. 15 miles 
south of Palo Pinto, the county seat, on the T. & P. 
Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, Santo State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

SARATOGA— Hardin County; pop., 1,000. 19y 2 
miles from Kountze, the county seat, on the G. C. & 
S. F. Ry. Bank, Saratoga State. Express. 

SARTARTIA— Ft. Bend County; pop., 500. 6% 
miles northeast of Richmond, the county seat, and 
1% miles from Sugarland, on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. 
Bank, Sartartia State. 

SAVOY— Fannin County; pop., 378; alt., 671 ft. 
12 miles from Bonham, the county seat, on the T. 
& P. Ry. Bank, First State. Hotel, Savoy. Has 
newspaper, The Savoy Star, telegraph and express. 

SCHERTZ— Guadalupe County; pop., 350. 20% 
miles west of Seguin, the county seat, on the G. H. 
& S. A. Ry. Bank, Schertz State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

SCHULENBERG— Fayette County; pop., 1,246; 
alt., 270 ft. 18 miles south of La Grange, the coun- 
ty seat, on the S. P. Ry. Banks, First National, 
Ignaz Russek State, Farmer State. Hotel, Schaef- 
fer. Industry, cotton. Two newspapers. The steel 
furnace plant and wire basket factory ship their 
manfactured products to all parts of the country 
in addtion to which large quantities of cotton, cot- 
ton seed products, farm products, potatoes, onions 
and livestock are shipped. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SCHWERTNER— Williamson County; pop., 300. 
20 miles from Georgetown, the county seat, on the 
Bartlett Western Ry. Bank, First Nat'l. Weekly 
newspaper, The News. Telephone connection. 

SCOTLAND— Archer County; pop., 300. 10 



157 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



miles from Archer City, the county seat, on the 
Southwestern Ry. Bank, Bank of Scotland. Express. 
SCURRY— Kaufman County; pop., 400. 6Y2 
miles from Kaufman, the county seat, on the T. M. 
Ry. Bank. First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SEADRIFT— Calhoun County; pop., 321; alt., 19 
ft. 15 miles from Port Lavaca, the county seat, 
on the St. L. B. & M. Ry., and on the Intercoastal 
Canal. Bank, Seadrift State. Hotels, Bridges, La- 
fille. Weekly newspaper, The Seadrift Success. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

SEAGOVILLE— Dallas County; pop., 600. 21Yz 
miles southeast of Dallas, the county seat, on the 
T. & X. 0. Ry. Bank, First State. Weekly news- 
paper, Tel., W. U. Express. 

SEAGRAVES— Gaines County; Blythe is the Post 
office; pop., 500. Bank, First State. 

SEALY— Austin County; pop., 2,000; alt., 201 
ft. 13 miles south of Bellville, the county seat, and 
50 miles west of Houston, on the G. C. & S. F. and 
the M.-K.-T. Rys. Banks, Citizens' State and 
Sealy National. Hotels, Exchange and Fairfield. 
Has a weekly newspaper, The News. Industry, cot- 
ton. Mercantile establishments. Shipments, cotton, 
corn, truck, dairying produce and live stock. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

SEGUIN— Guadalupe County seat; pop., 3,632; 
alt., 553 ft. 33 miles east of San Antonio, on the 
S. P. Ry. and the Guadalupe River which furnishes 
an abundant water power. Banks, Citizens State, 
Farmers' State, First Nat'l, Guaranty Loan & Tr. 
Co., Seguin State Bank & Tr. Co., E. Nolte & Sons. 
Hotels, Aumont, Mission, Park. The Seguin Lu- 
theran College and the Guadalupe College, for the 
colored race, are located here. Industries, cotton 
gins, large flour mill, cotton oil mill, cotton com- 
press, br^ck plant, creamery, ice factory and laundry, 
electric light and power house. Ships cotton seed 
products, farm produce, melons, pecans, brick and 
livestock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SEMINOLE— Gaines County seat; pop., 300. 42 
miles west of Lamesa, the nearest shipping point, 
and 72 miles above Midland. Bank, First State. 
Weekly newspaper, The Sentinel. Telephone con- 
nection. 

SEYMOUR— Baylor County seat; pop., 2,121; alt., 
940 ft. 100 miles north of Abilene, on the W. V. 
and the G. T. & W. Rys. Banks, Farmers Nat'l, 
First Guaranty State, First Nat'l. Hotels, McClain, 
Washington. Has electric lights, flour mill, cotton 
oil mill, cotton compress, cotton gins, ice plant, a 
weekly newspaper, The Baylor County Banner. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

SHAMROCK— Wheeler County; pop., 1,227; alt., 
2,416 ft. 18 miles south of Wheeler, the county 
seat, on the C. R. I. & G. Ry. Banks, Farmers & 
Merchants' State, First Nat'l. Hotels, Johnson, 
Shamrock. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SHEPHERD— San Jacinto County; pop., £50. 11 
miles southeast of Cold Springs, the county seat, 
and 55 miles north of Houston, on the H. E. & W. T. 
Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Has cotton and grist 
mills, telegraph, W. U. Express. 

SHERMAN— Grayson County seat; pop., 15,031; 
alt., 728 ft. 68 miles north of Dallas, 13 miles 
south of the Red River which separates Texas and 
Oklahoma, on the H. & T. C, the M. K. & T., the 



M. O. & G., the St. L. S. W., the T. & P. Rys., and the 
Frisco Lines. Banks, American Bank & Tr. Co., 
Central State, Commercial Nat'l, Guaranty Tr. Co., 
Merchants & Planters' Bank, and the Sherman Clear- 
ing House Association. Hotels, Arcade, Brinkley, 
Smith, Wheat, Williams. 

Sherman is also connected with Denison, 10 miles 
distant and Dallas, by an interurban electric line. 
This city leads those of its size in matters of 
public convenience. Institutions, North Texas Fe- 
male College, Austin College, Carr-Burdette College, 
S. Joseph's Academy, and the Business College; al- 
so 15 modern church edifices, a Y. M. C. A. building 
costing $75,000 and a sanitarium costing $25,000.. 
Has a daily newspaper, two weeklies, and a month- 
ly. Has two wholesale grocery houses, a wholesale 
hardware house, a wholesale mill supply house, two 
candy factories, an overall factory, cotton seed oil 
mill, two cotton seed oil refineries, a cotton duck 
factory, four flour mills, etc. 

The principal crops of the surrounding territory 
are cotton, alfalfa, oats, corn, wheat, fruits and 
vegetables. Over 40,000 bales of cotton are com- 
pressed in Sherman for shipment during a normal 
cotton season. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SHERWOOD— Irion County seat; pop., 100. 2% 
miles northeast of Mertzon, the nearest shipping 
point. Bank, First State Bank of Sherwood. Tele- 
phone connection. 

SHINER— Lavaca County; pop., 1,300; alt., 353 
ft. 18 miles west of Halletsville, the county seat, 
120 miles west of Houston, and 130 miles southeast 
of San Antonio, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry., at the 
junction of the Lockhart branch. Banks, First Nat'l, 
Wolters Bros., Farmers State. Hotels, City, Com- 
mercial. Two weekly newspapers, Gazette and Enter- 
prise. Industry, cotton. Has a hospital. Is the 
center of a rich farming country. Cotton, livestock, 
produce, are the chief shipments. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SHIRO— Grimes County; pop., 500. 20 miles 
northeast of Anderson, the county seat, on the T. & 
B. V. Ry. Bank, Farmers' State. Weekly news- 
paper, telegraph and express. 

SIERRA BLANCA— Hudspeth County; pop., 150. 
95 miles southeast of El Paso, on the G. H. & S. A. 
and the T. & P. Rys. Bank, Sierra Blanca State. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

SILSBEE— Hardin County; pop., 3,500. 8 miles 
from Kountze, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. F. 
Ry. Bank, Silsbee State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SILVERTON— Briscoe County seat; pop., 416. 30 
miles east of Tulia, the nearest railroad approach. 
Bank, First National. Has a newspaper. Telephone 
connection. 

SINTON— San Patricio County seat; pop., 1,058; 
alt., 53 ft. 26 miles northwest of Corpus Christi, 
and 124 miles southeast of San Antonio, and 12 
miles from the gulf coast, on the S. A. & A. P. 
and the St. L. B. & M. Rys. Banks, Bank of Com- 
merce and Sinton State. Hotels, Commercial, Kin- 
namer, Sinton. Has cotton compress, cotton gin, ice 
and electric plant, handsome courthouse, artesian 
water, weekly newspaper. Produces cotton, citrus 
fruits and truck. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SIPE SPRINGS— Comanche County; pop., 400. 
22 miles from Comanche, the county seat. Banks, 
First Nat'l, Guaranty State. Newspaper, telephone 
and express connections. 



158 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



SKIDMORE— Bee County; pop., 600; alt., 163 ft. 
11 miles from Beeville, the county seat, 105 miles 
south of San Antonio, and 45 miles north of Corpus 
Christi, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, First 
State. Weekly newspaper, The Signal. Staple crop, 
cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. Hotel, Commercial. 

SLATON— Lubbock County; pop., 4,500; alt., 2,800 
ft. 15% miles southeast of Lubbock, the county 
seat, on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Banks, Slaton State, 
First State. Hotels, Commercial, Singleton, Tram- 
mell. Newspaper, telegraph, W. U., and express. 

SLIDELL— Wise County; pop., 300. 16 miles from 
Decatur, the county seat and shipping point. Bank, 
First State. Telephone connection. 

SMILEY— Gonzales County; pop., 600; alt., 290 
ft. 55% miles southeast of San Antonio, on the G. 
H. & S. A. Ry. Bank, Smiley State. Hotels, Marie, 
Smiley, Williams. Newspaper, telegraph, and ex- 
press. 

SMITHFIELD— Tarrant County; pop., 137. 12 
miles from Ft. Worth, the county seat, and 6 miles 
from Keller, on the St. L. S. W. Ry. Bank, Smith- 
field State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SMITHVILLE— Bastrop County; pop., 3,204; alt., 
324 ft. 15 miles east of Bastrop, the county seat, 
on the Colorado River and the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Banks, First Nat'l, First State. Hotels, City, Mc- 
intosh. It is the division headquarters for the M. K. 
& T. Ry. and has machine shops and round house. 
Modern public utilities. Weekly newspaper, The 
Times. Ships cotton, corn, farm produce, truck, 
sand and gravel. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SNYDER — Scurry County seat and principal 
town; pop., 2,179; alt., 2,000 ft. On the A. T. & 
S. F. and R. S. & P. Rys., about 70 miles northwest 
of Abilene, and about 100 miles southeast of Wichita 
Falls. Banks, First Nat'l, First State Bank & Tr. 
Co., Snyder Nat'l. Hotels, Manhattan, Maxwell, 
Woodward. Two weekly newspapers, The Signal, 
and Free Press. Has modern conveniences, cotton 
seed oil mill, cotton gins, and is well located in a 
beautiful prairie country. Industry, live stock, par- 
ticular attention to hogs; cotton is chief of agricul- 
tural crops. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SOCORRO— El Paso County; pop., 1,147. 15 miles 
southeast of El Paso, the county seat, on the G. H. 
& S. A. Ry. Ship, via Belan. 

SOMERVILLE— Burleson County; pop., 1,879; 
alt., 251 ft. 16 miles southeast of Caldwell, the 
county seat, on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Bank, First 
Guaranty State; two newspapers; hotels, Commercial, 
Santa Fe, Somerville. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SONORA — Judicial seat of Sutton County; pop., 
1,109; alt., 1,851 ft. 75 miles south of San An- 
gelo, its nearest shipping point. Bank, First Nat'l. 
Hotel, Commercial. Two newspapers; daily stage 
to San Angelo; telephone connection. 

SOUR LAKE— Hardin County; pop., 3,032; alt., 
51 ft. 26 miles from Kountze, the county seat, on 
the B. S. L. & W. and the T. & N. O. Rys. Banks, 
Citizens' Nat'l, Sour Lake State. Hotels, Gregory, 
Lake, Plaza. Has a newspaper, telegraph and ex- 
press. 

SOUTH GROVETON— Pop., 614. 

SOUTHLAND— Garza County; pop., 200. 17 
miles from Post, the county seat, and 7 miles from 
Slaton, on the P. & N. T. Ry. Bank, Southland. 

SOUTHMAYD— Grayson County; pop., 132. 10 



miles west of Sherman, the county seat, on the T. 
& P. Ry. Bank, Security State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

SPEARMAN— Hansford County. About 70 miles 
east of Dalhart. Banks, First National, Guaranty 
State. 

SPRING— Harris County; pop., 600. 23 miles 
above Houston, the county seat, on the I. & G. N. 
Ry. Bank, Spring State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SPRINGTOWN— Parker County; pop., 900; 18 
miles from Weatherford, the county seat and ship- 
ping point. Banks, First State Bank of Springtown, 
Guaranty State. Telephone connection. 

SPUR— Dickens County; pop., 1,100; alt., 1,900 
ft. 12 miles south of Dickens, the county seat, on 
the W. V. Ry. Banks, City Nat'l, Spur Nat'l. Ho- 
tels, Spur, Western. Newspaper, telegraph and ex- 
press. 

SPURGER— Tyler County; pop., 500. 17 miles 
from the county seat, Woodville, the usual banking 
and shipping point. 

STAMFORD— Jones County; pop., 3,074; alt., 
1,603 ft. 14 miles north of Anson, the county 
seat, on the T. C, the W. V. and the S. & N. W. Rys. 
Banks, First Nat'l, First State, Guaranty State. 
Hotels, Bettis, Brown, Cooper, Stamford. Stamford 
College is located here. Two weekly newspapers. 
Stamford is a leader in paved streets and sidewalks 
for its age. It is the jobbing center of West Texas, 
and has more wholesale and jobbing houses for 
its population than has any city in the state. Cot- 
ton gin, oil mill, flour mill, ice plant, cotton com- 
press, broom factory, roundhouse, repair shops, etc. 
Industry, live stock and farming. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

STANTON— Martin County seat; pop., 600; alt., 
2,889 ft. 127 miles west of Abilene, on the T. & P. 
Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, Home Nat'l. Hotels, City, 
Stanton. Our Lady of Academy Convent is located 
here. Newspaper, The Reporter. Shipments, grain 
and live stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

STAR— Mills County; pop., 300. 18 miles from 
Goldthwaite, the county seat and shipping point. 
Bank, Star State. Telephone connection. 

STEPHEN VILLE — Erath County seat; pop., 
3,891; alt., 1,283 ft. 76 miles souhwest of Ft. 
Worth, on the Ft. W. & R. G., and the S. N. & 
S. T. Rys. Banks, Farmers' Guaranty State, 
Stephenville State and First State. Hotels, Cum- 
berland, Hall, Nother Shed. Has cotton oil mill, 
four cotton g - ins, two weekly newspapers, The Em- 
pire and The Tribune. Tel., W. U. Expi-ess. 

STERLING CITY— Sterling County seat; pop., 
533. 43 miles northwest of San Angelo, on the 
G. C. & S. F. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, First State. 
Has a newspaper, telegraph and express. 

STOCKDALE— Wilson County; pop., 1,000. 17 
miles northeast of Floresville, the county seat, and 
38 miles southeast of San Antonio, on the S. P. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Industry, cotton. Weekly news- 
paper, The Times. Shipments, cotton and cotton 
seed products. Tel., W. U. Express. 

STRATFORD— Sherman County seat; pop., 520; 
alt., 3,920 ft. 31 miles northeast of Dalhart, 500 
miles southwest of Kansas City, Mo., and 500 miles 
northeast of El Paso, on the C. R. I. & G. Ry. 
Banks, First State, Sherman County Nat'l. Hotel, 
Powell. Weekly newspaper, The Star. Is the cen- 



159 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



ter of an extensive cattle raising- country. Wheat 
is extensively grown, also oats, kaffir corn and 
maize; dairying is successful. Ships cattle, hogs, 
wheat, kaffir corn and maize and produce. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

STR AWN— Palo Pinto County; pop., 2,457; alt., 
991 feet. 26 miles northeast of Palo Pinto, the 
county seat, and 80 miles west of Ft. Worth, on the 
T. & P. Railway. Banks, First National and First 
State. Hotels, Commercial and Harvey. Weekly 
newspaper. Coal is extensively mined and ship- 
ped. Oil is the great industry of the surrounding 
territory. Tel., W. U. Express. 

STREETMAN— Freestone County; pop., 478. 16 
miles from Fairfield, the county seat, on the T. & B. 
V. Ry. Bank, First Nat'l. Newspaper, express and 
telephone. 

SUGARLAND— Ft. Bend County; pop., 1,000. 8V 2 
miles northeast of Richmond, the county seat, on 
the G. H. & S. A. and the Sugar Land Rys. Bank, 
Imperial Bank & Trust Co. Has sugar, mattress 
and paper manufactories. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SULPHUR BLUFF— Hopkins County; pop., 300. 
24 miles from Sulphur Springs, the county seat and 
shipping point. Bank, First State. Telephone 
connection. 

SULPHUR SPRINGS— Judicial seat of Hopkins 
County; pop., 5,558; alt., 503 ft. 86 miles north- 
east of Dallas, on the M. K. & T. and the St. L. S. 
W. Rys. Banks, City Nat'l, First Nat'l, First State 
Guaranty State Bank & Tr. Co. Hotels, Garrison, 
McClimans, Woodall. Two weekly newspapers, one 
daily. Cotton gins, cotton compresses, cotton oil 
mills, and ice plant are leading industrial institu- 
tions. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SUNSET— Montague County; pop., 900; alt., 982 
ft. 18 miles south of Montague, the county seat, 
and 59 miles from Ft. Worth, on the Ft. W. & D. 
C. Railway. Bank, Sunset State. Hotel, Sunset. 
Newspapers, telegraph and express. 

SUTHERLAND SPRINGS— Wilson County; pop., 
400. 12 miles from Floresville, the county seat, 
on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

SWEARINGEN— Cottle County; pop., 200. 14 
miles from Paducah, the county seat, on the G. A. 
& P. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Express and 
telephone connections. 

SWEENY— Brazoria County; pop., 500. 20% 
miles south of Angleton, the county seat, on the St. 
L. B. & M. Ry. Bank, First State. Express and 
telephone connections. 

SWEET HOME— Lavaca County; pop., 300. 12 
miles southwest of Hallettsville, the county seat, on 
the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, Valenta Brothers Bank. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

SWEETWATER— Nolan County seat; pop., 4,307; 
alt., 2,164 ft. 202 miles west of Ft. Worth, and 
413 miles northeast of El Paso, on the T. & P., K. 
413 miles northeast of El Paso, on T. & P., K. C. M. 
& O., G. C. & S. F. Rys. Banks, City Nat'l, First 
Nat'l, Texas Bank & Tr. Co. Hotels, Alamo, Com- 
mercial, Mart, Pullman, Revel, Santa Fe, Wright. 
Here are the Santa Fe machine shops and roundhouse 
for this district, and is an important railway center. 
Cotton compress, oil mill, gins, ice factory, electric 
lights, water works, sewer systems, an abundant 
supply of good water, paved streets, steam laundry, 
four wholesale houses. Is also a health resort, with 



an ideal climate, and being the location of the cele- 
brated Grogan Mineral Wells and Boone Institute 
of Scientific Massage, where hundreds from all over 
the country are successfully treated for all manner 
of diseases. Two weekly newspapers, The Record 
and The Reporter. Industries, farming and stock 
raising. Shipments, live stock, cotton, cotton seed 
products and farm products. As a stock raising 
country it is second to none. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SWEN SON— Stonewall County; pop., 250. 7 
miles from Aspermont, the county seat, on the S. 
& N. W. Ry. Bank, Swenson National. Telephone 
connection. 

SYLVESTER— Fisher County; pop., 200. 8 miles 
from Roby, the county seat, on the K. C. M. & O. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TAFT— San Patricio County; pop., 500. 8 miles 
southeast of Sinton, the county seat, on the S. A. & 
A. P. Ry. Banks, Taft Bank, First National, First 
State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TAHOKA — Lynn County seat; pop., 500; alt., 
2,864 ft. 150 miles southwest of Amarillo, on the 
Lamesa branch of the A. T. & S. F. Ry. Banks, 
First Nat'l, Guaranty State. Hotels, Larkin, Leedy, 
St. Clair, Level country surrounding with good 
water supply at depth of eighty feet; live stock is 
the chief industry, but diversified farming and fruit 
growing are increasing. Crops, kaffir corn, milo 
maize, wheat, oats, sorghum and alfalfa. Weekly 
newspaper, The News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TALCO— Titus County; pop., 300. 17 miles from 
Mt. Pleasant, the county seat, on the P. & Mt. P. Ry. 
Bank, Talco State. Express and telephone connec- 
tions. 

TALPA— Coleman County; pop., 250; alt., 1,948 
ft. 25 miles southwest of Coleman, the county seat. 
Bank, First State. Newspaper, telegraph and ex- 
press. 

TATUM— Rusk County; pop., 428. 20 miles 
southeast of Longview, on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Has newspaper, express and 
telephone connection. 

TAYLOR— Williamson County; pop., 5,965; alt., 
583 ft. 174 miles south of Dallas, 116 miles east 
of San Antonio and 144 miles west of Palestine, and 
165 miles north of Houston, at the junction of the 
I. & G. N. and the M. K. & T. Rys. Banks, City 
Nat'l, First Nat'l, First State Bank & Tr. Co., Tay- 
lor Nat'l. Hotels, Blazilmar, Grace, Hyde, Mar- 
quette. Taylor is located on a rolling prairie of very 
rich land; some fields have been producing for 80 
years without any fertilizer and present day crops 
are larger than any of the past. Crops, cotton, corn, 
oats, wheat, sorghum, garden growths. Industries, 
cotton oil mills, ice factories, mattress factory, 
broom factory, marble works, seven cotton gins, 
light and power plant, ice cream factory, creamery, 
machine shops, wholesale grocery houses, wholesale 
cigar and tobacco house, etc. Two newspapers, The 
Democrat and The Journal, daily; three weeklies, 
The Texan, The Journal, and the Herald (German). 
Has a fair association. Tel., Mackay, Postal, W. U. 
Express. 

TEAGUE— Freestone County; pop., 3,306; alt., 
698 ft. 10 miles east of Fairfield, the county seat, 
98 miles south of Dallas, on the T. & B. V. Ry. 
Banks, First Nat'l, First State. Hotels, Harvey, 
Martin, Stegall. Industry, cotton. Daily and two 
weekly newspapers; telegraph, W. U. Express. 



160 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



TEHUACANA— Limestone County; pop., 614. 
16 miles from Groesbeck, the county seat, and 6 
miles from Mexia. Bank, First State. Express and 
telephone connections. 

TELEPHONE— Fannin County; pop., 99. 20 
miles northeast of Bonham, the county seat and 
shipping point. Bank, First State. Mail daily. 

TELL — Childress County; pop., 50. Bank, First 
State. Telephone connection. 

TEMPLE— Bell County; pop., 11,033. Eight miles 
east of Belton, the county seat, 35 miles south of 
Waco, 213 miles northwest of Houston, on the G. C. 
& S. F. and the M. K. & T. Kys. Banks, City Nat'l, 
Farmers' State, First Nat'l, Guaranty State, Temple 
Trust Company. 

Temple is one of the principal cities of Central 
Texas, in the waxy land belt, noted for its produc- 
tiveness. Staple crops, cotton leads, corn, oats, dairy 
products, live stock and produce. Splendid shipping 
facilities, twenty-six passenger trains daily, an im- 
portant point on the Santa Fe system as a dividing 
point of its two great lines, one extending to all 
northern points and the other to all points west to 
the Pacific coast. Santa Fe shops are here. Busi- 
ness college, military academy and three thoroughly 
equipped hospitals. One daily newspaper, The Tele- 
gram, one weekly, The Mirror. Is a wholesale cen- 
ter. Has modern business buildings and beautiful 
residences, large opera house, all public utilities of 
the largest cities. Is connected with Belton by an 
electric railway. Tel., Mackay, W. U. Express. 

TENAHA— Shelby County; pop., 577. 12 miles 
from Center, the county seat, and 177 miles north- 
east of Houston, on the H. E. & W. T. and T. & G. 
Rys. Bank, First State. Weekly newspaper, The 
Messenger. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TERRELL— Kaufman County; pop., 8,349; alt., 
530 ft. Ten miles north of Kaufman, the county 
seat, and 32 miles east of Dallas, on the T. M. and 
the T. & P. Rys. Banks, American Nat'l, First Nat'l, 
First State. Hotels, Artesia, Bonniville, Commer- 
cial. Cotton oil mill, compress, cotton gins, flour 
mill, ice plant, Texas Midland shops. Newspaper, 
The Transcript, daily and weekly. Site of the North 
Texas Hospital for the Insane. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TEXARKANA— Bowie County; pop., 19,737; alt., 
295 ft. 365 miles northeast of Austin, 490 miles 
southwest of St. Louis, Mo., situated on both sides 
of the boundary line between Texas and Arkansas, 
Bowie County, Texas, and Miller County, Arkansas, 
located on the K. C. S., the L. & A., the St. L. I. M. 
& S., the St. L. S. W., the T. & Ft. S, and the T & 
P Rys Banks, Guaranty State, Texarkana Nat'l. 
Hotels, Benefield, Burkdale, Cosmopolitan, Holman, 
Huckins, Marion. Has four sanitariums. Two daily 
newspapers. The more prominent industries include 
saw, shingle and planing mills, cotton oil mills, cot- 
ton compress, foundry and machine shops, boiler 
works, clay products works, oil and fertilizer works, 
cooperage, cotton gins, screen manufactory, mat- 
tress factory, sheet metal product factory, casket 
factory, electric light and gas plants, brick works, 
ice factory, sewer pipe works, tile and window glass 
works and silo factory. Pine and white oak timber 
abound in the vicinity. Shipments, cotton, lumber, 
hides, cotton seed oil and the products of the various 
factories. Tel., Mackay, Postal, W. U. Express. 



TEXAS CITY— Galveston County; pop., 2,500; 
alt., 12 ft. Eight miles by water and 16 miles by 
rail northwest of Galveston, the county seat, on the 
Texas City Terminal Co. Ry., which connects at 
Texas City Junction with the S. P., I. & G. N., M. K. 
& T., G. H. & H., G .C. & S. F., T. B. V. and the 
G. H. E. Co. (interurban). Is located on Galveston 
Bay. Banks, First Nat'l, Texas City Nat'l. Hotels, 
Livingstone, Travelers, Southern. This city is pri- 
marily a port. Principal exports to foreign markets 
include cotton, lumber, logs, oil, iron, steel, packing 
house products, grain, flour, cooperage, cotton seed 
and its by-products. Leading commodities received, 
coffee, Mexican hats, rice, sugar, sisal and glycerin. 
Coastwise business covers an extensive range. 
Finest system of ocean terminals from standpoint of 
construction and arrangement south of New York. 
Served by steamship lines to American and foreign 
ports. Is recognized as a distributing point for 
products manufactured in the East. All public utili- 
ties are privately owned. Daily newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

TEXLINE— Dallam County; pop., 762. 37 miles 
from Dalhart, the county seat, on the C. S. and the 
Ft. W. & D. C. Rys. Bank, First State. Newspaper, 
Texline Enterprise. Tel., W. U. Express. 

THE GROVE— Coryell County; pop., 105. 20 
miles from Gatesville, the county seat, 8 miles from 
Leon Junction, the nearest shipping point, and 14 
miles from Moody. Bank, Planters' State. Tele- 
phone connection. 

THORNDALE— Milam County; pop., 1,100; alt., 
400 ft. 30 miles southwest of Cameron, the county 
seat, on the I. & G. N. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, 
Thorndale State. Hotels, Commercial, Exchange. 
Weekly newspaper, The Thorn. Ships cotton, live 
stock and produce. Tel., W. U. Express. 

THORNTON — Limestone County; pop., 773; alt., 
499 ft. Eight miles south of Groesbeck, the county 
seat, 96 miles south of Dallas, on the H. & T. C. Ry. 
Banks, First Nat'l, Guaranty State. Hotel, Com- 
mercial. Weekly newspaper, The Hustler. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

THRALL — Williamson County; pop., 272. 27 
miles from Georgetown, the county seat, on the I. & 
G. N. Ry. Bank, Farmers' State. Express and tele- 
phone connection. 

THREE RIVERS— Live Oak County; pop., 500; 
alt., 220 ft. Bank, Live Oak County State Bank. 

THROCKMORTON— Throckmorton County seat; 
pop., 686. 38 miles north of Albany, the nearest 
shipping point. Bank, First Nat'l. Weekly news- 
paper, The Times. Telephone connection. 

THURBER— Erath County; pop., 4,000. 2h 2 miles 
from Mingus, the nearest banking point, on a spur 
of the T. & P. Ry. Coal is mined and shipped. Ex- 
press and telephone connections. 

TIMPSON— Shelby County; pop., 1,526; alt., 392 
ft. 15 miles northwest of Center, the county seat, 
on the H. E. & W. T., the H. G. and the T. & H. Rys. 
Banks, Cotton Belt State, Guaranty State. Hotel, 
Knight. Daily newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TIOGA — Grayson County; pop., 777. 32 miles 
southwest of Sherman, the county seat, on the T. 
& P. and the M. K. & T. Rys. Bank, First Guaranty 
State. Weekly newspaper, The Herald, and a 



161 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



monthly publication. Youth's Guardian Friend. 
Tioga has several mineral wells famed for the medi- 
cinal virtues. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TIVOLI— Refugio County; pop., 350. About 20 
miles northeast of Refugio, the county seat, or 150 
miles southwest of Houston, on the St. L. B. & M, 
Ry. Bank. Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TOLAR— Hood County; pop., 416; alt., 1,013 ft. 
Eight miles southwest of Granbury, the county seat, 
and 51 miles from Ft. Worth, on the Ft. W. & R. G. 
Ry. Bank, Continental State. Hotel, Landers. 
Weekly newspaper, The Standard. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

TOM BALL— Harris County; pop., 300. 32 miles 
from Houston, the county seat, on the T. & B. V. Ry. 
Bank, Guaranty State. Express and telephone. 

TOM BEAN— Grayson County; pop., 367. 11% 
miles southwest of Sherman, the county seat, on the 
St. L. S. W. and the G. C. & S. Fe Rys! Bank, First 
Nat'l. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TOYAH— Reeves County; pop., 947; alt., 2,911 ft. 
18 miles west of Pecos, the county seat, on the T. & 
P. Ry. Bank, Citizens' State. Hotel, Youngblood. 
Division point on the T. & P. Ry. Weekly news- 
paper, The Enterprise. Shipments, grain and live 
stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TRAVIS— Falls County; pop., 300. 18 miles from 
Marlin, the county seat, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. 
Bank, Travis State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TRENT— Taylor County; pop., 500. 22 miles from 
Abilene, the county seat, on the T. & P. Ry. Bank, 
Home State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TRENTON— Fannin County; pop., 616. 13 miles 
southwest of Bonham, the county seat, and 27 miles 
southwest of Denison, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, 
First Nat'l, Guaranty State. Shipments, cotton, 
grain and live stock. Two weekly newspapers, The 
Trenton News, and The Trenton Tribune. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

TRINIDAD— Henderson County; pop., 100. 15 
miles from Athens, the county seat, and 9 miles 
from Malakoff, on the St. L. S. W. Ry. Bank, Guar- 
anty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TRINITY— Trinity County; pop., 1,363. 19 miles 
southwest of Groveton, the county seat, on the I. 
& G. N., the M. K. & T. and the B. & G. N. Rys. 
Banks, First State, Trinity Nat'l. Hotel, Gibson. 
Weekly newspapers. Industry, cotton, farming and 
lumber. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TROUP— Smith County; pop., 1,258; alt., 467 ft. 
23 miles southeast of Tyler, the county seat, on the 
I. -G. N. R. R. Banks, First Nat'l, Troup State. 
Weekly newspaper. Three cotton gins. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

TROY— Bell County; pop., 219. 26 miles south- 
west of Waco, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, Citizens 
Exchange Bank. Newspaper, The Troy Enterprise. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

TRUMBULL— Ellis County; pop., 103. 23 miles 
northeast of Waxahachie, the county seat, 3V 2 miles 
from Ferris, on the H. & T. C. Ry. Bank, Farmers' 
State. Express and telephone connection. 

TRUSCOTT— Knox County; pop., 300. 13 miles 
from Benjamin, the county seat, on the K. C. M. & 
O. Ry. Bank, First Bank of Truscott. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

TULIA — Swisher County seat; pop., 1,189. 51 
miles southwest of Amarillo, on the Sweetwater 



branch of the A. T. & S. F. Ry. Alt., 3,200 ft. 
Banks, First Nat'l, Tulia Bank & Trust Co. Hotels, 
Jackson, Tulia, White. Two weekly newspapers, The 
Herald and The Enterprise. Has an opera house. 
Ships cattle, hogs, forage stuffs, poultry and pro- 
duce. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TURKEY— Hall County; pop., 100; 35 miles from 
Estelline, the nearest shipping point. Banks, First 
National. Telephone connection. 

TURNERSVILLE— Coryell County; pop., 162, 6V 2 
miles from Gatesville, the county seat and shipping 
point. Bank, First State. Telephone connections. 

TUSCOLA— Taylor County; pop., 300. 18 miles 
from Abilene, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. F. 
and the A. & S. Rys. Bank, First State. News- 
paper. Telegraph. Express. 

TYLER— Smith County seat; pop., 12,085; alt., 
521 ft. 128 miles southwest of Texarkana, 100 miles 
southeast of Dallas, on the St. L. S. W. and I. - G. N. 
Rys. Banks, Citizens National, People's Guaranty 
State and Tyler Guaranty State. Hotels, Tyler and 
Blackstone. It is an important railway center of 
East Texas and also center of the great fruit and 
truck belt of the state. It has the largest freight 
tonnage of any city its size in Texas. General of- 
fices and machine shops of the St. L. S. W. Ry. are 
here and employ more than 1,000 men. Has ex- 
cellent public and private schools, churches and 
homes. Twelve wholesale and jobbing houses here. 
Carnegie Library, a Federal Court building, a Union 
Depot. One daily and two weekly newspapers. Can- 
ning factories, ice plant, large compress, gins, cotton 
seed oil mill, fruit package factory, iron foundry 
and machine shops, overall and shirt factories, mat- 
tress factory, brick plant, bottling works, cigar fac- 
tory, etc., and all modern public utilities. Ship- 
ments, strawberries, peaches, truck garden, produce 
and cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

UTLEY — Bastrop County; pop., 500. Nine miles 
from Bastrop, the county seat, banking and ship- 
ping point. Mail daily. 

UTOPIA— Uvalde County; pop., 250. 40 miles 
from Uvalde, the county seat and 22 miles from 
Sabinal, the nearest shipping point. Bank, First 
State. Telephone connections. 

UVALDE — County seat of Uvalde County; pop., 
3,885; alt., 910 ft. 92 miles west of San Antonio, 
80 miles north of the Rio Grande River, on the S. P. 
and S. A. U. & G. Rys. Banks, Commercial Nat'l, 
First State. Hotels, Roundtree, Schwartz, Steven- 
son, Wilson. Has a library, a weekly newspaper, 
The Leader-News. Shipments, cotton, mohair, honey, 
pecans and grain. Tel., W. U. Express. 

VALERA— Coleman County; pop., 300. 12 miles 
from Coleman, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. Fe 
Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

VALLEY MILLS— Bosque County; pop., 885; alt., 
712 ft. 22 miles south of Meridian, the county seat, 
and 110 miles from Dallas, on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. 
Banks, Citizens State. First Nat'l. Cotton gins, 
cotton oil mills, weekly newspaper, The Tribune. 
Hotel, Crow. Tel., W. U. Express. 

VALLEY VIEW— Cooke County; pop., 600; alt., 
712 ft. Ten miles south of Gainesville, the county 
seat, and 55 miles north of Ft. Worth, on the G. C. 
& S. F. Ry. Banks, First Guaranty State, First 
Nat'l. Hotel, Lowe. Weekly newspaper, The Sun. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 



162 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



VAN ALSTYNE— Grayson County; pop., 1,588; 
alt., 803 ft. 15 miles south of Sherman, the county 
seat, and 47 miles north of Dallas, on the H. & T. C. 
Ry. Banks, Continental State, First Nat'l. Roller 
mills, cotton oil mill, electric lights, weekly news- 
paper, The Leader. Tel., W. U. Express. 

VAN HORN — Culberson County seat; pop., 129; 
alt., 7,572 ft. 110 miles southeast of El Paso, on 
the T. & P. Ry. Bank, Van Horn State. Two news- 
papers. Hotels, Central, Clarke, Commercial. Tele- 
phone connection. 

VEGA— Oldham County; pop., 200. 28 miles from 
Tascosa, the county seat. Bank, First State. Week- 
ly newspaper, The Vega Sentinel. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

VELASCO— Brazoria County; pop., 600. 16 miles 
south of Angleton, the county seat, and 60 miles 
southwest of Houston, on the H. & B. V. Ry., and on 
the Brazos River. Bank, Velasco State. Shipments, 
sulphur, cotton, cotton seed products, fish and oys- 
ters, cattle, sugar cane, syrup. Has cotton gin, 
fish and oyster plant, mercantile establishments. 
Weekly newspaper, The World. Express and tele- 
phone connection. 

VENUS— Johnson County; pop., 842. 20 miles 
east of Cleburne, the county seat, 33 miles southwest 
of Dallas, on the G. C. & S. F. and the I. & G. N. 
Rys. Banks, Farmers & Merchants National. Two 
weekly newspapers. Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

VERA — Knox County; pop., 100; 14 V 2 miles from 
Benjamin, the county seat, 19 miles from Seymour, 
its shipping point. Bank, First State. Telephone 
connection. 

VERNON — Wilbarger County seat; pop., 5,142; 
alt., 1,205 ft. 49 miles west of Wichita Falls, on 
the Ft. W. & D. C. and the St. L. & S. F. Rys. 
Banks, Farmers' State, First Guaranty State, Her- 
ring National and Waggoner National. Hotels 
Bailey, Vernon. Shipments, cotton, grain and live 
stock. Has cotton gins, a compress, a theatre, two 
weekly newspapers, The Call and The Record. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

• VICTORIA— Victoria County seat; pop., 5,957; 
alt., 187 ft. 115 miles southeast of San Antonio, 
127 west of Houston, on the Guadalupe River and 
the G. H. & S. A. and Gulf Coast Rys. Banks, 
Victoria Bk. & Tr. Co., People's Nat'l, Victoria Nat'l. 
Hotels, Delaware, Denver. It is the market place, 
shipping and trading center for one of the most 
productive sections of the state. Has safe factory, 
large cotton oil mill, ice factory, electric light plant, 
cotton compress, cotton gins, planing mills, broom 
factory, two cigar factories, three bottling works, 
laundry, creameries, jobbing houses, etc. A large 
denominational school, private school and unsur- 
passed public school. Two parks. Some of the finest 
homes in South Texas. Daily newspaper, The Ad- 
vocate; four weekly newspapers, The Advocate, The 
Fact, The Deutsche Zeitung (German) and The 
Guard (colored). Shipments, corn, cotton, manu- 
factured products, merchandise to surrounding 
points for which it is a distributing center. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

VOTH — Jefferson County; pop., 500. Nine miles 
from Beaumont, the county seat and banking point, 
on the T. & N. O. and the G. C. & S. F. Ry., and 
on the Pine Island Bayou. Tel., W. U. Express. 



WACO — McLennan County seat; pop., 55,000; alt., 
424 ft. Waco is the geographical center of Texas, 
as well as the center of population, on the M. K. & 
T., the I. & G. N., the H. & T. C, the St. L. & S. W., 
the G. C. & S. Fe, the S. A. & A. P., and the T. C. 
Rys, and also an interurban line between Waco 
and Dallas, on the Brazos River. Banks, Central 
Nat'l, Citizens Nat'l, Farmers Improvement Bank, 
First Nat'l, First State Bank & Trust Co., Liberty 
Nat'l, Nat'l City Bank, Provident Nat'l, Waco Sav- 
ings, Waco State, National Exchange Insurance & 
Trust Co., Robert O. Silvers & Co. (investment and 
securities), and the Waco Clearing House Associa- 
tion. Hotels, Brazos, Densmore, Exchange, Katy, 
Metropole, Natatorium, Raleigh, St. Charles, Savoy, 
State, Terminal, Tietz, Waco, Waverly. 

As Waco is the center of population for the state 
of Texas, she can reach more people at a lower 
freight rate than any other city in the state as a 
jobbing point. The environment is famed as one of 
the most productively agricultural sections in the 
world; cotton is the chief product. Waco is the 
center for wholesale dealers of all kinds. The city 
is noted for its many ward parks maintained by the 
city; one of the leading universities in the South, 
known as Baylor University, is located here, as are 
also St. Basil's College for Boys, Academy of the 
Sacred Heart, Hill's Practical College, Toby's Prac- 
tical Business College as well as a score of smaller 
private schools. Here the two colleges for negroes, 
Paul Quinn College, supported by the Methodists, 
and Central Texas College, supported by the Bap- 
tists. Has a public library, Y. M. C. A. Manufac- 
turers are extensive and numerous, including cotton 
seed oil, sash and doors, bank and store fixtures, 
mattresses, clothing, welding machinery, structural 
iron, boilers, brick, cement, stone, wood and metal 
preserver, iceless refrigerators, gas lighting plants. 
Waco is in the forefront in municipal activities. 
Tel., Mackay, Postal, W. U. Express. 

WAELDER— Gonzales County; pop., 894; alt., 372 
ft. 17 miles north of Gonzales, the county seat, 
and 78 miles east of San Antonio, on the G. H. & 
S. A. Ry. Bank, Farmers' State. Hotels, Commer- 
cial, Waelder. Weekly newspaper, The New Era. 
Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WALBURG— Williamson County; pop., 200. 11 
miles from Georgetown, the county seat, and ship- 
ping point. Bank, Walburg State. Telephone con- 
nections. 

WALLER— Waller County; pop., 450. Nine miles 
southeast of Hempstead, the county seat, on the H. 
& T. C. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

WALLIS — Austin County; pop., 675. 45 miles 
west of Houston, at the junction of the S. A. & A. P. 
and the G. C. & S. F. Rys. Banks, Guaranty State, 
Wallis State. Is center of a rich farming section. 
Shipments, live stock, cotton and produce. "Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

WALNUT SPRINGS— Bosque County; pop., 
1,449; alt., 790 ft. 68 miles south of Ft. Worth and 
92 miles southwest of Dallas, 18 miles northwest 
of Meridian, the county seat, on the T. C. Ry. Banks, 
First Guaranty State. Hotels, Aycock, Commercial. 
Texas Central Ry. shops are located here. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

WASKOM — Harrison County; pop., 204. 20 miles 
from Marshall, the county seat, on the T. & P. and 



163 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



the M. K. & T. Rys. Bank, Guaranty State. Ex- 
press and telephone connections. 

WAXAHACHIE — Ellis County seat; pop., 7,958; 
alt., 515 ft. 31 miles south of Dallas, 41 miles south- 
east of Ft. Worth, on the H. & T. C, M. K. & T., 
and the T. & B. V. Rys., and on the Southern Trac- 
tion Co.'s Interurhan. Banks, Citizens Nat'l, Guar- 
anty State Bank & Trust Co., Waxahachie Nat'l, 
Texas Title & Loan Co. Hotel, Rogers. Trinity 
University is located here. Has a Carnegie Library. 
Cotton oil mills, cotton gins, cotton compress, cotton 
mill, flour mill, creamery, etc. Two daily news- 
papers, The Light and The Enterprise, and two week- 
lies, The Enterprise and The Herald. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

WAYLAND— Stephens County; pop., 250. 13 
miles from Breckenridge, the county seat, and 18 
miles from Eastland, the usual shipping point. 
Banks, First Guaranty State. First Nat'l. Tele- 
phone connections. 

WEATHERFORD— Judicial seat of Parker Coun- 
ty; pop., 6,203; alt., 864 ft. 31 miles west of Ft. 
Worth on the T. & P., the G. C. & S. F., the G. T. 
& W. and the W. M. W. & N. W. Rys. Banks, Citi- 
zens' Nat'l, First Nat'l, First State, Merchants' & 
"Farmers' State. 

WE'MAR- Colorado County; pop., 1,171; alt., 413 
ft. 16 miles west of Columbus, the county seat, and 
95 miles from Houston on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. 
(S. P. System). Banks, First State, T. A. Hill State. 
Hotel, New Jackson. Industries, cotton and dairy 
products. Weekly newspaper, The Mercury. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

WEINERT— Haskell County; pop., 472. 15 miles 
from Haskell, the county seat, on the W. V. Ry. 
Bank, Weinert State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WEIR— Williamson County; pop., 300. 5V 2 miles 
northeast of Georgetown, the county seat, on the 
M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, Weir State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

WELCOME— Austin County; pop., 200; 18 miles 
northwest of Bellville, the county seat, and 14 miles 
from New Ulm, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
P'irst State. Telephone connection. 

WELDON— Houston County; pop., 200. 24 miles 
from Crockett, the county seat. Bank, First Guar- 
anty State. Express and telephone connections. 

WELLINGTON— Collingsworth County seat; pop., 
1,968; 57 miles north of Altus on the W. F. & N. W. 
Ry. Banks, City Nat'l, First Nat'l, Wellington 
State. Newspaper, The Wellington Leader. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

WELLS — Cherokee County; pop., 500. 28 miles 
from Rusk, the county seat, on the St. L. S. W. Ry. 
Bank, Guaranty State. Express and telephone con- 
nections. 

WESLACO— Hidalgo County; pop., 2,500; on St. 
L. B. & M. Ry. Banks, Guaranty State, First Nat'l. 

WEST— McLennan County; pop., 1,629; alt., 645 
ft. 18 miles north of Waco, the county seat, on the 
M.-K.-T. Ry. Banks, First State, National Bank of 
West, West State. Hotel, West Hotel. Industry 
cotton. Two weekly newspapers. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

WEST COLUMBIA— Brazoria County; pop., 1,000. 
Two miles from Columbia, the shipping point, 12 
miles from Angleton, the county seat. Banks, First 
Capitol State. Mail daily. 



WESTHOFF— Dewitt County; pop., 500. 14 miles 
from Cuero, the county seat, on the G. H. & S. A. 
Ry. Newspaper, express and telephone connections. 
WESTMINSTER— Collin County; pop., 631. 20 
miles northeast of McKinney, the county seat, 6 
miles from Anna, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
First State. Telephone connection. 

WESTON— Collin County; pop., 316. 14 miles 
north of McKinney, the county seat, and shipping 
point. Bank, Weston Guaranty State. Industry, 
cotton. Telephone connection. 

WESTOVER— Baylor County; pop., 300. 18 miles 
from Seymour, the county seat, and 7 miles from . 
Megargle, on the G. T. & W. Ry. Bank, Westover 
State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WHARTON— Judicial seat of Wharton County; 
pop., 2,346; alt., 60 ft. 62 miles southwest of Hous- 
ton, on the G. H. & S. A., the G. C. & S. F. Rys. 
Banks, Security Bank & Trust Co., Wharton Bank 
& Trust Co. Hotels, Nation, Plaza, Wharton. Is in 
the center of Caney Valley, which is about ten miles 
wide and fifty miles long, with soil exceptionally 
adapted to growing of alfalfa, corn, sugar cane, etc. 
Industry, cotton, sugar and syrup manufacturing, 
feedstuff, hogs. Has a hospital and weekly news- 
paper, The Spectator. Tel, and express. 

WHEELER— Judicial seat of Wheeler County; 
pop., 200. 18 miles north of Shamrock, the nearest 
shipping point. Banks, Citizens' State, First Nat'l. 
Newspaper. Telephone connections. 

WHITE DEER— Carson County; pop., 200. 14 
miles from Panhandle, the county seat, on the A. T. 
& S. F. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, First State. Ex- 
press and telephone connections. 

WHITEHOUSE— Smith County; pop., 150. Ten 
miles from Tyler, the county seat, on the I. & G. 
N. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Industry, cotton. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

WHITESBORO— Grayson County; pop., 1,810; 
alt., 784 ft. 18 miles west of Sherman, the county 
seat, on the M. K. & T. and the T. & P. Rys. Banks, 
City Nat'l, Guaranty State, First Nat'l. Hotels, 
Commercial, El Paso, Imperial, White, Warmack. 
Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WHITEWRIGHT— Grayson County; pop., 1,666; 
alt., 651 ft. 21 miles southwest of Denison and 17 
miles from Sherman, the county seat, on the M. K. 
& T. and St. L. S. W. Rys. Banks, First Nat'l, 
Planters' Nat'l. Hotels, Brickleade, Payne. Ship- 
ments, grain, cotton, live stock and cotton seed 
products. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WHITNEY— Hill County; pop., 1,011; alt., 630 
ft. 12 miles southwest of Hillsboro, the county seat, 
on the T. C. Ry. Banks, Citizens Nat'l, First Nat'l. 
Hotels, Faulkner, Walker. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

WHITT — Parker County; pop., 350. 20 miles 
from Weatherford, the county seat, and 8 miles from 
Perrin, its shipping point. Bank, Whitt State. Tel- 
ephone connection. 

WICHITA FALLS— Judicial seat of Wichita 
County; pop., 40,079; alt., 946 ft. 114 miles north- 
west of Ft. Worth and 158 miles southwest of Okla- 
homa City, on the main line of the Ft. W. & D. C, 
the W. V., the W. F. & N. W., the W. F. & S., the 
W. F. & O. and the M.-K.-T. Rys. Banks, City Nat'l, 
Empire Mortgage Co., First National, Security 



164 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



Nat'l, State Trust Co., Wichita State Bank & Trust 
Co. Hotels, American, Argonne, Eldora, Hearn, 
Kemp, Marion, St. James, Westland, William Mary, 
Wood. 

WILDORADO— Oldham County; pop., 75. 25 
miles from Tascosa, the county seat, on the C. R. I. 
& G. Ry. Bank, Wildorado State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

WILLARD— Trinity County; pop., 700. About I 
miles east of Groveton, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 

WILLIS — Montgomery County; pop., 900. Eight 
miles from Conroe, the county seat, on the I. & 
G. N. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Two cotton erins. 
planing mill and a newspaper. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

WILLS POINT— Van Zandt County; pop., 1,811; 
alt., 524 ft. 46 miles east of Dallas, on the M. K. 
& T. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, First State, Van Zandt 
County Nat'l. Hotels, Peace, Wills Point. Industry, 
cotton. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WILMER— Dallas County; pop., 250. 15 miles 
southeast of Dallas, the county seat, on the H. & 
T. C. Ry. Bank, White Banking Co. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

WILSON — Lynn County; pop., 20. Ten miles 
from Tahoka, the county seat, on the P. & N. T. Ry. 
Bank, Wilson State. Telephone connection. 

WINCHESTER— Fayette County; pop., 300. 18 
miles from La Grange, the county seat, on the S. A. 
& A. P. Ry. Bank, Winchester State. Industry, 
cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WINDOM— Fannin County; pop., 312. 11 miles 
from Bonham, the county seat, on the T. & P. Ry. 
Bank, Guaranty State. Weekly newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

WINDTHORST— Archer County; pop., 600. 12 
miles from Archer City, the county seat, and 7 miles 
from Scotland, the nearest banking and shipping 
point. Mail daily. 

WINFIELD— Titus County; pop., 629. Nine miles 
west of Mt. Pleasant, the county seat, on the St. 
L. S. W. Ry. Bank, First Nat'l. Industry, cotton. 
Has pottery and brick works and a weekly news- 
paper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WINGATE— Runnels County; pop., 150. 12 miles 
from Winters, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
Security Bank. Mail daily. 

WINNIE— Chambers County; pop., 200. 20 miles 
from Anahuac, the county seat. Bank, Farmers' & 
Merchants' State. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

WINNSBORO— Wood County; pop., 2,184; alt., 
420 ft. 15 miles northeast of Quitman, the county 
seat and 108 miles east of Dallas, on the M. K. & 
T. and the M. & E. T. Rys. Banks, First Nat'l, Mer- 
chants' & Planters' State. Hotels, Moore, Palmer, 
Shock. Has free library, ice plant, three potteries, 
brick works, cotton gins and oil mill, planing mill, 
canning factory and two weekly newspapers, The 
Free Press and The News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WINONA— Smith County; pop., 400; alt., 321 ft. 
14 miles from Tyler, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
W. Ry. Bank, Winona State. Hotel, Allen. News- 
paper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WINTERS— Runnels County; pop., 1,509; alt., 
1,600 ft. 15 miles north of Ballinger, the county 
seat, on the Abilene and Southern Ry. Banks, First 
Nat'l, Winters State. Industry, cotton and live 



stock. Weekly newspaper, The Enterprise. Ship- 
ments, cotton, grain and live stock. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

WOLFE CITY— Hunt County; pop., 1,850. 18 
miles north of Greenville, the county seat and 60 
miles northeast of Dallas, on the G. C. & S. F. and 
the St. L. S. W. Rys. Banks, First State, Wolfe 
City Nat'l. Hotels, Davis, Sellers. Weekly news- 
paper, The Wolfe City Sun. Shipments, cotton, 
grain, cotton oil products. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WOODSBORO— Refugio County; pop., 250. Six 
miles from Refugio, the county seat, on the St. L. 
B. & M. Ry. Bank, First Nat'l. Newspaper, The 
News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WOODSON— Throckmorton County; pop., 150. 15 
miles from Throckmorton, the county seat, and 30 
miles from Albany, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
Woodson State. Weekly newspaper, The Record. 
Express and telephone connections. 

WOODVILLE— Judicial seat of Tyler County; 
pop., 785. 55 miles from Beaumont, on the T. & 
N. O. Ry. Banks, Guaranty State, Citizens State. 
Has newspaper. Industry, lumber and cotton. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

WORTHAM— .Freestone County; pop., 4,000; alt., 
482 ft. 20 miles west of Fairfield, the county seat, 
and 89 miles south of Dallas, on the H. & T. C. Ry. 
Banks, First Nat'l, First State. Industry, oil and 
cotton. Weekly newspaper, The Wortham Journal. 

WYLIE— Collin County; pop., 945; alt., 422 ft. 
15 miles south of McKinney, the county seat, and 25, 
miles northeast of Dallas, on the G. C. & S. F. and 
the St. L. & S. W. Rys. Banks, Wylie Nat'l, First 
State. Hotels, Christensen, Neilay. Industry, cot- 
ton. Weekly newspaper, The Rustler. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

YANTIS— Wood County; pop., 400. 12 miles from 
Quitman, the county seat. Bank, Yantis State. 
Telephone connection. 

YOAKUM — Dewitt and Lavaca Counties; pop., 
6,184; alt., 322 ft. On the S. A. & A. P. Ry., about 
70 miles east of San Antonio, in an agricultural ter- 
ritory unsurpassed anywhere in the state of Texas. 
Banks, Farmers & Merchants State, Yoakum Nat'l, 
Yoakum State. Hotel, St. Regis. Crops, cotton, 
corn, sorghum, milo maize, kaffir corn. Dairying 
is a leading industry. Has the largest turkey 
slaughtering plant in the state, and is considered the 
largest turkey market in the South. S. A. & A. P. 
Ry. shops are here. Is a trading and manufactur- 
ing center in the southwestern part of the state, 
for a large territory. Is the home of the South 
Texas Annual Fair; has two daily and one weekly 
newspapers, The Times and The Herald. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

YORKTOWN— Dewitt County; pop., 1,723; alt., 
270 ft. 15 miles west of Cuero, the county seat, 
151 miles southwest of Houston, on the S. A. & A. 
P. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l, First State. Hotels, 
Cooper, Two Sisters. Weekly newspaper, The News. 
City conveniences. Is in a rich farming country. 
Shipment, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ZAVALLA — Angelina County; pop., 150. 22 miles 
southeast of Lufkin, the county seat, on the T. & N. 
O. Rv. Bank, Zavalla State. Telephone connection. 

ZEPHYR— Brown County; pop., 600; alt., 1,501 
ft. 14 miles from Brownwood, the county seat, on 
the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Bank, First State. Hotel, 
City. Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 



165 



COUNTIES 



ANDERSON COUNTY — Palestine, county seat; 
area. 1.060 square miles; pop., 34,318; situated south- 
east of Dallas in east Texas, between the Trinity 
and Nueces Rivers; created in 1846. Surface, hilly 
and rolling; soil, sandy and light loam. Industries, 
principally agricultural; still some lumber. Prod- 
ucts: Cotton, corn, small grains, tobacco, peaches, 
plums, summer grapes and all kinds of small fruits 
and vegetables. Transportation, three railways, I. & 
G. N., T. & N. O. and the Texas State. Mineral 
resources: Large deposits of iron ore, lignite, salt, 
fire and brick clay, limestone and building stones. 
Public highways being rapidly improved. Principal 
towns, Elkhart, Frankston, Neches, Salt City and 
Herring. 

ANDREWS COUNTY — Andrews, county seat; 
area, 1,591 square miles; pop., 350; situated at the 
foot of the Staked Plains and borders New Mexico 
on the west; created 1876. Surface, rolling prairies, 
broken occasionally by draws and canyons; soil, 
rich and highly productive of luxuriant grasses. 
Industries, principally live stock, but some farming. 
No railroad at present, but one under survey. Near- 
est railroad stations are Midland, Midland County, 
and Lamesa, Dawson County. 

ANGELINA COUNTY— Lufkin, county seat; 
area, 880 square miles; pop., 22,287; situated in the 
east Texas timber belt, on the Neches River which 
bounds it on the west; created in 1846. Products > 
cotton and corn, ribbon cane, sweet potatoes, pea- 
nuts, Irish potatoes, all kinds of vegetables and 
many varieties of fruits. Excellent transportation 
provided by the Houston East & West Texas, St. 
Louis Southwestern, Groveton, Lufkin and Northern, 
Eastern Texas, T. & N. 0., Texas Southeastern, 
Angelina & Neches Rivers and Shreveport, Hous- 
ton and Gulf Rys. Natural resources, brick clay, 
oil. Principal towns, Huntington, Burke, Zavalla, 
Diboll and Pollak. 

ARANSAS COUNTY— Rockport, county seat; 
area, 295 square miles; pop., 2,064; a gulf coast 
county, lying midway between Galveston and 
Brownsville; created in 1871 from Refugio County. 
Surfaces, generally level; soil, very productive for 
general farming, truck and fruit growing. Indus- 
tries, fish and oyster business, dairying and live 
stock growing, trucking. Products, early truck, fish 
and oysters, dairy products. Transportation, the 
S. A. & A. P. Ry. Principal towns, Aransas City, 
prominent as a deep water port. 

ARCHER COUNTY— Archer City, county seat; 
area, 960 square miles; pop., 5,254; situated north- 
west of Ft. Worth, one county removed from the 
Red River; created in 1858 from Clay County and 
organized in 1880. Products, cotton, corn, wheat, 
all kinds of feedstuffs, fruits, including apples, 
grapes, peaches, plums and berries, vegetables of 
every variety, live stock. Transportation, South- 
western, Wichita Valley, Wichita Falls and South- 
ern and Gulf, Texas & Western Rys. Mineral re- 
sources, copper nuggets and copperized clay, and 
brick clay. Principal towns, Mergargel, Dundee, Hol- 
liday, Scotland and Windthorst. 

ARMSTRONG COUNTY— Claude, county seat; 
area, 870 square miles; pop., 2,816; situated in the 
Panhandle, east of Amarillo, created in 1876, or- 
ganized in 1890. Surface, level with exception of 



the broken lands in the vicinity of the canyons. 
Soils, sandy loam variety. Industries, live stock — 
Herefords, Polled Angus and other breeds of beef 
cattle — and some farming. Products, wheat, flax 
and broom corn, all varieties of feedstuffs, apples, 
grapes, peaches, pears, plums and small fruits as 
well as many varieties of vegetables. 

ATASCOSA COUNTY— Jourdanton, county seat; 
area, 1,132 square miles; pop., 12,702; situated in 
southwest Texas, south of Bexar County; created 
in 1858. Soil, sandy loam. Industries, bee-keeping, 
agricultural and horticultural interests, but live 
stock raising leads. Products, honey, fruits, vege- 
tables. Transportation, Artesian Belt, I. & G. N., 
S. A. U. & G. Rys. Principal towns, Pleasanton, 
Imonge, Christine, Campbellton and Lytle. 

AUSTIN COUNTY— Bellville county seat; area, 
712 square miles; pop., 18,874; situated a little 
northwest of Houston, and two counties removed 
from the gulf; created, 1836. Surface, central and 
western portions, rolling, southern portion almost 
level, watered by the Guadalupe, Colorado, San 
Bernard and Brazos Rivers. Soil, dark, reddish- 
brown, very fertile, light and dark sandy loam, 
black loam and waxy soils. Agricultural, horticul- 
tural and live stock industries. Products, beef, cat- 
tle, hogs, mules, horses, dairy products, cotton and 
corn, truck and fruits, pecans. Railways, G. C. & 
S. F., M.-K.-T., S. A. & A. P. and Cane Belt. 
Mineral resources, brick and tile clays. 

BAILEY COUNTY— Area, 1,000 square miles; 
pop., 517; situated in the plains country of Texas, 
bordering New Mexico; created from Bexar County 
in 1876 but is still unorganized, hence no county 
seat. Surface, almost level plain, with wide shal- 
low valleys; soil, dark sandy loam. Industries, live 
stock principally, though some agricultural interests; 
products, kaffir corn, sorghum and other feedstuffs, 
fruits and vegetables. Transportation, the G. C. 
& S. Fe Ry., crosses the county. 

BANDERA COUNTY— Bandera county seat; 
area, 822 square miles; pop., 4,001; situated in 
southwest Texas, created in 1856. Surface, moun- 
tainous; soil, upland portions hog wallow and loam; 
river valley, rich sandy loam. Industries, live stock 
leads, with agricultural interests second. Products, 
cotton, wheat, corn, oats, sugar cane and hay and 
fruits. Poultry interest beginning. No railroads. 
Medina is another town in this county. 

BASTROP COUNTY— County seat, Bastrop; area, 
881 square miles; pop., 26,649; situated in south- 
west Texas; created in 1837. Surface, generally roll- 
ing; soil, rich alluvial, sandy loams, black clays. 
Industries, stock raising, farming, and poultry. 
Products, cotton, corn, small grains, fruits, vege- 
tables, dairy products. Transportation, M. K. & T. 
and the H. & T. C. Rys. Mineral resources, coal, 
brick, pottery, clay, oil and gas. Principal towns, 
Elgin, McDade, Paige, Redrock, Upton and Ro- 
sanky. 

BAYLOR COUNTY— Seymour, county seat; area, 
957 square miles; pop., 7,027; situated in northwest 
Texas, created in 1879. Surface, generally level, 
slightly undulating; soil, dark sandy loam. Indus- 
tries, live stock raising, diversified farming and 
poultry. Products, fine cattle, horses, sheep, hogs, 
cotton, oats, wheat, kaffir corn, corn, milo maize. 



166 



COUNTIES 



Mineral resources, building stone. Excellent high- 
ways. Principal town, Biomarton. Transportation, 
the Wichita Valley and the Gulf, Texas and West- 
ern railroads. 

BEE COUNTY — Beeville, the county seat; area, 
875 square miles; pop., 12,137; situated in south- 
west Texas in the coastal plains, created 1857. Sur- 
face, level, with general slope to the coast. Indus- 
tries, bee keeping, stock raising, fruit and truck 
industries increasing, especially the citrus fruits. 
Products, cotton, fruit, truck, honey. Naturally 
good highways. Transportation, S. A. & A. P. 
and the G. H. & S. A. Rys. Principal towns, Skid- 
more, Papalote and Normania. 

BELL COUNTY— County seat, Belton; area, 
1,091 square miles; pop., 46,412; located in south 
central Texas, created in 1850. Surface, eastern 
portion level, central and western portions hilly, 
broken by many streams and valleys. Soils, black 
waxy, sandy loam. Industries, stock raising with 
emphasis on breeding of fine stock, diversified farm- 
ing, apiculture. Products, hogs, beef cattle, sheep 
and goats, dairy products and honey. Transporta- 
tion, G. C. & S. Fe, M. K. & T., Belton-Temple 
Electric, Temple & Northwestern and Gulf Rys. 
Mineral resources, white limestone in large quan- 
tities, oil and gas indications. Principal towns, 
Killeen, Bartlett, Rogers, Holland, Troy, Pendleton, 
Salado, Nolanville, Moffat, Seaton, Prairie Dell, 
Summer's Mill, Cyclone and Youngsport, with Tem- 
ple as the leader. 

BEXAR COUNTY— County seat and chief city, 
San Antonio; area, 1,268 square miles; pop., 275,000; 
located in southwest Texas, created in 1837 as one 
of the original counties of the state. Surface roll- 
ing, some sections hilly and rough; soil, black waxy 
to chocolate loam with clay subsoil. Industries, di- 
versified farming supplemented with stock raising 
on farms as leading rural industry, dairying leads 
in vicinity of San Antonio, poultry and bee raising. 
Products, dairy products, live stock, poultry and 
honey. Transportation, S. A. & A. P., M. K. & T., 
G. H. & S. A., I. & G. N., Artesian Belt, and San 
Antonio, Uvalde and Gulf Rys. Mineral resources, 
brick clay, some oil. Abounds in most excellent 
highways. Principal towns, Adkins, Saunders, Mar- 
tiniz, Kirby, Converse, Westmore, Fratt, Adams, 
Elmendorf, Bergs, Hellemans, Heafer, Withers, 
Macedonia, Kirk, Leon Springs, Viva, Robards, Onga 
and Grace. 

BLANCO COUNTY— County seat, Johnson City; 
area, 762 square miles, pop., 4,068; situated in the 
south center of the state, west of Austin, created 
in 1858. Surface, mountainous with wide fertile 
valleys; industries, live stock raising, farming. 
Products, cattle, vegetables, melons, fruits, cotton, 
corn, oats, rye, barley. No railroads. Blanco is 
another town of the county. 

BORDEN COUNTY— Gail county seat; area, 892 
square miles; pop., 965; situated in west Texas, 
created in 1876. Surface, generally rolling, broken 
along waterways. Industries, cattle raising, and 
production of feedstuffs. Products, all kinds of 
feedstuffs, cattle, some fruits. No railroads. Prin- 
cipal towns, Durham, Treadway. 

BOSQUE COUNTY— County seat, Meridian; 
area, 972 square miles; pop., 18,032; situated in 
north central Texas, created in 1854. Surface, di- 
versified; soil, alluvial in the valleys. Industries, 



farming and live stock raising; products, cotton, 
grains, feedstuffs. Transportation, G. C. & S. Fe, 
and the T. C. Rys. Principal towns, Walnut Springs, 
Clifton, Iredell, Morgan and Valley Mills. 

BOWIE COUNTY— County seat, Boston; area, 
904 square miles; pop., 39,472; situated in the north- 
east corner of the state, created in 1840. Products, 
lumber, cotton, corn, peanuts, hay, peaches, apples, 
pears, strawberries, figs, live stock, poultry prod- 
ucts. Transportation, T. & P., S. L. S. W., K. C. 
So., and the North Texas Rys. 

BRAZORIA COUNTY— County seat, Angleton; 
area, 1,438 square miles; pop., 20,614; situated on 
the gulf coast, bordering Galveston County on the 
east; created in 1836 as one of Texas' original 
counties. Surface, level, very gradual slope to the 
gulf; heavily timbered with hardwoods; rich black 
loam with some sand, bottom lands, rich alluvial. 
Industries, truck, live stock, oil, sugar. Products, 
cotton, sugar cane, corn, rice, syrup, all kinds of 
vegetables and fruits, sugar. Transportation, G. C. 
& S. Fe, St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico, I. & G. N., 
H. & B. V., and the State Farm Rys. Mineral 
reseurces, large sulphur deposits, oil. Principal 
towns, Alvin, Brazoria, Columbia, Sandy Point, 
Quintana, Freeport, Danbury. 

BRAZOS COUNTY— County seat, Bryan; area, 
510 square miles; pop., 21,975; located in south 
Texas, created in 1841. Industries, agricultural, 
stock raising, poultry and bee-keeping. Products, 
cotton, corn, grains and feedstuffs, hogs, cattle, 
poultry products and honey. Transportation, I. & 
G. N., H. & T. C, G. C. & S. Fe, and Hearne & 
Brazos Valley Rys., with an interurban line. Prin- 
cipal towns, Wellborn, College Station, Steele's 
Store, Harvey, Kurten and Edge. 

BREWSTER COUNTY— County seat, Alpine; 
area, 5,006 square miles, pop., 4,822; located in 
southwest Texas, bordering the Rio Grande; created 
in 1887. Surface, mountainous; soil, in the valleys, 
rich. Industries, mining, stock raising, some truck 
gardening under irrigation. Products, quicksilver 
(has one of the largest quicksilver mines in Amer- 
ica), iron, lead, copper, marble, apples, peaches, 
plums, apricots, honey, alfalfa and truck products. 
Transportation, G. H. & S. A., Kansas City, Mexico 
& Orient Rys. 

BRISCOE COUNTY— County seat, Silverton; 
area, 850 square miles; pop., 2,948; situated in the 
Panhandle, created 1876, organized 1892. Surface, 
slightly rolling, some broken and rough; soil from 
dark to chocolate loam, some sandy loams. Indus- 
tries, stock raising, diversified farming, some fruit 
raising. Products, cotton, wheat, alfalfa, kaffir 
corn, millet, etc. 

BROOKS COUNTY— County seat. Falfurrias; 
area, 912 square miles; pop., 4,560; located in south- 
west Texas, created in 1911. Surface, gently roll- 
ing; covered with mesquite growth; soil, sandy loam 
variety. Industries, live stock raising, dairying, 
trucking. Products, cattle, cotton, various kinds of 
feedstuffs. Transportation, S. A. & A. P. Ry. 

BROWN COUNTY— County seat, Brownwood; 
area, 911 square miles; pop., 21,682; situated in 
central west Texas; created in 1856, organized 1857. 
Products, cotton, wheat, barley, milo maize, corn 
and kaffir corn, forage products, sweet potatoes, 
Irish potatoes, truck, peaches, grapes, figs, plums 
and apples, limestone for local use. Transportation, 



167 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



G. C. & S. Fe, F. W. & R. G., and Brownwood North 
and South Rys. Mineral resources, limestone for 
local use, brick clay. Good roads, improvements 
under construction. Principal towns, Blanket, 
Winchell, May, Zephyr, Brooksmith. 

BURLESON COUNTY— County seat, Caldwell; 
area. 677 square miles; pop., 16,855; situated in cen- 
tral Texas; created, 1846. Surface, level; soil, dark 
loam, reddish brown alluvial. Industries, farming, 
live stock raising, fruit growing. Products, cotton, 
corn, grain forage crops, potatoes, truck, peaches, 
pears, grapes for home use. Transportation, G. C. 
& S. Fe and the H. & T. C. Mineral resources, 
lignite, brick clay. Principal towns, Somerville, 
Lyons, Deanville and Chriesman. 

BURNET COUNTY — County seat, Burnet; area, 
1.010 square miles; pop., 9,499; situated near the 
geographical center of the state, northwest of Aus- 
tin f created in 1852, organized 1858. Surface, moun- 
tainous and rolling, except in eastern portion, level 
prairies; soil, black waxy, sandy and red. Indus- 
tries, live stock raising, farming, fruit raising, poul- 
try raising, mining. 

CALDWELL COUNTY— County seat, Lockhart; 
area, 530 square miles; pop., 25,160; situated in 
south central Texas, one county south of Travis; 
created in 1848, organized in 1858. Surface, gen- 
erally level; soils, rich black waxy prairie land on 
the north and west, sand loam on the east, alluvial 
soils on the bottoms. Well timbered; watered by 
the San Marcos River and tributary streams. In- 
dustries, stock raising, farming. Products, cattle, 
cotton, corn, oats, barley, sorghum and hay, sweet 
and Irish potatoes, melons, all kinds of vegetables, 
grapes, peaches, and various other fruits. Trans- 
portation, M. K. & T., G. H. & S. A. and the S. A. 
& A. P. Rys. Natural resources, iron ore, building 
stone. Principal towns, Maxwell, Luling, Reedville, 
Mendoza, Dale and Fentress. 

CALHOUN COUNTY— County seat, Port Lavaca; 
area, 592 square miles; pop., 4,700; situated on the 
gulf coast, southeast of San Antonio; created and 
organized in 1846. Surface, level, sloping gradually 
to the coast, drained by the Guadalupe River and 
numerous tributaries. Soil, deep black waxy, sandy 
and chocolate loam, some black sand. 

CALLAHAN COUNTY— County seat, Baird; 
area, 882 square miles; pop., 11,844; situated in cen- 
tral west Texas, a little north of center; created, 
1858, organized, 1877. Surface, generally rolling; 
soils, light sandy to a dark loam, very fertile. In- 
dustries, live stock leads, agricultural and horticul- 
tural beginning. Products, cattle, poultry, peaches, 
plums and grapes are shipped to outside markets. 
Transportation, T. & P., and the T. C. Rys. Other 
leading towns, Cross Plains, Clyde, Putnam, Cot- 
tonwood, Eagle Cove and Eula. 

CAMERON COUNTY— County seat, Brownsville; 
area, 671 square miles; pop., 36,662; located in the 
extreme southern point of Texas, bounded by the 
Gulf of Mexico on the east and by the Rio Grande 
River on the south; created in 1848. Industries, 
stock raising, and farming, especially truck grow- 
ing. Products, cotton, onions, cabbage, every kind 
of truck product for the earliest markets, sugar 
cane, figs, citrus fruits, dates, — subtropical fruits 
abound. Transportation, St. L. B. & M., R. G. & 
S. B. and the Rio Grande Interurban Rys. Natural 
resources, brick clay. Leading towns besides 



Brownsville are San Benito, Harlingen, Raymond- 
ville. 

CAMP COUNTY — County seat, Pittsburg; area, 
217 square miles; pop., 11,103; located in northeast 
Texas; created and organized in 1874. Surface, 
hilly, with some level lands and valleys. Soil, mostly 
sandy loam. Industries, agricultural and live stock, 
poultry, fruit growing. Products, cotton, corn, 
small grains, the Elberta peach, grapes, plums, 
strawberries, cantaloupes, melons, coal. Transporta- 
tion, M. K. & T. and the St. L. S. W. Rys. Mineral 
resources, lignite coal, iron ore, shale and potter's 
clay. Other leading towns, Leesburg, Newsome, 
Pine and Mattinburg. 

CARSON COUNTY— County seat, Panhandle; 
area, 860 square miles; pop., 3,078; situated in the 
central Panhandle; created, 1876; organized, 1888. 
Surface mostly level prairie; soil, largely dark heavy 
loam. Industries, live stock farming. Products, 
cattle, wheat, oats, barley, rye, corn, cane, kaffir 
corn, maize, peaches, grapes, plums and apples. 
CASS COUNTY— County seat, Linden; area, 945 
square miles; pop., 30,041; situated in northeast 
Texas, bordering Louisiana, and one county removed 
from the Red River; created and organized, 1846. 
Surface, level and undulating, in some places broken 
by low hills; soil, a productive gray loam inter- 
spersed with a small proportion of red sandy land. 
Industries, farming, live stock raising, bee and hon- 
ey industry. Products, ribbon cane, fruits, truck, 
peanuts and forage crops, honey. Transportation, 
T. & P., M. K. & T., K. C. S., St. L. S. W. and the 
Jefferson and Northern Rys. Mineral resources, 
iron ore, gas and oil. Other leading towns, Atlanta, 
Hughes Springs, Queen City, Blumberg. 

CASTRO COUNTY— County seat, Dimmitt; area, 
870 square miles; pop., 1,948; situated in the plains 
country; created in 1876 from Bexar County, organ- 
ized in 1891. Surface, rolling, nearly level; soils, 
mostly sandy loam, some black land. Industries, live 
stock, small truck, dry farming. 

CHAMBERS COUNTY— County seat, Anahuac; 
area, 648 square miles; pop., 4,162; located on the 
Gulf Coast, one county removed from Louisiana; 
created and organized in 1858. Surface, level with 
general slope towards Galveston Bay. Soil, dark 
sandy loam. Heavily indented with bays, traversed 
by the Trinity River; much timber. Industries, 
truck growing, rice industry. 

CHEROKEE COUNTY— County seat, Rusk; area, 
990 square miles; pop., 37,633; centrally located in 
East Texas; created in 1846. Surface, broken, in 
some places the hills approaching the dignity of 
mountains; Neches River forms the western bound- 
ary, the Angelina River the eastern boundary for 
30 miles. Soils, chocolate predominates, in upland, 
with stiff black and sandy land in valleys. Indus- 
tries, fruit, truck, lumber, farming. Products, 
peaches, plums, apricots, tomatoes, pine, hardwood, 
cotton, corn, grains, dairy products. Transportation, 
St. L. S. W., T. & N. O., I. & G. N., and the Texas 
Sate Rys. Mineral resources, iron, brown sand- 
stone, valuable clays. Other important towns, Alto, 
Dialville, Mount Selman, Ponta, Maydelle, Gallatin. 
CHILDRESS COUNTY— County seat, Childress; 
area, 660 square miles; pop., 10,933; located in the 
southeast corner of the Panhandle; created in 1876, 
organized, 1887. Surface rolling, with broad val- 
leys along the water courses; the Red River crosses 



168 



COUNTIES 



the county, the Pease River borders on the south. 
Soil in the eastern portion, dark sandy loam; re- 
mainder of the land is more or less sandy, varying 
from dark to chocolate in color. Industries, stock 
raising, farming. Products, cattle, horses, wheat, 
oats, corn, alfalfa, and other forage crops, peaches, 
apples, plums, berries, melons and vegetables. 
Transportation, Ft. W. & D. C. Ry. Mineral re- 
sources, gypsum, brick clay. Other important towns, 
Kirkland and Carey. 

CLAY COUNTY— County seat, Henrietta; area, 
1,250 square miles; pop., 16,864; situated in North 
Texas, bordering the Red River on the north; 
created in 1857, organized in 1873. Industries, oil, 
gas, live stock farming. Products, gas to Ft. Worth 
and Dallas and intermediate points, oil, cattle, cot- 
ton, corn, wheat and oats, fruits for local use. 
Transportation, Ft. W. & D. C. Ry. Mineral re- 
sources, gas, oil, shale and fire clay. Other principal 
towns, Bellevue, Byers, Petrolia and Halsell. 

COCHRAN COUNTY— Unorganized, hence no 
county seat; pop., 67; created in 1876; area, 957 
square miles, situated in the plains country with 
New Mexico on the western border. Surface, high 
and level. Industries, stock raising. Products, cat- 
tle only, though it has been demonstrated that West 
Texas crops and fruits will do well. No railroads. 
COKE COUNTY— County seat, Robert Lee; area, 
850 square miles; pop., 4,557; situated in west cen- 
tral Texas; created in 1889. Surface, generally roll- 
ing with many hills, Colorado River flowing diagon- 
ally across it; soil, red loam, on plateaus, black 
waxy. Industry, stock raising. Products, cattle, 
some cotton and staples, melons and truck. Trans- 
portation, Kansas City, Mexico & Orient Ry. Min- 
eral resources, excellent sand and lime stone depos- 
its, and brick clay plentiful. Other towns, Bronte, 
Ft. Chadbourne, Edith, Sanco and Tennyson. 

COLEMAN COUNTY— County seat, Coleman; 
area, 1,302 square miles; pop., 18,805; located in 
west central Texas, created in 1858. Surface, gen- 
erally level, hills here and there rising abruptly; soil 
varies from a black waxy to a loose sandy loam. 
Industries, live stock, poultry, farming. Products, 
cattle, sheep, goats, cotton, corn, maize, kaffir corn, 
various feed stuffs, dairy products. 

COLLIN COUNTY — County seat, McKinney; 
area, 828 square miles; pop., 49,609; situated in 
north Texas, created in 1846. Surface high and roll- 
ing with but few hills; soil, black waxy. Industries, 
farming, dairying and poultry and stock raising. 
Products, cotton, wheat, oats, alfalfa, etc., fancy 
stock, blooded horses, some fruit. Transportation, 
G. C. & S. Fe, St. L. S. W., St. Louis, San Francisco 
& Texas, H. & T. C. Rys., and the Texas Traction 
Co., interurban. Other towns, Farmersville, Piano, 
Celina, Princeton, Allen, Melissa, Frisco, Prosper, 
Blue Ridge, Weston and Anna. 

COLLINGSWORTH COUNTY— County seat, Well- 
ington; area, 900 square miles; pop., 9,154; situated 
in the Panhandle, bordering the state of Oklahoma; 
created in 1876. Surface, level with some rolling 
land along creeks and rivers; soil, varies from sandy 
loam along the streams to a dark loam in the flats. 
Industry, live stock raising, some farming. Prod- 
ucts, cattle, corn, wheat, oats, alfalfa and hogs. 
Transportation, W. F. & N. W. Ry. 

COLORADO COUNTY— County seat, Columbus; 



area, 948 square miles; pop., 19,013; located in the 
coastal plains, two counties removed from the Gulf 
of Mexico; created in 1836, organized in 1837. Sur- 
face, mostly level, few hills along streams; soil 
varies from sandy loam to black waxy and alluvial. 
Industries, live stock, farming, truck growing. Prod- 
ucts, rice, sugar cane, cotton, corn, potatoes, all 
kinds of vegetables and fruits. Transportation, S. 
A. & A. P., G. C. & S. Fe, and the G. H. & S. A. 
Rys. Mineral resources, brick clay. Other towns, 
Eagle Lake, Weimar, Rock Island, Alleyton, Oak- 
land, Matthews, Eldridge, Mentz and Bernado. 

COMAL COUNTY— County seat, New Braunfels; 
area, 569 square miles; pop., 8,824; situated in south- 
west Texas, north of San Antonio; created in 1846. 
Surface, broken in northern and western portions; 
southern portion level. Comal and Guadalupe Rivers 
well water the county. Soil varies from a stiff soil 
to a mellow loam. Industries, live stock, diversified 
farming, fruit growing. 

COMANCHE COUNTY— County seat, Comanche; 
area, 821 square miles; pop., 25,748; situated in 
north central Texas, southwest of Ft. Worth; 
created, 1856. Surface, generally rolling; North and 
South Leon Rivers cross the county. Soil, sandy 
loam, black waxy and a black sandy. Industries, live 
stock, dairying, farming. Products, fine cattle, 
horses and mules, cotton, dairy products. Mineral 
resources, coal, oil and gas. Transportation, Ft. W. 
& R. G. (Frisco), Stephenville North & South Tex- 
as (Cotton Belt), and the Texas Central Rys. Lead- 
ing towns, Comanche, DeLeon, Proctor, Sipe 
Springs, Hasse, Gustine, Lampkin, Comyl and Syd- 
ney. 

CONCHO COUNTY— County seat, Paint Rock; 
area, 941 square miles; pop., 5,847; situated near 
the geographical center of Texas; created in 1858 
and organized in 1859. Surface varies from rough 
country with very fertile valleys in the southern 
half to rolling prairie in the northwest portion; 
soil varies from white sandy to dark rich alluvial. 
Industries, farming and fruit growing, some live 
stock raising. 

COOKE COUNTY— County seat, Gainesville; 
area, 1000 square miles; pop., 25,667; located in north 
Texas, on the Red River; created, 1848, organized 
1849. Surface, rolling prairie; soil, red alluvial, black 
waxy, gray loam. Industries, agricultural, live stock. 
Products, wheat, corn, oats, feedstuff, including al- 
falfa, cotton, home canned fruit and truck growing. 
Transportation, G. C. & S. Fe and the M. K. & T. 
Rys. Mineral resources, lime and sandstone, brick 
clay. Is a leader in good roads. Towns, Gainesville, 
Valley View, Windsor, Fair Plains, Marysville, 
Muenster, Myra, Lindsey, Woodbine and Dexter. 

CORYELL COUNTY— County seat, Gatesville; 
area, 1,115 square miles; pop., 20,601; situated near 
the center of the state; created, 1854. Surface, 
much prairie, high rolling; soil, rich black, black 
rich sandy loam. Industries, farming, live stock, 
dairying, poultry raising. Products, corn, oats, 
wheat, alfalfa, millet, cotton and daii - 3 T products, 
blooded cattle, horses, sheep, honey. Mineral re- 
sources, limestone. Transportation, St. L. S. W., 
Stephenville North and South, and the G. C. & S. Fe 
Rys. Towns, Gatesville, Copperas Cove, Oglesby, 
Jonesboro, Turnersville, Evant, Pearl, Mound, Leon 
Junction and Levita. 



169 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



COTTLE COUNTY— County seat, Paducah; area, 
956 square miles; pop., 6,901; located in the south- 
east part of the Panhandle; created, 1879; organ- 
ized. 1S92. Surface, generally level, broken by the 
breaks of the Pease River on the west. Soil, black 
waxy, sandy loam. Industries, farming-, cattle rais- 
ing: products, cattle, cotton, grains, feedstuffs, 
fruits. Transportation. Quanah, Acme & Pacific Ry. 

CRANE COUNTY — Unorganized, hence no county 
seat: area. S50 square miles; pop., 37; situated in 
west Texas with the Pecos River as its southern 
boundary; created, 1887. Surface, generally high, 
rolling prairie; soil, varies from a light gravel or 
sandy to a black sandy or chocolate. Industry, cat- 
tle. Products, live stock, farming hardly introduced. 
No railroads. 

CROCKETT COUNTY— County seat, Ozona; area, 
3,004 square miles; pop., 1,300; situated in southwest 
Texas; created, 1875. Surface in northern portion, 
slightly rolling, southern and western, very rough, 
high hills, narrow valleys, canyons. Industry, cattle. 
Products, live stock; only a few acres devoted to 
farming. No railroads. 

CROSBY COUNTY— County seat, Crosbyton; 
area, 984 square miles; pop., 6,084; situated in the 
eastern tier of the plains counties; created, 1876, 
organized, 1886. Surface, almost level; soil, red 
to a dark sandy loam. Industry, cattle raising, 
farming. Products, live stock, cotton, corn, maize, 
kaffir corn, alfalfa and small grains, some fruit 
for local use. Transportation, Crosbyton South 
Plains Ry. Other towns, Emma, Estacado, Cone and 
Lorenzo. 

CULBERSON COUNTY— County seat, Van Horn; 
area, 3,780 square miles; pop., 912; situated in west 
T?xas, bordering El Paso county on the west and 
New Mexico on the north; organized, 1911. Surface, 
mountainous. Industry, cattle grazing. Transpor- 
tation, T. & P. and the G. C. & S. Fe Rys. Mineral 
resources, white marble, valuable stone and various 
minerals undeveloped. 

DALLAM COUNTY— County seat, Dalhart; area, 
1,463 square miles; pop., 4,528; located in extreme 
northwest corner of the Panhandle, bordering Okla- 
homa and New Mexico; created, 1876; organized, 
1891. Surface, generally level, broken along the 
south line by the Rito Blanco Canyon; soil alter- 
nates from a rich brown sandy loam to a hard land 
known as "tight" or mesquite land. Industries, live 
stock, principally, some farming and horticultural 
interests. 

DALLAS COUNTY— County seat, Dallas; area, 
900 square miles; pop., 275,000; located in north 
Texas, east of central; created, 1846 and organized 
the same year. Surface, mostly level, with rolling 
pariries in the northwestern portion, some rough 
lands along the streams; Trinity River crosses the 
county. Soil, sandy, sandy loam and black waxy, 
very productive. Industries, agricultural, dairying, 
live stock raising on farms, manufacturing in the 
city of Dallas. Products, cotton, corn, oats, wheat, 
forage, crops, dairy products, poultry products. 
Transportation, G. C. & S. Fe, St. L. S. W., C. R. I. 
& G., T. & B. V., M. K. & T., H. & T. C, T. & N. O., 
T. & P., I. & G. N., St. L. & S. Fe., Texas Traction 
Co., Northern Texas Traction Co., Southern Trac- 
tion Co. and Eastern Texas Traction Co., Rys. Dal- 
las county is a leader in construction of good roads, 



concrete highways. Dallas is the second city in the 
state in population but commercially ranks first, 
being the greatest jobbing, distributing and manu- 
facturing center in the southwest. It leads as an 
educational center, being the home of many schools, 
colleges and universities. It is the site for the 
Texas State Fair, the greatest institution of its 
kind in the United States. Other towns in the 
county are, Lancaster, Hutchins, Garland, Richard- 
son, Carrollton, Farmers Branch, Wilmer, Cedar 
Hill, Duncanville, Kleberg, Grand Prairie and Irving. 

DAWSON COUNTY— County seat, Lamesa; area, 
900 square miles; pop., 4,309; situated on the plains; 
created, 1858; organized, 1905. Surface, generally 
level; soil, largely chocolate and sandy loam with 
clay foundation. Industry, stock raising, some farm- 
ing-. Products, cattle, staple Panhandle crops, in- 
cluding cotton and fruits for home use. Transpor- 
tation, Pecos & Northern Texas Ry. 

DEAF SMITH COUNTY— County seat, Hereford; 
area, 1,477 square miles; pop., 3,747; located in the 
Panhandle, bordering New Mexico; created, 1876; 
organized, 1890. Surface, a level plateau between 
3,000 and 4,000 ft. altitude; soil, red and gray sandy 
loam, with black loam in the bottoms. 

DELTA COUNTY— County seat, Cooper; area, 
266 square miles; pop., 15,887; situated in northeast 
Texas; created, 1870. Surface is undulating, gen- 
erally high; soil, black loam, some sandy and gray 
land. Industries, diversified farming, dairying, poul- 
try and bee interests, some live stock growing. 
Products, cotton, corn, oats, alfalfa and other staples, 
peaches, dairy products, honey. Transportation, Tex- 
as Midland and the G. C. & S. Fe Rys. Other 
towns, Enloe, Pecan Gap, Horton, Lake Creek and 
Charleston. 

DENTON COUNTY— County seat, Denton; area, 
865 square miles; pop., 35,335; situated in north 
Texas, one county removed from the Red River, 
bordering Dallas and Tarrant counties on the south; 
created, 1846. Products, grains, especially, then 
cotton, fruits, vegetables, field crops, beef and dairy 
cattle, hogs, sheep, horses, mules. Denton is the 
site of the College of Industrial Arts and the North 
Texas Normal School. Transportation, T. & P., 
M. K. & T., G. C. & S. Fe, and the St. L. & S. F. 
Rys. Principal towns, Denton, Pilot Point, Lewis- 
ville, Sanger, Krum, Aubrey and Justin. 

DEWITT COUNTY— County seat, Cuero; area, 
880 square miles; pop., 27,971; situated in south- 
west Texas in the coastal plains; created and or- 
ganized, 1846. Surface, rolling; soil, dark sandy 
loam. The Guadalupe River flows across the coun- 
ty. Industries, truck and fruit farming, diversified 
farming, dairying, live stock breeding, poultry, es- 
pecially turkey, manufacturing. Products, sugar 
cane, cotton, corn, sorghum and other forage crops, 
fine stock, figs, peaches, turkeys and other fowl. 
Transportation, S. A. & A. P., and G. H. & S. A. 
Rys. Other towns, Yorktown, Nordheim, Thomas- 
ton, Hochheim and Meyersville, 

DICKENS COUNTY— County seat, Dickens; 
area, 918 square miles; pop., 5,876; situated par- 
tially in the plains country; created, 1876; organ- 
ized, 1891. Surface, generally rolling; soils vary, 
red, dark and chocolate sandy loam predominating. 
Industries, stock raising, farming, some fruit grow- 
ing. 



170 



COUNTIES 



DIMMIT COUNTY — County seat, Carrizo 
Springs; area, 1,164 square miles; pop., 5,296; sit- 
uated in southwest Texas; created, 1,858; organized, 
1880. Surface, generally level; soil varies from 
red sandy loam to black waxy. Industries, live 
stock, some fruit and truck, poultry and bees. 
Products, cattle, bermuda onions, figs, grapes, ber- 
ries, honey. Transportation, Crystal City & Uvalde 
Ry. Other towns, Asherton, Bermuda, Big Wells, 
Brundage, Detonio, Las Vargas and Catarina. 

DONLEY COUNTY — County seat, Clarendon; 
area, 878 square miles; pop., 8,035; situated in the 
Panhandle; created, 1876; organized, 1882. Surface, 
elevated plain which breaks off into small hills 
with valleys therewith, soil ranges from black waxy, 
chocolate, black sandy and red clay sand, to a spe- 
cial soil known as the Donley County loam, a dark 
soil which is mellow, deep and always moist. In- 
dustries, live stock, dairying, some farming, 

DUNN COUNTY— County not organized; created, 
1913 from Duval county, situated in southwest Tex- 
as. Surface, rolling and hilly. Live stock, farming 
and agriculture. Products, cattle, cotton, honey. 
Served by the Mexican National Ry. 

DUVAL COUNTY— County seat, San Diego; area, 
888 square miles; pop., 8,251; located in southwest 
Texas; created, 1858; organized, 1876. Surface, 
southeastern portion, in the Gulf plain; remainder 
of territory is rolling and hilly. Industries, stock 
raising, farming, agriculture. Products, cattle, 
horses, cotton, honey, corn and onions. Transporta- 
tion, Texas-Mexican Ry. 

EASTLAND COUNTY— County seat, Eastland; 
area, 947 square miles; pop., 58,505; situated north 
of the central part of the state; created, 1858; or- 
ganized, 1873. Surface, varied, part being broken 
and mountainous, part is level and rolling; soil, prin- 
cipally black, rich loam and black sandy. Indus- 
tries, oil, live stock, farming, mining. Products, 
oil, live stock, cotton, feedstuff, apples, pears, plums, 
grapes, coal. Mineral resources, coal, brick clay. 
Transportation, T. & P. and the T. C. Rys. Other 
towns, Ranger, Cisco, Rising Star, Carbon and Gor- 
man. 

ECTOR COUNTY— County seat, Odessa; area, 
976 square miles; pop., 760; situated in west Texas; 
created, 1887; organized, 1891. Surface, level; soil, 
chiefly sandy loam. Industries, live stock, princi- 
pally, farming in a small way. Transportation, T. 
& P. Ry. 

EDWARDS COUNTY — County seat, Rock 
Springs; area, 1,387 square miles; pop., 2,293; sit- 
uated in Southwest Texas, one county removed from 
the Rio Grande River; created, 1858; organized, 
1881. Surface, rolling in northwest portion, south- 
ern half broken. Soil, black sticky in places, rock 
ground in others. Industry, stock raising. Products, 
goats, sheep. Mineral resources, silver, iron, sul- 
phur, coal and kaolin. No railroads. 

ELLIS COUNTY— County seat, Waxahachie; area 
1,066 square miles; pop., 55,700; situated in north 
central Texas; created, 1849; organized, 1850. Sur- 
face, generally level to rolling; soil, black waxy 
and black loam. Industries, farming, live stock. 
Products, cotton, alfalfa, corn, oats and other grains, 
feedstuff, fine horses, hogs and cattle, fruits and 
vegetables for home use. Transportation, H. & T. 
C, Texas Midland, T. & B. V., M. K. & T., G. C. & 



S. Fe., I. & G. N., and the Dallas Southern Traction 
Co. Rys. Public highways up-to-date. Principal 
towns, Waxahachie, Ennis, Italy, Midlothian, Ferris, 
Palmer and Milford. 

EL PASO COUNTY— County seat, El Paso; area, 
5,573 square miles before Hudspeth county was 
made; pop., 135,000; situated in the extreme western 
part of Texas, it is bounded on the south by Old 
Mexico and on the north and west by New Mexico; 
created, 1850; organized, 1871. Surface, mountain- 
ous, broken by many canyons and valleys, and yet 
much level land also. Industries, stock raising, 
dairying, mining. Products, cattle, dairy products, 
finest grapes in the United States, peaches, plums, 
Pears and apricots. Transportation, G. H. & S. A., 
T. & P., El P. & S. W., A. T. & S. F., and the Mexi- 
can Central Lines, and an interurban between El 
Paso and Ysleta. Mineral resources, marble, gran- 
ite, copper, silver, lead, zinc, iron, gold, coal. 

ERATH COUNTY— County seat, Stephenville; 
area, 1,110 square miles; pop., 28,385; situated in 
central Texas; created in 1865. Industries, live stock 
and diversified farming, mining. Products, fine 
horses, beef cattle, hogs, dairy animals. Transpor- 
tation, Ft. W. & R. G. (Frisco), T. C, and the 
Stephenville North and South (Cotton Belt) Rys. 
Mineral resources, coal, limestone, sandstone, brick 
clay. Public highways are gradually becoming im- 
proved. Principal towns, Stephenville, Dublin, 
Thurber, Bluffdale and Alexander. 

FALLS COUNTY— County seat, Marlin; area, 
844 square miles; pop., 36,217; situated in the cen- 
tral part of the state; created and organized, 1850. 
Surface, level, slightly undulating, few hills; soil, 
black waxy, gray sandy and deep alluvial. Indus- 
tries, farming, stock raising, fruit growing, api- 
culture. Products, cotton and alfalfa, swine, peaches, 
pears, apricots, figs and honey. Transportation, I. 
& G. N., H. & T. C, S. A. & A. P., and the M. K. & 
T. Rys. Excellent public highways. Marlin is 
famed for its mineral wells. Other towns, Rosebud, 
Lott, Chilton, Travis and Reagan. 

FANNIN COUNTY— County seat, Bonham; area, 
940 square miles; pop., 48,186; situated in north 
Texas, bordering the Red River; created, 1837; or- 
ganized, 1838. Surface, high and rolling; soil, black 
waxy, reddish brown alluvial. Industries, farming, 
fruit growing, stock raising. Products, small grain, 
corn, cotton, alfalfa, and forage crops, fruits, vege- 
tables, fine stock. Transportation, T. & P., M. K. 
& T., St. L. S. W., and the G. C. & S. Fe Rys. 
Towns, Bonham, Honey Grove, Ladonia, Leonard, 
Trenton, Dodd City, Savoy and Ravenna. 

FAYETTE COUNTY— County seat, LaGrange; 
area, 992 square miles; pop., 29,965; situated in 
south central Texas; created in 1837, organized in 
1838. One-half of the surface area is rolling prairie; 
soil, black loam, black lime, chocolate loam, sandy 
loam, stiff black waxy, gray sandy with some gravel. 
Industries, stock farming, diversified farming, 
dairying, poultry interests. Products, fine stock, 
cotton, corn, all forms of truck, pears, plums, figs, 
berries, poultry. Transportation, M. K. & T.. G. H. 
& S. A., S. A. & A. P., and the H. & T. C. Rys. 
Mineral resources, lignite and valuable clays. Towns, 
LaGrange, Schulenberg, Flatonia, Fayetteville. Car- 
mine, Ledbetter, Winchester and Ellinger. 

FISHER COUNTY— County seat, Roby; area, 836 



171 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



square miles; pop., 11,009; situated in central west 
Texas; directly west of Dallas and Ft. Worth; 
created, 1876; organized, 1886. Surface, partly roll- 
ing, partly level with a few mountains in northern 
portion, drained by the Brazos River. Soil, red 
sandy, alluvial, and sandy loam. Industries, stock 
raising, farming. 

FLOYD COUNTY— County seat, Floydada; area, 
1,036 square miles; pop., 9,758; situated in the Tex- 
as plains, created 1876, organized 1890. Surface, 
slightly rolling; soil, sandy loam. Leading indus- 
tries, stock raising, farming. Products, cattle, 
wheat, feedstuff, cotton, grains, fruit for home use. 
Transportation, P. & N. T. Ry. Good roads. 

FOARD COUNTY— County seat, Crowe 11; area, 
636 square miles; pop., 4,747; situated in the lower 
Panhandle; created, 1891. Surface, level with some 
rolling and slightly broken; soil, one-third of the 
prairies sandy, remainder, clay and loam, very pro- 
ductive. Industries, live stock, farming, fruit grow- 
ing. 

FORT BEND COUNTY— County seat, Richmond; 
area, 897 square miles; pop., 22,931; situated in the 
coast country; created 1837, organized same year. 
Surface, level; soil, alluvial, black hogwallow, and 
some sandy loam, all very fertile. Industries, live 
stock, farming, fruit growing, poultry and dairy 
interests. Products, live stock, rice, cotton, corn, 
sugar cane, figs, peaches, pears, citrus fruit. Trans- 
portation, G. H. & S. A., G. C. & S. F., S. A. & A. 
P., M. K. & T., I. & G. N., New York, Texas and 
Mexican & Sugarland Rys. Natural resources, gas, 
brick clay, pottery clay. Excellent public highways. 
Other towns, Rosenberg, Fulshear, Sugarland, Mis- 
souri City, Thompson, Needville, Beasley and Or- 
chard. 

FRANKLIN COUNTY— County seat, Mt. Vernon; 
area, 325 square miles; pop., 9,304; situated in 
northeast Texas; created, 1875. Surface, mostly 
level; soil, varies from light sandy loam to black 
waxy. Industries, diversified farming, fruit and 
truck growing, some live stock. 

FREESTONE COUNTY— County seat, Fairfield; 
area, 947 square miles; pop., 23,264; situated in east 
central Texas; created 1850, organized 1851. In- 
dustries, agricultural, horticultural and stock rais- 
ing. Products, oil, cotton, corn, peanuts, oats, gen- 
eral forage crops, peaches, plums, summer apples 
and berries, live stock. In 1921 a great oil field 
was discovered in Freestone county which is be- 
ing rapidly developed and Wortham is the center 
of these activities. Transportation, T. & B. V., H. & 
T. C, and the I. & G. N. Natural resources, gray 
and blue granite, soft sandstone, brick and fire clay. 
Good highways. Towns, Fairfield, Teague, Worth- 
am and Kirven. 

FRIO COUNTY— County seat, Pearsall; area, 
1,064 square miles; pop., 9,296; located in southwest 
Texas; created 1858, organized 1871. Surface, rolling; 
soil mostly sandy loam. Industries, live stock, truck 
and diversified farming. Products, cotton, melons, 
onions, honey, cattle. Transportation, I. & G. N. Ry. 
Other towns, Dilly and Moore. 

f.AINES COUNTY— County seat, Seminole; area, 
1,590 square miles; pop., 1,018; situated in west 
Texas, south of the staked plains; created, 1876; 
organized, 1905. Surface, rolling; traversed by sev- 
eral draws; soil, mainly of upland sandy loam. In- 



dustry, live stock chiefly, some farming and fruit 
growing. Products, corn, milo maize, kaffir corn, 
sorghum, other staple Panhandle crops, home fruits. 
Transportation, no railroads. 

GALVESTON COUNTY— County seat, Galveston; 
area, 438 square miles; pop., 53,150; situated on the 
Gulf Coast, 80 miles southwest of the Louisiana 
border; created 1838, organized 1839. Surface, 
level; slight slope toward Galveston Bay and Gulf 
of Mexico; soil, deep sandy loam. Industries, truck 
farming, live stock raising, fruit growing, dairy 
and poultry business, dredging of road shell from 
Galveston Bay. Products, citrus fruit, figs, straw- 
berries, melons, cantaloupes, dairy products. Trans- 
portation, G. H. & S. A., G. H. & H., G. C. & S. 
F., I. & G. N., M. K. & T., T. & B. V., St. L. B. & 
M., Gulf & Interstate (Santa Fe) G. & W., Galves- 
ton-Houston Intcrurban and the Gulf Coast Rys. 
Its chief city and county seat, Galveston, is one of 
the great deep water ports of the U. S., ranking 
next to New York in importance of its commerce. 
It is the first exporting cotton market in the world 
and has high rank in the fish and oyster industry. 
Great strides in highway construction. Other towns 
of the county, Texas City, Port Bolivar, Dickinson, 
League City, Lamarque, Algoa, Arcadia, Hitchcock 
and Friendswood. 

GARZA COUNTY— County seat, Post City; area, 
821 square miles; pop., 4,253; situated in the foot- 
hills of the plains; created 1876, organized 1907. 
Surface, 50 per cent level, 40 per cent rolling, 10 
per cent hilly; soils vary from a tight dark chocolate 
with a clay foundation to red catclaw sandy loam. 
Industries, stock raising, farming. 

GILLESPIE COUNTY— County seat, Fredricks- 
burg; area, 1,140 square miles; pop., 10,015; lies 
in southwest Texas, west of Austin; created and or- 
ganized, 1848. Surface, equally divided between 
hilly, rolling and level land; soil on level land, prin- 
cipally black waxy, on uplands, gray sandy loam, in 
valley, black sandy loam. Industries, live stock 
raising leads, dairying following with farming rank- 
ing last. 

GLASSCOCK COUNTY— County seat, Garden 
City; area, 952 square miles; pop., 555; situated at 
the foot of the plains; created, 1887; organized, 
1893. Surface, mostly level, slightly broken in east- 
ern section; soil, sandy loam, dark, chocolate colored 
loam. Industries, grazing of cattle, some farming 
and fruit growing. Products, cattle, home fruit and 
vegetables. No railroads. 

GOLIAD COUNTY— County seat, Goliad; area, 
817 square miles; pop., 9,348; located in southwest 
Texas, one county removed from the Gulf; an orig- 
inal county of Texas, organized in 1837. Surface, 
slightly undulating; soil, black sandy loam, al- 
luvial, light sandy. Industries, live stock, farming, 
swine breeding. 

GONZALES COUNTY— County seat, Gonzales; 
area, 1,079 square miles; pop., 28,438; a southwest 
Texas coast county; organized, 1837. Surface, gen- 
erally rolling; soil, dark, gray sandy loam, rich black 
land. Industries, diversified farming, live stock 
raising. Products, cotton, corn, cane, oats, potatoes, 
onions, melons, peaches, pears, plums, small fruit. 
Transportation, S. A. & A. P., and the G. H. & S. A. 
Rys. Natural resources, sandstone and kaolin, gas 
was discovered and is being developed. Lively in- 



172 



COUNTIES 



terest in good roads. Other towns, Waelder, Har- 
wood, Slayden, Nixon, Smiley, Pierson and Cranz. 

GRAY COUNTY— County seat, Lefors; area, 860 
square miles; pop., 4,663; located in the northwest- 
ern part of the Panhandle; created, 1876; organized, 
1902. Surface, in the north and west, level, with 
hills and fertile valleys in the south and east; soil 
varies from dark chocolate and sandy to dark and 
light sandy. Industries, diversified farming, live 
stock raising. 

GRAYSON COUNTY— County seat, Sherman; 
area, 1,012 square miles; pop., 74,165; situated in 
north Texas, bordering the Red River, created and 
organized 1846. Surface, level; soil, black waxy, 
black and gray sandy loam. Industries, diversified 
farming, farm crops, fine horses, cattle, hogs, dairy 
products, cattle breeding, dairying, poultry. Prod- 
ucts, staple. Transportation, Texas Traction Co., 
M. K. & T., St. L. S. W., St. L. S. F., Denison & 
Pacific Suburban, Denison, Bonham, New Orleans, 
G. C. & S. F., H. & T. C, M. O. & G. and the T. 
& P. Rys. Natural resources, gas, with indications 
of oil. Lively interest in public highways. Other 
cities of the county, Denison, Whitewright, Van 
Alstyne, Whitesboro, Colmesneil, Howe, Bells, Potts- 
boro and Tioga. 

GREGG COUNTY— County seat, Longview; area, 
287 square miles; pop., 16,767; located in northeast 
Texas; created and organized, 1873. Industries, 
farming, fruit growing, lumbering, poultry and min- 
ing interests. Products, all kinds of east Texas 
fruits and truck for outside markets, hardwood and 
pine. Transportation, I. & G. N., T. & P., G. C. 
& S. F., Port Bolivar Iron Ore, and Brown's Lum- 
ber Rys. Mineral resources, lignite and iron, brick 
and potter clay, indications of oil and gas. Good 
roads. Other towns, Gladewater, Kilgore. 

GRIMES COUNTY— County seat, Anderson; 
area, 770 square miles; pop., 23,101; located in south 
central Texas, created and -organized, 1846. Sur- 
face, hilly in the western and central parts, rolling 
in the remainder with much level land; soil varies 
from black sandy to gray sandy. Industries, lum- 
bering, general farming, truck and fruit growing, 
live stock raising, dairying, poultry interests. Prod- 
ucts, oak and gum wood, hardwood, cotton and corn, 
potatoes, all kinds of truck, fine cattle. Transpor- 
tation, I. & G. N., G. C. & S. F., H. & T. C, and 
T. & B. V. Rys. Other towns, Navasota, Bedias, 
Shaird, Stoneham, Roans Prairie, Dobbin 

GUADALUPE COUNTY— County seat, Seguin; 
area, 717 square miles; pop., 27,719; located in south 
central part of Texas, created and organized, 1846. 
Surface, level in the southern portion, hilly in the 
northern part; soil, black loam, sandy loam and 
white sand. Industries, diversified farming, live 
stock raising, truck growing. Products, cotton, oats, 
corn, watermelons, pecans, early truck, small fruit. 
Transportation, G. H. & S. A. Ry. Natural resources, 
brick clay, coal, traces of oil and gas. Interest in 
good roads. Other towns, Marion and Kingsbury. 

HALE COUNTY— County seat, Plainview; area, 
1,036 square miles; pop., 10,104; situated in the 
plains, created 1876, organized 1888. Surface, gen- 
erally level; soil, chocolate and sandy loam. Indus- 
tries, live stock, farming, horticulture. Products, 
maize, kaffir corn, millet, cotton, corn, wheat, oats, 
sorghum, fruits, vegetables, apples. Transportation, 



P. & N. T. Ry. Naturally good roads. Other towns, 
Hale Center, Abernathy, Petersburg, Running Water, 
Ellen and Norfleet. 

HALL COUNTY — County seat, Memphis; area, 
868 square miles; pop., 11,137; situated in the south- 
eastern part of the Panhandle, created 1876, organ- 
ized 1890. Surface rolling, with hills occasionally; 
soils vary from black sandy to red sandy loam. In- 
dustries diversified farming, fruit growing, live 
stock industry. 

HAMILTON COUNTY— County seat, Hamilton; 
area, 858 square miles; pop., 14,676; situated in 
north central Texas, west of Waco; created and or- 
ganized 1858. Surface, rolling; soil, black waxy and 
chocolate varieties mixed with sand. Industries, 
diversified farming, fruit growing, live stock. Prod- 
ucts, cotton, corn, wheat, oats, other field crops, 
peaches, plums, pears, apricots, forage crops, cattle, 
horses, sheep. Transportation, St. L. S. W., Steph- 
enville North and South Texas, T. C. Rys. Other 
towns, Hico, Carlton, Pottsville and Fairy. 

HANSFORD COUNTY— County seat, Hansford; 
area, 860 square miles; pop., 1,354; situated in the 
north tier of counties of the Panhandle; created, 
1876; organized, 1889. Surface, level except along 
streams; soil, black sandy loam. Industry, cattle 
raising, general farming, fruit growing, poultry in- 
dustry. Products, Panhandle staples, wheat, peaches, 
apples, plums, grapes, cherries. No railroads. 

HARDEMAN COUNTY— County seat, Quanah; 
area, 532 square miles; pop., 12,487; situated in 
northwest Texas bordering the Panhandle proper 
with Oklahoma on the north; created 1858, organized 
1894. Surface level except the extreme south line, 
mountainous; soil, sandy loam underlaid with gyp- 
sum, with considerable black land in the valleys. 
Industries, agriculture and stock raising. 

HARDIN COUNTY— County seat, Kountze; area, 
844 square miles; pop., 15,983; located in southeast 
Texas; one county removed from the Gulf; created 
and organized 1868. Surface, generally level, some 
hills in the eastern portion. Soil, light sandy loam, 
black waxy. Industries, lumbering, live stock rais- 
ing, truck farming, oil. Products, lumber, hardwood 
and pine, cattle, oil, various early truck. Transpor- 
tation, G. C. & S. F., T. & N. O., Beaumont, Sour 
Lake & Western Rys. Good roads. Other towns, 
Silsbee, Saratoga, Batson, Honey Island, Village. 

HARRIS COUNTY— County seat, Houston; area, 
1,761 square miles; pop., 285,000; situated in the 
coastal plains, bordering Galveston Bay on the 
south, one of the original counties of the state, or- 
ganized 1837. Surface, level, gently rolling, tra- 
versed by numerous creeks and bayous. Industries, 
lumber, rice, farming, live stock, oil. Products, pine 
and various timbers, rice, dairy products, all kind 
of south Texas early truck and fruit, oil. Transpor- 
tation, G. H. & S. A., T. & N. O., H. & T. C. H. E. 
& W. T., G. H. & H., M. K. & T., I. & G. N., T. & 
B. V., St. L. B. & M., St. L. & W., S. A. & A. P. and 
the Galveston-Houston Interurban Rys. Natural re- 
sources, one of Texas' leading oil fields, brick clay. 
This county is a leader in paved public highways. 
Houston is the third city in size in Texas, is a lead- 
er in commercial activity and is an educational cen- 
ter, being the home of the Rice Institute, one of 
the highest type universities on the American con- 
tinent. Other cities and towns of this county, Hock- 



173 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



ley, Westfield, Lynchburg - , Harrisburg, Magnolia 
Park, Katy. Webster and Genoa. 

HARRISON COUNTY— County seat, Marshall; 
area, 873 square miles; pop., 43,565; situated in 
northeast Texas, bordering Louisiana; created 1839, 
organized 1S42. Surface, eastern portion, rolling, 
well drained, western section somewhat broken. In- 
dustries, diversified farming, fruit growing. Prod- 
ucts, peaches, plums, apples, pears, berries, pecans, 
native hickory nuts, cotton, potatoes, truck, fine cat- 
tle along with the farming. Transportation, T. & 
P., M. K. & T., M. & E.T. Rys. Iron, lignite deposits, 
sandstone, brick clay and glass sand and natural 
gas for home use among natural resources. Good 
roads. Other towns, Hallsville, Harleton, Waskom. 

HARTLEY COUNTY— County seat, Channing; 
area, 1,460 square miles; pop., 1,109; situated in 
northwest Panhandle, bordering New Mexico; crea- 
ted 1876, organized 1891. Surface, level plain, break- 
ing off into abrupt canyons; soil varies from loose 
and sandy to dark and chocolate loam. Industries, 
stock raising, swine industry, diversified farming. 

HASKELL COUNTY— County seat, Haskell; area, 
843 square miles; pop., 14,193; situated in northwest 
Texas; created 1858, organized 1886. Surface, level, 
small part rocky; soil varies from a gray to black 
and chocolate loam. Industries, live stock, diversi- 
fied farming. Products, cattle, forage crops, mel- 
ons, sweet potatoes, truck, cotton, peaches, plums, 
grapes. 

HAYS COUNTY— County seat, San Marcos; area, 
647 square miles; pop., 15,920; situated in south 
central Texas, between San Antonio and Austin. 
Created and organized, 1848. Industries, farming, 
fruit growing, live stock. Products, alfalfa, forage 
crops, cotton, cattle. Transportation, I. & G. N., 
M. K. & T. Rys. Excellent roads. Other towns, 
Buda, Kyle, Dripping Springs. 

HEMPHILL COUNTY— County seat, Canadian; 
area, 860 square miles; pop., 4,280; situated in the 
Panhandle; created 1878; organized 1887. Surface, 
generally rolling, some plains; soil, deep black, red- 
dish sandy loam. Industry, stock raising, general 
farming. Products, cattle, broom corn, wheat, maize, 
alfalfa, fruits. Transportation, Southern Kansas of 
Texas Ry. (Santa Fe). Other towns, Isaacs, Men- 
dota, Glazier. 

HENDERSON COUNTY— County seat, Athens; 
area, 949 square miles; pop., 28,327; situated in east 
Texas, between Trinity and Neches Rivers, about 50 
miles southeast of Dallas; created and organized, 
1846. Surface, generally level, slightly broken; soil, 
generally sandy. Industries, lumbering, fruit grow- 
ing, farming, live stock raising. Products, lumber, 
corn, cotton, potatoes, melons, truck, peaches, fine 
horses, jacks and mules. Transportation, St. L. 
S. W., and the T. & N. O. Rys. Mineral resources, 
iron ore and lignite, brick clay. Other towns, 
Chandler, Malakoff, Eustace, LaRue, Brownsboro, 
Murchison, Trinidad. 

HIDALGO COUNTY— County seat, Edinburg; 
area, 1,583 square miles; pop., 38,110; situated in 
southwest Texas, bordering the Rio Grande, one 
county removed from the Gulf of Mexico; created 
and organized, 1852. Products, sugar cane, cotton, 
corn, alfalfa, sorghum, Egyptian wheat, onions, 
cabbage, figs, oranges, lemons, honey. Transporta- 



tion, St. L. B. & M., S. B. & R. G. V. Rys. Other 
towns, Mercedes, McAUen, Mission and Weslaco. 

HILL COUNTY— County seat, Hillsboro; area, 
1,106 square miles; pop. 43,332, situated in north cen- 
tral Texas; created 1853, organized 1854. Products, 
cotton, corn, oats, peaches, pears, grapes, every 
breed of fine poultry. Transportation, M. K. & T., 
St. L. S. W., T. & B. V., G. C. S. & S. F., T. C, 
I. & G. N. Rys. and the Southern Traction Ry. Im- 
proving roads lately. Other towns, Hubbard City, 
Blum, Whitney, Itasca, Malone, Bynum. 

HOCKLEY COUNTY— County seat, unorganized 
area, 977 square miles; pop., 137; situated in the 
plains, created 1876. Surface, level; industry, cat- 
tle. Transportation, Pecos & Northern Texas Ry., 
across the northern section. 

HOOD COUNTY— County seat, Granbury; area, 
436 square miles; pop., 8,759; situated in north cen- 
tral Texas; created and organized 1886. Surface, 
broken by gently rolling hills and valleys; soil, black 
loam in river bottoms, in timber land, light sandy 
soil. Industries, live stock, poultry, dairying. 

HOPKINS COUNTY— County seat, Sulphur 
Springs; area, 666 square miles; pop., 34,791; sit- 
uated in northeast Texas, created and organized, 
1846. Products, cotton, grain crops, hay, peas, sor- 
ghum, Elberta peaches, plums, apples, honey. Trans- 
portation, M. K. & T. and St. L. S. W. Rys. Mineral 
resources, lignite, traces of oil. Fine roads. Other 
towns, Cumby, Como, Sulphur Bluff, Birthright, 
Brashear, Pickton, Reily Springs and Ridgeway. 

HOUSTON COUNTY— County seat, Crockett; 
area, 1,192 square miles; pop., 28,601; situated in 
east central Texas, created and organized, 1837. 
Surface, undulating, with large stretches of level 
prairie. Soils vary from black waxy to black sandy, 
light sandy and Orangeburg loams. Industries, 
lumbering, farming, fruit growing, poultry. Prod- 
ucts, lumber, tobacco, pears, figs, peaches, plums, 
apples. Breeding of fancy fowls. Transportation, 
I. & G. N., B. & G. N. and Eastern Texas Rys. 
Mineral resources, iron ore, lignite coal, red sand- 
stone, limerock and granite, shale clay, green marie, 
gray plastic clays. Other towns, Lovelady, Ken- 
nard City, Grapeland, Ratcliff, Augusta, Weldon 
and Hally. 

HOWARD COUNTY— County seat, Big Springs; 
area, 888 square miles; pop., 6,962; located in west 
Texas, created 1876, organized 1882. Surface, roll- 
ing in southern portion, level in northern section, 
central and western hilly. Industries, stock rais- 
ing, dairying, farming. Products, west Texas sta- 
ples, peaches, plums, melons, cattle. Transportation, 
T. & P. Ry. Mineral resources, white stone. Towns, 
Coahoma, Morita, Bisco, Soash and Vincent. 

HUDSPETH COUNTY— Created 1917, from El 
Paso County; pop., 962; still unorganized; located 
in extreme west Texas, bounded by New Mexico 
on the north and the Rio Grande on the south. 
Surface, mountainous in the southern part, rolling 
in the north; industry, chiefly cattle grazing. Trans- 
portation, T. & P. and the G. H. & S. A. Rys. Chief 
towns, Sierra Blanca, Taza, Clayton, Eagle Flat, 
Torcer, Harris, Ft. Hancock, Iser. 

HUNT COUNTY— County seat, Greenville; area, 
888 square miles; pop., 50,350; located in north 
Texas; created and organized 1846. Surface, high 
and rolling, much prairie land in southern and middle 
sections. Soil, black waxy, black sandy, light loams. 



174 



COUNTIES 



Industries, diversified farming, fine stock, apicul- 
ture, poultry. Products, cotton, corn, sugar cane, 
alfalfa, oats, berries, melons, grapes, peaches, pears, 
apples, and honey, fine poultry. Transportation, 
St. L. S. W., M. K. & T., Texas Midland, G. C. & 
S. F. and East Texas Traction Co. Rys. Other towns, 
Commerce, Celeste, Wolfe City and Lone Oak. 

HUTCHINSON COUNTY— County seat, Plemons; 
area, 850 square miles; pop., 721; situated in north- 
ern part of Panhandle, created 1876, organized 1901. 
Surface rolling in southern part, northern portion, 
smooth, level plain; soils vary from light sandy to 
a dark sandy loam, and on the plains, rich dark 
sandy from three to fifteen feet deep, black waxy 
variety near the creeks. Industry, live stock rais- 
ing, diversified farming limited. Products, usual 
Panhandle staples. No railroads. Mineral resour- 
ces, limestone. 

IRION COUNTY— County seat, Sherwood; area, 
800 square miles; pop., 1,610; situated in west cen- 
tral Texas; created and organized 1889. Surface, 
broken by low ranges of mountains and hills, many 
rich valleys; soils, various, with sandy loam pre- 
dominating. Industry, live stock, slight farming. 
Products, forage crops and cattle. Transportation, 
K. C. M. & O. Ry. Other towns, Mertzon, Barnhart. 

JACK COUNTY — County seat, Jacksboro; area, 
858 square miles; pop., 9,863; located in north Texas, 
northwest of Ft. Worth, one county removed from 
the Red River. Created, 1856, organized 1857. Pro- 
ducts, cotton, peaches, plums, apples, grapes, apri- 
cots and various berries, coal, beside cattle, the chief 
product. Transportation, C. R. I. & C, and the G. T. 
& W. Rys. Mineral resources, coal, oil, iron, building 
stone, marble, granite, brick clay. Other towns, 
Bryson, Vineyard, Gibtown and Antelope. 

JACKSON COUNTY— County seat, Edna; area, 
888 square miles; pop., 11,244; located in south 
Texas, bordering Matagorda Bay; organized, 1837. 
Products, cotton, corn, sorghum, staples, immense 
herds of cattle, figs, melons, vegetables. Trans- 
portation, G. H. & S. A. and the St. L. B. & M. 
Rys. Other towns, Ganado, Navidad, El Toro and 
Lolita. 

JASPER COUNTY— County seat, Jasper; area, 
977 square miles; pop., 15,569; located in east Texas; 
organized 1837. Products, peaches, figs, berries, 
tobacco. Transportation, G. C. & S. F., Jasper & 
East Texas, T. & N. O. and the O. & N. W. (Frisco) 
Rys. Towns, Kirbyville, Bessmay, Roganville, 
Bunna, Browndell, Rimlig and Evandale. 

JEFF DAVIS COUNTY— County seat, Ft. Davis; 
area, 1,922 square miles; pop., 1,445; located in west 
Texas, touching the Rio Grande at its extreme west- 
ern point. Created and organized, 1887. Surface 
mostly hilly and mountainous, some level and valley 
land. Industry, cattle, some forage crops. 

JEFFERSON COUNTY— County seat, Beaumont; 
area, 1,109 square miles; pop., 90,000; situated in 
southeast Texas bordering on Gulf of Mexico on 
the south and on Louisiana on the east. Organized, 
1837. Surface generally level; soil, largely black 
clay loam, black sandy loam, chocolate and pine sand 
land. Industries, livestock, rice, fruit and truck 
growing, farming, oil. Products, cotton, rice, fig, 
plum and pear orchards, strawberries, oil. This 
county and territory is one of Texas' chief oil fields, 
being brought in in 1901. Transportation, B. S. L. 



& W. (Frisco), T. & N. O., K. C. S., G. C. & S. F. 
Rys., an electric line between Beaumont and Port 
Arthur. Good roads. Towns, Port Arthur, one of 
the deep water ports of Texas, Sabine Pass, Port 
Neches and Sabine. 

JIM HOGG COUNTY— County seat, Hebbronville; 
area, 1,099 square miles; pop., 1,914; located in 
southwestern Texas; created and organized, 1913. A 
description of resources, climate, etc., is included in 
the sketches of Brooks and Duval Counties, of which 
it was formerly a part. 

JIM WELLS COUNTY— County seat, Alice; area, 
868 square miles; pop., 6,587; located in the west 
Gulf coast country; created, 1910, organized, 1911. 
Surface, almost level, well drained. Industry, live- 
stock, some farming with fruit growing. 

JOHNSON COUNTY— County seat, Cleburne; 
area, 744 square miles; pop., 37,286; situated in 
north central Texas; created and organized 1874. 
Products, cotton, corn, oats, hay, peanuts, potatoes, 
melons, peaches, plums, pears, grapes, persimmons, 
cherries, figs, various berries, live stock, dairy pro- 
ducts, poultry. Transportation, G. C. & S. F., M. K. 
& T., T. & B. V., I. & G. N. and the Southern Trac- 
tion Co. of Ft. Worth, Rys. Other towns, Alvarado, 
Grandview, Rio Vista, Venus, Burleson, Godley, 
Joshua, Lillian, Keene and Cresson. 

JONES COUNTY— County seat, Anson; area, 900 
square miles; pop., 22,323; located northwest of the 
geographical center of the state, five counties west 
of Tarrant County; created, 1858, organized, 1881. 
Surface, rolling; soil, black and chocolate, sandy, 
varied. Industry, stock raising, some farming with 
small orchards, poultry slight. Products, cattle, cot- 
ton, forage crops mostly, fruits for home use. Tran- 
portation, W. V., T. C. and the Abilene & Southern 
Rys. Mineral deposits, limestone. Other towns, 
Stamford, Hamlin, Avoca, Lueders, Halley and 
Tuxedo. 

KARNES COUNTY— County seat, Karnes City; 
area, 740 square miles; pop., 19,049; located in south- 
west Texas; created and organized 1854. Products, 
cattle, forage crops, some truck, honey. Transporta- 
tion, S. A. & A. P. Ry. Mineral resources, copper, 
phosphate and gold, discovered but not developed, 
sand stone, pottery and brick clay in abundance, na- 
tural gas in the southern part. Other towns, Runge, 
Kennedy, Falls City, Green, Helena and Panamario. 

KAUFMAN COUNTY— County seat, Kaufman; 
area, 932 square miles; pop., 41,276; situated in 
northeast Texas, east of Dallas; created and organ- 
ized 1848. Products, cotton, corn, fruits, vegetables. 
Transportation, T. & P., Texas Midland and the T. 
& N. O. Rys. Interurban recently constructed to Dal- 
las from Terrell. Other towns, Terrell, Crandall, 
Elmo, Forney, Kemp, Lawrence and Maybank. 

KENDALL COUNTY— County seat Boerne; area, 
613 square miles; pop., 4,799; located in southeast 
Texas to the north of San Antonio; created and or- 
ganized, 1862. Surface, broken by valleys and lofty 
hills alternating; industry, livestock raising, dairy- 
ing and slight farming following. 

KENT COUNTY— County seat, Clairemont; area, 
777 square miles; pop., 3,335; located in west Texas, 
bordering the Plains; created 1876; organized 1892. 
Surface level, hilly, rolling. Soil, mostly deep sandy 
loam underlaid with clay. Industries, livestock, ag- 
riculture. 



175 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



KERR COUNTY— County seat, Kerrville; area, 
1,210 square miles; pop., 5,842; situated in southwest 
Texas, created and organized 1856; surface, rolling, 
with many hills, drained by the Guadalupe River 
and its tributaries; soil, alluvial in bottom lands, 
upland land, sandy loam. Industries, live stock rais- 
ing, farming and dairying, some fruit growing. 

KIMBLE COUNTY— County seat, Junction City; 
area, 1.302 square miles; pop., 3,581; located in 
southwest Texas, northwest of San Antonio; created 
185S; organized 1876. Surface, mountainous; soil, 
mostly black sandy. Industry, livestock. Products, 
cattle, alfalfa, corn, wheat, sweet potatoes. Trans- 
portation, no railroads. Other towns, London and 
Roosevelt. 

KING COUNTY— County seat, Guthrie; area, 928 
square miles; situated in northwest Texas; pop., 655; 
created 1876; organized 1891. Surface, rolling 
prairie, with rich sandy loam soil. Industry, cattle 
raising, with some general farming. Products, cattle 
and forage crops. No railroads. Mineral deposits, 
copper and limestone. Dumont is another town in 
the county. 

KINNEY COUNTY— County seat, Brackettville; 
area, 1,269 square miles; pop., 3,746; located in 
southwest Texas; created, 1850; organized 1874. Sur- 
face, undulating; industry, livestock raising, with 
some farming. Products, cattle, hay, corn, truck. 
Transportation, G. H. & S. A. Deposits of coal, 
traces of gold and silver, limestone of excellent qual- 
ity. Spofford is another town of the county. 

KLEBERG COUNTY— County seat, Kingsville; 
area, 1,112 square miles; pop., 7,837; created and 
organized 1913 from Nueces County, under which 
title the general conditions of this territory are 
sketched. It is served by the St. L. B. & M. Ry. 

KNOX COUNTY — County seat, Benjamin; area, 
947 square miles; pop., 9,240; created 1858; 
organized 1886; located northwest Texas. General 
surface, rolling, soil varies from a black to a choco- 
late to a sandy loam. Industry, cattle business, some 
farming. Products, cattle, cotton, corn, forage crops 
and grain. Transportation, K. C. M. & O. and Wich- 
ita Valley Rys. Other towns, Munday, Goree, Knox 
City, Vera, Rhineland and Truscott. 

LAMAR COUNTY— County seat, Paris; area, 903 
square miles; pop., 55,742; situated northeast Texas, 
borders the Red River; created 1840, organized 1841. 
Products, fine cattle, horses, hogs, dairy products, 
pears, peaches, plums, grapes, berries. Transporta- 
tion, T. & P., St. L. & S. F., Texas Midland, G. C. 
& S. F., and the Paris and Mt. Pleasant Rys. De- 
posits of clay. Good roads. Other towns, Deport, 
Roxton, Blossom, Petty and Arthur City. 

LAMB COUNTY— County seat, Olton; area, 1,021 
square miles; pop., 1,175; situated in the Plains; 
created, 1786; organized 1908. Surface, generally 
level; soil, dark clay loam with some sand. Industry, 
ranching, few farms. Products, cattle, forage crops, 
broom corn, fruits for home use. Transportation, 
G. C. & S. F. Ry. 

LAMPASAS COUNTY— County seat, Lampasas; 
area, 755 square miles; pop., 8,800; situated near the 
central part of the state; created and organized 1856. 
Products, cattle forage crops, potatoes, poultry, 
pecans, peaches, plums, apricots, grapes. Trans- 
portation, H. & T. C. and the G. C. & S. F. Rys. Is 
located in the mineral district of the state, strong 



salt veins abounding, but this industry as yet is un- 
developed. Other towns of the county are Lometa 
and Kempner. 

LA SALLE COUNTY— County seat, Cotulla; 
area, 1,777 square miles; pop., 4,821; located in 
southwest Texas, created in 1858; organized 1880. 
Surface, slightly rolling; soil, mostly chocolate loam, 
some black sandy, rich and deep. Industries, diver- 
sified farming, livestock raising, fruit and truck. 

LAVACA COUNTY— County seat, Hallettsville; 
area, 992 square miles; pop., 28,964; located in the 
Coastal Plains, one county removed from the Gulf, 
and 101 miles southwest of Houston; created and 
organized 1846. Products, cotton, corn, melons, po- 
tatoes, cucumbers and other truck, hogs, fancy live- 
stock, large droves of turkeys, dressed poultry. 
Transportation, S. A. & A. P. Ry. Other towns, 
Shiner, Moulton, Sweethome and Sublime. 

LEE COUNTY— County seat, Giddings; area, 666 
square miles; pop., 14,014; located in south central 
Texas; created 1874; organized 1883. Surface, high 
rolling prairie for one-fourth territory, remainder, 
bottom lands; industries, farming, livestock, truck, 
dairying. Products, cotton, peanuts, variety of 
fruits, cattle. Transportation, H. & T. C. and the 
S. A. & A. P. Rys. Other important towns, Lexing- 
ton, Lincoln, Tanglewood and Northrop. 

LEON COUNTY— County seat, Centerville; area, 
1,066 square miles; pop., 18,236; situated in east cen- 
tral Texas; created and organized 1846. Surface, 
an alternation of hills and narrow valleys and ex- 
tended plateaus of level table land, all traversed by 
many running streams. Soil, bright yellow and a 
deep yellow alluvial, and stiff black waxy, chocolate, 
gray and red sandy loams. Industries, farming, 
truck, cattle. 

LIBERTY COUNTY— County seat, Liberty; area, 
1,100 square miles; pop., 14,637; located in south- 
east Texas; created and organized 1836. General 
surface, level prairie land; soil, very light sandy and 
sandy loam to deep black loam and black waxy. In- 
dustries, lumber, livestock, diversified farming, 
truck, mining. Products, cotton, rice, Irish potatoes, 
fruit, truck, sulphur, lumber. Transportation, T. & 
N. O., G. C. & S. F., H. E. & W. T., B. S. L. & W., 
Trinity Valley & Northern Rys. Mineral resources, 
sulphur and oil. Over 100 miles of fine shell 
road. Other towns, Dayton, Cleveland, Hardin, Mil- 
vid, Fuqua, Lamb, Devers, Graywood and Stilson. 

LIMESTONE COUNTY— County seat, Groesbeck; 
area, 987 square miles; pop., 33,283; situated east 
central Texas; created 1846. Products, cotton, fine 
cattle, horses, mules, hogs. The uncovering of the 
great high grade oil field in this county by Col. 
Humphreys in 1921 was the banner event of oil his- 
tory for the year. Mexia has become the oil metro- 
polis of the field. Transportation, H. & T. C, T. & 
B. V., St. L. S. W. Rys. Mineral resources, limestone 
rock, coal, oil, gas. Other towns, Mexia, Kosse, 
Thornton, Coolidge, Personville, Tehuacana. 

LIPSCOMB COUNTY— County seat, Lipscomb; 
area, 850 square 'miles; pop., 3,684; situated in the 
northeast corner of the Panhandle; created 1876; or- 
ganized 1887. Surface, somewhat broken in south- 
ern part, northern section, flat and level. Soil, 
sandy loam in southern half; northern half, black, 
rich and deep. Industries, live stock, diversified 
farming, horticulture, poultry raising. 



176 



COUNTIES 



LIVE OAK COUNTY— County seat, George West; 
area, 1,123 square miles; pop., 4,171; situated in the 
west coastal plains; created, 1856. Surface, gen- 
erally rolling, but much level land; soil, black loam 
to gray sandy and black waxy. Industries, livestock 
raising, slight farming. Products, cattle, staple 
crops, fruit for home use, honey. S. A. U. & G. Ry. 
Mineral deposits, coal, iron, lead, natural gas. 

LLANO COUNTY— County seat, Llano; area, 977 
square miles; pop., 5,360; situated near the geo- 
graphical center of Texas; created and organized 
1856. Surface, low mountain ranges between which 
are fertile valleys. Industries, stock raising, farm- 
ing. Products, cattle, sheep, goats, forage crops. 
Transportation, H. & T. C. Ey. Is one of the rich 
mineral districts of Texas — iron, mica, talc, garnet, 
ochres and magnesia, granite and rare minerals 
abound. Other towns, Kingsland, Castell, Valley 
Spring and Graphite. 

LOVING COUNTY— Created 1887 and is still un- 
organized, hence, no county seat; pop., 82; situated 
in west Texas, bordering New Mexico on the north; 
area, 872 square miles. Industry, stock raising. No 
railroads. 

LUBBOCK COUNTY— County seat, Lubbock; 
area, 982 square miles; pop., 11,026; situated in the 
plains country; created 1876; organized 1891. Sur- 
face, level plain with brakes along the Brazos River 
and its tributaries. Industries, farming, some fruit 
growing and stock raising. Products, cotton, corn, 
wheat, Panhandle staples, apples, plums, pears, 
peaches, grapes. Transportation, P. & N. T. Ry., 
Crossbyton & South Plains Ry. Other towns, Sla- 
ton, Posey and Idalou. 

LYNN COUNTY— County seat, Tahoka; area, 821 
square miles; pop., 4,751; located in the Plains; or- 
ganized 1903; created 1876. Surface level; soil, gray 
and black sandy loam soil. Industries, ranching and 
diversified farming. Products, cattle, milo maize, 
kaffir corn, wheat, oats, sorghum, alfalfa, apples, 
grapes, pears. Transportation, Pecos & Northern 
Texas Ry. 

MADISON COUNTY— County seat, Madisonville; 
area, 488 square miles; pop., 11,956; situated in east 
central Texas; created 1853; organized 1854. Sur- 
face, larger portion level, remainder, slightly roll- 
ing. Soil, river bottom rich alluvial, upland com- 
posed largely of various sandy loams. Industries, 
farming, livestock, fruit, poultry raising. 

MARION COUNTY— County seat, Jefferson; area 
384 square miles; pop., 10,886; situated in north- 
east Texas; created and organized 1860. Products, 
cotton, corn, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, peas and 
various truck, peaches, pears, figs. Transportation, 
T. & P., M. K. & T. and the Jefferson & N. W. Rys. 
Minerals, iron ore and lignite, oil also is found. 
Towns, Lodi, Kellyville, Lasater and Smithland. 

MARTIN COUNTY— County seat, Stanton; area, 
900 square miles; pop., 1,146; situated in west Texas, 
at the foot of the staked Plains; created 1876; organ- 
ized 1888. Surface, generally rolling, traversed by 
several draws; soil, red sandy, very porous, with an 
occasional spot of black waxy. Industry, cattle rais- 
ing, agriculture limited. Products, cattle, fruit for 
home use. Transportation, T. & P., P. & N. T. Rys. 

MASON COUNTY— County seat, Mason; area, 
968 square miles; pop., 4,824; located in west central 
Texas, a little south of central; created and organ- 



ized in 1858. Surface, diversified, varying from 
rolling prairie to mountains. Soils, red to sandy 
loam, dark loam. Industry, cattle, some farming 
and fruit growing. 

MATAGORDA COUNTY— County seat, Bay City; 
area, 1,135 square miles; pop., 16,589; situated on the 
Gulf coast, centrally located between the Sabine 
River and the Rio Grande. Organized 1837. Sur- 
face, mostly level prairie with a slight slope toward 
the Gulf. Soil varies from sandy loam to black hog- 
wallow. Industries, stock raising, agriculture, rice, 
fish and oyster business. Products, rice, feedstuff, 
horses, cattle, mules, hogs, cotton, corn, truck and 
fruit, oysters and fish, oil. Transportation, G. C. & 
S. F., St. L. B. & M. and the G. H. & S. A. Rys. Na- 
tural resources, oil, traces of gas. Interest in good 
roads. Other cities, Palacios, Blessing, College 
Port, Matagorda and Markham. 

MAVERICK COUNTY— County seat, Eagle Pass; 
area, 1,332 square miles; pop., 7,418; located in 
southwest Texas, on the Mexican border; created 
1856 and organized 1871. Surface, generally roil- 
ing; soil ranges from sandy loam to black lands, 
alluvial soils. Industries, live stock and farming. 
Products, cotton, onions, truck and cotton. 
Transportation, G. H. & S. A. Ry. Natural re- 
sources, bituminous coal, fire clay, gas a~d oil. 

MCCULLOCH COUNTY— County sea 4 ;, Brady; 
area, 1,100 square miles; pop., 11,020; heated west 
central Texas; created 1856; organized j.876. Sur- 
face, mainly rolling; soils various, deep I lack along 
streams, dark chocolate in northern portion, sandy 
loam on uplands, some light sandy soil — all very 
fertile and productive. Industries, live si^ck rais- 
ing, farming, truck. 

MCLENNAN COUNTY— County seat Waco; 
area 1,080 square miles; pop., 82,921; locate I in east 
central Texas; created and organized 1850. I roducts, 
cotton, corn, oats, other staples, cattle, hoj s, horses, 
honey, dairy products, truck and fruit products. 
Transportation, H. & T. C, M. K. & T., S. A, & A. P., 
St. L. S. W., T. C, I. & G. N., G. C. & S, F. Rys. 
Towns, McGregor, Moody, Mart, Eddy, West, Craw- 
ford, Lorena, Riesel, Ross. Good roads. 

MCMULLEN COUNTY— County seat, Tilden; 
area, 1,180 square miles; pop., 952; situated in south- 
west Texas, south of San Antonio; created 1858; or- 
ganized 1877. Surface, generally level, broken by a 
few abrupt elevations; soil, for the most part black 
sandy and very productive. Industry, livestock, some 
agriculture. Products, cattle, honey. Transporta- 
tion, S. A. U. & G. Ry. Mineral deposit?, lignite 
and clays; oil and natural gas. Crowth-r is an- 
other important town of the county. 

MEDINA COUNTY— County seat, Ho.-do; area, 
1,284 square miles; pop., 11,679; situated in south- 
west Texas, adjoining Bexar County on ftie West; 
created and organized 1848. Surface, rolling prairie, 
broken by many fertile valleys, northern p „rt, moun- 
tainous; soil, varies from a sandy to a black waxy, 
latter predominating. Occupations, farming, stock 
raising. Products, cotton, corn, oats, forage crops, 
pecans. 

MENARD COUNTY— County seat, Menard; area 
888 square miles; pop., 3,162; located in west cen- 
tral Texas; created 1858; organized 1871. Surface, 
rolling and hilly, broad and fertile v dleys. Soil, 



177 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



sandy. Industries, live stock, farming. Products, 
cotton, corn, alfalfa, wheat, oats, hay, onions, pota- 
toes, various kinds of truck. Transportation, Ft. W. 
& R. G. (Frisco) Ry. Natural resources, limestone, 
building- rock, good brick clay. 

MIDLAND COUNTY— County seat, Midland; 
area. 972 square miles; pop., 2,449; located in west 
Texas in the south Plains; created and organized 
1885. Surface, level, slightly rolling in some sec- 
tions. Soil, red and dark loam nature with a clay 
foundation. Industry, live stock. Transportation, 
T. & P. Ry. 

MILAM COUNTY— County seat, Cameron; area, 
1,044 square miles; pop., 38,104; situated in central 
Texas; organized 1836. Industries, agriculture, cot- 
ton, all staple crops, Elberta peaches, plums, pears, 
pecans shipped by the carloads, honey. Transporta- 
tion, G. C. & S. P., S. A. & A. P., I. & G. N. Rys. 
Good roads. Mineral resources, lignite coal. Towns, 
Rockdale, Thorndale, Buckholts, Burlington, Gause, 
Milano, Ben Ai'nold and Davilla. 

MILLS COUNTY— County seat, Goldthwaite; 
area, 700 square miles; pop., 9,019; situated in cen- 
tral Texas, created 1887, organized in the same year. 
Surface, rolling; soil, rich, alluvial, black waxy. In- 
dustries, farming, stock raising, poultry raising. 
Products, cotton, corn, oats, alfalfa, fine cattle, 
sheep, goats, wool, mohair, turkeys. Transporta- 
tion, G. C. & S. F. Ry. Natural resources, fine lime 
and sandstone. Town, Mullin. 

MITCHELL COUNTY— County seat, Colorado; 
area, 807 square miles; pop., 7,527; west Texas coun- 
ty, created 1876; organized 1881. Surface, slightly 
rolling, level land with few hills. Soil, close dark 
loam, sandy loam with clay subsoil. Industries, 
farming, livestock, horticulture. Products, usual 
west Texas staple crops, peaches, plums, apricots, 
berries. Transportation, T. & P. and the Roscoe, 
Snyder & Pacific Rys. Salt deposits. Other towns, 
Loraine, Westbrook. 

MONTAGUE COUNTY— County seat, Montague; 
area, 976 square miles; pop., 22,200; situated in 
north Texas, bordering the Red River; created 1857; 
organized 1858. Surface, undulating; soil, sandy 
loam, red clay, black sandy loam, deep clay soil. In- 
dustries, farming, live stock, horticulture. Products, 
usual west Texas staple crops, peaches, plums, apri- 
cots, berries. Transportation, Ft. W. & D. C, C. R. 
I. & G., M. K. & T. Rys. Good highways. Towns, 
Stoneburg, Sunset, Bonita, Nocona, St. Jo, Reioher- 
ville and Hardy. 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY— County seat, Conroe; 
area, 1,066 square miles; pop., 17,334; situated in 
southeast Texas, created and organized 1837. Sur- 
face, flat prairie and gently rolling plain; soil, allu- 
vial, sandy loam. Industries, live stock, agriculture, 
fruit. Products, cotton, corn, potatoes, peanuts, 
fruits, cattle, tobacco, cabbage, tomatoes, peaches, 
pears, plums. Transportation, I. & G. N., G. C. & 
S. F., T. & B. V., H. E. & W. T., Peach River & 
Gulf Rys. Mineral deposits, iron ore, good quality 
of brick clay. Towns, Willis, Montgomery, Fostoria, 
Magnolia, Dobbin. 

MOORE COUNTY— County seat, Dumas; area, 
885 square miles; pop., 571; located in the northern 
part of the Panhandle; created 1876; organized 1892. 
Industries, live stock, agriculture. Products, cattle 
and all the staple Panhandle crops, including alfalfa, 



broom corn, sorghum. Transportation, Enid, Ochil- 
tree & Western Ry. 

MORRIS COUNTY— County seat, Daingerfield; 
area, 278 square miles; pop., 10,289; located in 
northeast Texas; created 1875; organized 1876. Sur- 
face, generally level, excepting southern portion 
where it is rolling and hilly; soil, rich alluvial, sandy, 
chocolate-colored land. Industries, diversified farm- 
ing, truck, stock raising, poultry. Products, cotton, 
corn, all the leading staple crops, potatoes, melons, 
cantaloupes, cabbage and other truck, peaches, fine 
horses, mules, hogs. Transportation, M. K. & T., St. 
L. & S. W. Rys. Mineral deposits, coal, iron, brick 
clay. Other towns, Naples, Omaha, Cason. 

MOTLEY COUNTY— County seat, Matador; area, 
984 square miles; pop., 4,107; partly on the plains 
and partly in the Panhandle; created 1876; organ- 
ized 1891. Surface, broken and rolling, consider- 
able level land between the breaks; soil varies from 
a stiff black to a sandy, underlaid with clay and red 
clay soil. Industries, live stock and farming. Pro- 
ducts, cotton, alfalfa, usual Panhandle staples, 
peaches, apples, plums. Railroad, Quanah, Acme & 
Pacific. Matador, the county seat, is reached by 
stage from Floydada in Floyd County, and from 
Paducah in Cottle County, daily. 

NACOGDOCHES COUNTY— County seat, Nacog- 
doches; area, 962 square miles; pop., 28,457; located 
in east Texas, one county removed from Louisiana, 
organized 1837. Industries, farming, lumber, fruit 
and truck, livestock. Products, cotton, peanuts, for- 
age crops, peaches, plums, lumber, (pine and hard- 
wood). Transportation, H. E. & W. T., T. & N. O., 
N. & S. E., C. & N., A. & N. R. & D. Rys. Mineral 
resources, lignite, valuable clays. Towns, Garrison, 
Cushing, Sacul, Traweek, Mahl, Melrose, Chireno, 
Swift, Martinville, Attoyac and Wodin. 

NAVARRO COUNTY— County seat, Corsicana; 
area, 1,136 square miles; pop., 50,624; situated 
northeast of central Texas; created 1846. Surface, 
generally level, broken only by valleys which lie be- 
tween no hills; soil, black waxy, sandy loam. Indus- 
tries, agriculture, horticulture, oil. Products, cotton, 
grains, corn, alfalfa, peanuts, other forage and feed 
crops, peaches, grapes, plums, melons, oil and oil 
products, horses, mules, hogs. In 1921 high grade 
oil was discovered in this county which has devel- 
oped into further territory. Corsicana is right at 
the heart of this field which has become one of the 
most productive in the southwest. Transportation, 
T. & B. V., H. & T. C, St. L. S. W. Rys. Natural re- 
sources, lignite, limestone, brick clay and natural 
gas. Other towns, Kerens, Dawson, Blooming Grove, 
Rice and Powell. Excellent highways. 

NEWTON COUNTY— County seat, Newton; area, 
903 square miles; pop., 12,196; located in east Texas, 
bordering on Louisiana; created and organized 1846. 
Surface southern half level, northern half hilly and 
slightly broken. Industry, lumber, slight farming 
and livestock. Products, hardwood and pine lumber, 
cotton, ribbon cane, potatoes, peanuts. Transporta- 
tion, Orange and Northwestern, G. C. & S. F., Jas- 
per & East Texas, K. C. So. Rys. Natural resources, 
iron ore, traces of oil. Towns of the county, Hart- 
burg, Ruliff, Dewey, Call, Bleakwood, Adsul. 

NOLAN COUNTY— County seat, Sweetwater; 
area, 828 square miles; pop., 10,868; located in cen- 
tral west Texas; created 1876; organized 1881. Sur- 



178 



COUNTIES 



face, high, rolling uplands, depressed at intervals 
into broad level valleys. Soil, chiefly reddish dark 
loam, with areas of deep waxy lime land inter- 
spersed. Industries, stock raising, diversified farm- 
ing, and manufacturing. Products, cotton, corn, kaf- 
fir corn, sorghum, maize, fine animals. Transporta- 
tion, T. & P., P. & N. T., K. C. M. & O. and the Ros- 
coe, Snyder & Pacific Rys. Natural resources, build- 
ing stones. Towns of the county, Roscoe and 
Hyltom. 

NUECES COUNTY— County seat, Corpus Christi; 
area, 1,108 square miles; pop., 22,807; located on 
the southwest Gulf coast; created and organized 
1846. Surface, generally level, slight slope toward 
the Gulf and Corpus Christi Bay; soils vary from 
dark sandy loam to a light sandy with occasional 
stretches of black waxy. Industries, farming, truck, 
live stock, apiculture. Products, cotton, corn, forage 
crops, cabbage, onions, blooded and graded cattle, 
figs, grapes and other fruits, honey, fish and oysters. 
Transportation, St. L. B. & M., Texas Mexican, and 
the S. A. & A. P. Rys. Corpus Christi has a national 
fame as a health and pleasure resort. Other cities, 
Robstown, Bishop, Rabb and Driscoll. 

OCHILTREE COUNTY— County seat, Ochiltree; 
area, 864 square miles; pop., 2,331; situated in the 
Panhandle, in the northern tier of counties; created 
1876, organized 1889. Surface, level plains; soil, 
black and gray loam. Industries, stock raising, agri- 
culture, apiculture. Products, cattle, wheat, feed- 
stuffs, apples, plums, peaches berries, honey. No 
railroad. 

OLDHAM COUNTY— County seat, Tascosa; area, 
1,470 square miles; pop., 709; situated in the Pan- 
handle, bordering New Mexico; created 1876; organ- 
ized 1881. Surface, northern portion broken and 
hilly, southern level plains; soils, light sandy to a 
chocolate loam with a dark sandy loam in the val- 
leys. Industries, stock raising and farming and 
fruit growing only in a limited .way. Products, 
cattle. Transportation, Ft. W. & D. C, C. R. I. & G. 
Rys. Natural resources, sandstone, oil and gas. 
Towns, Adrin, Vega, and Wildorado. 

ORANGE COUNTY— County seat, Orange; area, 
392 square miles; pop., 15,379; located in southeast 
Texas, bordering the state of Louisiana. Created 
and organized 1852. Surface, level and heavily tim- 
bered, soil, sandy loam, black and gray subsoil. In- 
dustries, lumber, stock raising, farming, rice, fruit 
and truck growing. Products, lumber, livestock, rice, 
corn, potatoes, vegetables, fig and orange orchards, 
poultry. Transportation, T. & N. O., O. & N. W., 
K. C. S., G. C. & S. F. Rys. Natural resources, oil, gas. 
Towns, quite a number of small towns and saw mill 
camps along all railroads. 

PALO PINTO COUNTY— County seat, Palo 
Pinto; area, 971 square miles; pop., 23,431; situated 
in north Texas, one county removed from Ft. Worth; 
created 1856; organized 1857. Products, fine stock, 
cotton, all north and west Texas staples, pears, 
peaches, grapes and berries. Transportation, T. & 
P., W. M. & N. W., and the Gulf, Texas and Western 
Rys. Minerals, coal, sandstone, limestone, brick and 
fire clay; natural gas has been discovered, as also 
mineral waters. Towns, Mineral Wells, Gordon and 
Strawn. 

PANOLA COUNTY— County seat, Carthage; area 
814 square miles; pop., 21,755; located east Texas; 



created and organized 1846. Surface, level to rolling 
with hills along streams; soil largely sandy loam, 
bottom land soil dark and very productive. Indus- 
tries, diversified farming, horticulture, apiculture, 
poultry, stock raising. Products, cotton, peaches, 
fine horses, mules. Transportation, Santa Fe, Timp- 
son & Henderson Rys. Natural resources, brick, 
clay, traces of oil. Towns, Beckville, Gary, Woods, 
Clayton and DeBerry. 

PARKER COUNTY— County seat, Weatherford; 
area, 888 square miles; pop., 23,382; located in north 
central Texas; created 1855, organized 1856. Sur- 
face, rolling prairie in southern portion, broken by 
the Brazos valley, in northern section, considerable 
level land, some hills, soil, nearly every character of 
soil. Industries, agriculture, horticulture, poultry, 
dairying. Products, cotton, all the staple crops, 
peaches, pears, plums, apples, honey. Transporta- 
tion, T. & P., G. C. & S. F., W. & N. W., G. T. & W. 
Rys. Natural resources, coal, building stone, pot- 
ter's clay and brick clay. Good roads. Towns, Spring- 
town, Millsap, Poolville, Aledo, Peaster. 

PARMER COUNTY— County seat, Farwell; area, 
873 square miles; pop., 1699; located in the Pan- 
handle, bordering New Mexico; created 1876, or- 
ganized 1907. Surface, level plain; soil, rich, red 
loam, very productive. Industries, live stock, diver- 
sified farming on a small scale. Transportation, 
P. & N. T. Ry. Towns, Friona, Bovinia. 

PECOS COUNTY— County seat, Ft. Stockton; 
area 5,536 square miles; pop., 3,857; situated in west 
Texas, generally known as southwest Texas, one 
county removed from the Rio Grande. Created 1871, 
organized 1875. Surface smooth and level in the 
north and in the south, hills. Industry, stock raising. 
Products, cattle, alfalfa, grains, home fruits. Trans- 
portation, K. C. M. & O. Ry. Other towns, Buena 
Vista and Sheffield. 

POLK COUNTY — County seat, Livingston; area, 
1,100 square miles; pop., 16,784; located in southeast 
Texas; created and organized 1846. Products, cot- 
ton, corn, potatoes, sugar cane, peanuts, peaches, 
plums, figs, fine dairy animals. Transportation, H. 
E. & W. T., B. & G. N., M. K. & T., Moscow, Cam- 
den & San Augustine and the Livingston & South- 
eastern Rys. Mineral resources, sandstone and 
brick clay. Towns, Onalaska, New Willard, Camden, 
Corrigan, Moscow and Leggett. 

POTTER COUNTY— County seat, Amarillo; area, 
874 square miles; pop., 16,710 square miles; situated 
in Panhandle; created 1876, organized 1887. Sur- 
face, half is level, remainder is of breaks and val- 
leys; soil varies from chocolate loam to silt sand. 
Industries, live stock, farming; products, cattle, 
wheat, kaffir corn, milo maize, broom corn, poultry. 
Transportation, C. R. I. & G., S. K. of T. (Santa Fe) 
P. & N. T., Ft. W. & D. C. Rys. Natural resources, 
brick and tile clay. Good roads. Towns. Fields, 
Simmons, Cliffside, Folsom, Pullman and St. Fran- 
cis. 

PRESIDIO COUNTY— County seat, Marfa; area, 
2,652 square miles; pop., 12,202; located in the Big 
Bend of the Rio Grande in west southwest Texas; 
created 1850, organized 1875. Surface, mountainous 
in the west and southern parts, in eastern and north- 
ern, level. Industry, goat raising, wool, cattle. Pro- 
ducts, sheep, goats, cattle. Soil, rich, volcanic in 
origin, chocolate in color. Transportation, G. H. & 
S. A., K. C. M. & O. Rys. Natural resources, traces 



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NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



of silver, copper, lead, gold, marble, limestone and 
granite, indications of oil. Towns, Shafter, Presidio, 
Candelaria. Rindora. 

RAINS COUNTY— County seat, Emory; area, 252 
square miles; pop., 8,099; situated in northeast 
Texas; created and organized 1870. Surface, slight- 
ly rolling; soils, vary from chocolate to black waxy 
in western portion, dark sandy in eastern. Indus- 
tries, diversified farming, poultry, live stock, agri- 
culture; products, all the staple crop, Irish potatoes, 
peaches, plums, berries, tomatoes, honey. Transpor- 
tation, M. K. & T. and the Texas Short Line Rys. 
Natural resources, brick clay and lignite. Towns, 
Point, Golff, Dunbar and Ginger. 

RANDALL COUNTY— County seat, Canyon; area 
872 square miles; pop., 3,675; located in the Pan- 
handle, created 1876, organized 1889. Surface, gen- 
erally level, broken by two canyons. Soil, dark, choc- 
olate loam. Industries, stock raising, farming, fruit 
and poultry growing; products, cattle, kaffir corn, 
milo maize, wheat, oats, barley, sugar beets, plums, 
grapes, cherries, apples, poultry. Transportation, 
P. & N. T. Ry. (Santa Fe). 

REAGAN COUNTY— County seat, Stiles; area, 
1,190 square miles; pop., 377; located in west south- 
west Texas, created and organized 1903. Surface, 
generally level; soil, dark chocolate to black, light 
chocolate to gray. Chief industry, live stock rais- 
ing. Transportation, K. C. M. & 0. Ry. 

REAL COUNTY— County seat, Leakey; area, 
700.8 square miles; pop., 1,461; created and organ- 
ized 1913, taken from Edwards, Bandera and Kerr 
Counties. General description is covered in the 
sketches of these counties as conditions are the 
same. 

RED RIVER COUNTY— County seat, Clarksville; 
area, 1,061 square miles; pop., 35,829; situated in 
northeast Texas on the Red River; created 1836, or- 
ganized 1837. Surface, gentle and rolling, prairie 
land; soil, one-fourth black waxy, in the river bot- 
tom, rich alluvial, on the prairie land, gray loam. 
Industries, farming, livestock raising, dairying; pro- 
ducts, staple crops of north Texas, fine horses, 
mules, dairy animals. Transportation, T. & P. and 
Paris & Mt. Pleasant Rys. No paved highways, but 
split log drag keeps roads in good condition. Towns, 
Annona, Avery, Detroit, Woodland, Manchester, Ful- 
bright, Rugby, Bogata and Halesboro. 

REEVES COUNTY— County seat, Pecos; area, 
2,610 square miles; pop., 4,457; located in southwest 
Texas, created 1883, organized 1884. Surface, gen- 
erally level, soils, deep chocolate and sandy loam. 
Industries, stock raising, farming, horticulture; pro- 
ducts, cattle, alfalfa, grains, forage crops, fruits, 
vegetables, melons, cantaloupes. Transportation, T. 
& P. Pecos River (Santa Fe), Pecos Valley South- 
ern, Rys. Natural resources, oil, gold, discovered but 
not developed. Towns, Toyah, Balmorhea, Saragosa. 

REFUGIO COUNTY— County seat, Refugio; area, 
802 square miles; pop., 4,050; located in the west 
Gulf coast country, an original county, organized 
1837. Surface rolling; soil, black, waxy, hog wal- 
low, sandy loam. Industries, live stock, diversified 
farming, apiculture; products, cotton, figs, grapes, 



pears, cattle. Transportation, St. L. B. & M. Ry. 
Towns, Woodsboro, Bayside and Tivoli. 

ROBERTS COUNTY— County seat, Miami; area, 
860 square miles; pop., 1,469; situated in the north- 
east corner of the Panhandle; created 1876; organ- 
ized 1889. Surface, one-half rolling, one-fourth 
level, remainder broken and hilly. Soil, black loam, 
alluvial, sandy loam. Industries, farming and live 
stock raising; products, corn, cotton, alfalfa, cattle. 
Transportation, S. K. Ry. of T. (Santa Fe). 

ROBERTSON COUNTY— County seat, Franklin; 
area, 913 square miles; pop., 27,933; located in cen- 
tral east Texas; created 1837; organized 1838. Pro- 
ducts, cotton and corn, sugar cane, sorghum, various 
forms of truck, live stock, peaches, pears, straw- 
berries, plums, figs and melons, honey, poultry, tur- 
keys, eggs. Transportation, I. & G. N., H. & T. C. 
and the H. & B. V. Rys. Natural resources, coal and 
lignite. Towns, Calvert, Hearne and Bremond. 

ROCKWALL COUNTY— County seat, Rockwall; 
area, 171 square miles; pop., 8,591; located in north 
Texas, created and organized 1873; is the smallest 
county in the state. Products, cotton, corn, oats, 
wheat, forage crops, vegetables, peaches, plums, 
grapes, honey. Transportation, M. K. & T. and E. T. 
Traction Co. Interurban. Natural resources, brick 
clay. Towns, Royse City, Fate, Chisholm, Heath, 
McLendons and Munson. 

RUNNELS COUNTY— County seat, Ballinger; 
area 1073 square miles; pop., 17,074; located central 
west Texas. Created 1858; organized 1880. Sur- 
face, generally waxy; soil, hog wallow, sandy loam, 
little black waxy. Industries, general farming, fruit 
growing, poultry and pecan interests. Products, all 
the central west Texas staple crops, forage crops, 
broom corn, peaches, plums, grapes, apricots, pecans, 
fine chickens, eggs. Transportation, G. C. & S. F., 
A. & So., and the S. S. & L. V. Rys. Natural re- 
sources, limestone. Towns, Winters, Miles and Row- 
ena. 

RUSK COUNTY— County seat, Henderson; area, 
915 square miles; pop., 31689; located in east Texas; 
created and organized 1843. Surface, rolling, high. 
Products, lumber, Irish and sweet potatoes, cabbage, 
tomatoes, other form of truck, peanuts, peas, other 
crops of like nature, peaches, apples, plums; is one 
of the most productive truck and fruit counties of 
Texas. Transportation, I. & G. N., G. C. & S. F. and 
the C. & N. Rys. Natural resources, clay, iron ore, 
lignite and marble, traces of oil and gas. Towns, 
Overton, Tatum, Mt. Enterprise, Glenfawn, Minden, 
Laneville. 

SABINE COUNTY— County seat, Hemphill; area, 
577 square miles; pop., 12,299; lies in East Texas, 
bordering Louisiana; an original county, organized 
1837. Products, lumber, field crops, fruits and vege- 
tables. Yellow pine and hardwood constitute the 
lumber output. Transportation, G. C. & S. F. Ry. 
Natural resources, iron, lead, traces of copper, indi- 
cations of oil. Towns, Bronson, Brookland and Pine- 
land. 

SAN AUGUSTINE COUNTY— County seat, San 
Augustine; area, 570 square miles; pop., 13,737; sit- 
uated in east Texas in the timber belt; an original 



180 



COUNTIES 



county. Surface, southern part practically level, 
northern section hilling and rolling; soil, black waxy, 
chocolate loam and gray sandy, considerable Orange- 
burg soil. Industries, lumber, tobacco, fruit and 
truck-growing. Products, lumber, (pine and hard- 
wood), tobacco, all kinds of vegetables and fruits. 
Transportation, G. C. & S. F., St. L. S. W. Rys. 
Natural resources, iron ore, oil, gas. 

SAN JACINTO COUNTY— County seat, Cold 
Spring; area, 636 square miles, pop., 9,867; located 
in southeast Texas, created and organized 1870. Sur- 
face, mostly level; soil, rich black, sandy loam, some 
black waxy. Industries, lumber, live stock, farming, 
truck, apiculture; products, lumber, cotton, corn, 
cane, potatoes and truck, honey. Transportation, H. 
E. & W. T. and the Trinity Valley Southern Rys. 
Natural resources, iron, silver, sulphur and mica, 
sandstone and brick clay. Towns, Shepherd, Oak- 
hurst, Evergreen, Point Blank and Camilla. 

SAN PATRICIO COUNTY— County seat, Sinton; 
area, 685 square miles; pop., 11,386; located in the 
west coast country; one of the original counties, or- 
ganized in 1836. Products, cotton, grapes, figs, rasp- 
berries, melons, various truck. Transportation, St. 
L. B. & M. and the S. A. & A. P. Rys. Natural re- 
sources, brick clay, lime and sandstone. Towns, Ar- 
ansas Pass, one of the deep water harbors of Texas, 
Gregory, Mathis, Patricio, Taft, Engleside, Portland, 
St. Paul and Angelita. 

SAN SABA COUNTY— County seat, San Saba; 
area, 1,150; pop., 10,045; located in west central 
Texas; created and organized 1856. Surface, 
broken; soil, some black waxy, red and gray to black 
sandy loam. Industries, live stock, agriculture, hor- 
ticulture, apiculture, poultry. Products, cotton, corn, 
onions, potatoes, vegetables, pecans, pears, peaches, 
plums, grapes, cattle. Transportation, G. C. & S. F. 
Ry. Natural resources, coal, iron, marble, sandstone 
and limestone, brick and fire clay. Towns, Richland 
Springs, Cherokee. 

SCHLEICHER COUNTY— County seat, Eldorado; 
area, 1,355 square miles; pop., 1,851; situated in 
southwest Texas; created 1887; organized 1901. Sur- 
face, rolling, much level land; soil, black loam. In- 
dustries, live stock, farming. Products, cattle, staple 
western crops. No railroads. Natural resources, 
limestone, white brick clay. 

SCURRY COUNTY— County seat, Snyder; area, 
821 square miles; pop., 9,003; located in west Texas; 
created 1876; organized 1884. Products, cattle, hogs, 
cotton, Panhandle staple crops, peaches, plums, apri- 
cots, small fruits. Transportation, R. S. & P., and the 
P. & N. T. Rys. Towns, Fluvanna, Hermleigh, Ira, 
Dunn. 

SHACKELFORD COUNTY— County seat, Al- 
bany; area, 926 square miles; pop., 4,960; situated 
northwest of central Texas;, created 1858; organized 
1874. Surface, hilly and mountainous in western por- 
tion, hills in eastern section but much level land; 
soil, red alluvial, chocolate loams, sandy land on up- 
lands. Industry, stock raising, slight farming. Prod- 
ucts, high grade beef cattle, sheep and hogs. Trans- 



portation, T. C. Ry. Natural resources, limestone, 
natural gas, oil. Town, Moran. 

SHELBY COUNTY— County seat, Center; area, 
814 square miles; pop., 27,464; located in east Texas; 
borders on the Sabine River; organized 1837. Pro- 
ducts, lumber, (pine and hardwood), cotton, sugar 
cane, syrup, potatoes, peanuts, truck, fruits abun- 
dant. Transportation, G. C. & S. F., H. E. & W. T., 
T. N. W. and the T. & G. Rys. Natural resources, 
iron ore, coal, limestone. Traces of oil and gas, 
Good roads. Towns, Timpson, Tenaha, Joaquin, 
Shelbyville, Waterman, Patroon and Newville. 

SHERMAN COUNTY— County seat, Stratford; 
area, 900 square miles; pop., 1,473; located in north- 
ern part of Panhandle. Created 1876; organized 
1889. Surface, generally level, cut by several deep 
creek valleys, lake basins; soil, dark loam, some 
sandy. Industries, diversified farming, stock rais- 
ing, fruit growing; products, wheat, all Panhandle 
staples, cattle, cherries, plums, peaches, pears. 
Transportation, C. R. I. & G. Ry. Town, Texhoma, 

SMITH COUNTY— Tyler, county seat; area, 984 
square miles; pop., 46,769; located in east Texas, 
north of the center; created 1846 and organized the 
same year. Products, cotton, lumber, corn, sugar 
cane, peaches, strawberries, sweet potatoes, toma- 
toes, garden truck, swine, dairy cattle. Transporta- 
tion, St. L. S. W., I. & G. N. and the T. & P. Rys. 
Natural resources, iron ore, clay and immense salt 
deposits. Towns, Arp, Troup, Bullard, Lindale, Wi- 
nona, Mt. Sylvan, Omen, Flint and White House. 

SOMERVELL COUNTY— Glenrose, county seat; 
area, 200 square miles; pop., 3,563; located central 
Texas; created and organized 1875. Surface, broken 
by rocky hills, rich fertile valleys between. Indus- 
tries, farming, fruit growing, live stock. Products, 
cotton, corn, grains, forage crops, apples, peaches, 
pears, plums, berries, pure breeds of cattle. No 
railroads. Natural resources, brick clay, limestone, 
natural cement, coal and road material; traces of oil 
and gas. 

STEPHENS COUNTY— Breckenridge, county 
seat; area, 926 square miles; pop., 15,403; located in 
north central Texas; created 1858; organized 1860. 
Industries, oil, live stock, farming; products, oil and 
oil products, cotton, grains, live stock. Transporta- 
tion, T. & P. Ry. Natural resources, oil, gas, coal. 
Other towns, Caddo, Wayland and Gunsight. 

STERLING COUNTY— County seat, Sterling 
City; area, 975 square miles; pop., 1,053; located 
west Texas; organized and created 1891. Products, 
cattle and sheep, horses, mules and hogs. Few farm 
crops, west Texas staples. Transportation, C. L. & 
S. S. V. Ry. Natural resources, iron, gypsum, lime- 
stone, traces of platinum, gold, gas. 

STONEWALL COUNTY— County seat, Asper- 
mont; area, 777 square miles; pop., 4,086; a north- 
west Texas county, created 1876; organized 1888. 
Surface, rough, broken and rolling with hills and 
canyons; soil varies from sandy loam to a black 
waxy. Live stock and farming in a small way, fruit 
growing, are the industries; products, staple crops, 



181 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



melons, cantaloupes, potatoes, peaches, plums, apri- 
cots, apples, grapes, berries. Transportation, W. V. 
Ry. Towns, Peacock. 

SUTTON COUNTY— County seat, Sonora; area, 
1,517 square miles, pop., 1,598; located in southwest 
Texas, one county removed from the Rio Grande; 
created 1887; organized 1890. Surface, generally 
broken succession of hills and valleys; soil, black loam, 
reddish soil. Industries, live stock, farming. Products, 
cattle, feedstuffs, fruits, vegetables. Transportation, 
no railroads. 

SWISHER COUNTY— County seat, Tulia; area, 
850 square miles; pop., 4,388; located in the lower 
tier of Panhandle counties; created 1876; organized 
1890. Surface, level, five per cent broken; soils, 
black and red to gray sandy loam. Farming and 
fruit growing are the industries. Products, wheat, 
oats, kaffir corn, maize, sorghum, vegetables, ap- 
ples, peaches, plums, live stock. Transportation, P. 
& N. T. Ry. Towns, Kress and Happy. 

TARRANT COUNTY— County seat, Ft. Worth; 
area, 900 square miles; pop., 152,800; located in 
north Texas; created 1849; organized 1850. Pro- 
ducts, dairy and beef cattle, hogs, horses, mules, 
berries, peaches, plums. Transportation, G. C. & 
S. F., W. & D. C, T. & B. V., T. & P., H. & T. C, 
M. K. & T., C. R. I. & G., I. & G. N., St. L. S. W., 
Ft. W. & R. G. (Frisco), Ft. Worth Belt, N. T. Trac- 
tion Co. and the Southern Traction Co. of Ft. Worth, 
Rys. Excellent highways. Towns of Arlington, 
Grapevine, Mansfield and Polytechnic. Ft. Worth is 
the fourth city in Texas as to size and is one of the 
leading packing house and stock markets of the 
southwest. 

TAYLOR COUNTY— County seat, Abilene; area, 
900 square miles; pop., 24,081; located in central 
west Texas; created 1858; organized 1887. Industries, 
live stock, dairying, poultry raising, diversified 
farming products, grains, cotton, milo maize, kaffir 
corn, forage crops, peaches, grapes, cattle. Transpor- 
tation, W. V., A. & S., T. & P. and the P. & N. T. 
Rys. Natural resources, limestone. Naturally good 
roads. Towns, Merkel, Ovalo, Buffalo Gap. 

TERRELL COUNTY— County seat, Sanderson; 
area, 2,776 square miles; pop., 1,595; located in 
southwest Texas, bordering on the Rio Grande. Cre- 
ated and organized 1895. Surface, broken by large 
ranges of mountains and canyons; soil, rich and 
deep to rocky. Industries, cattle raising, manufac- 
turing. Products, cattle, sheep, horses, goats, manu- 
factured articles, as twine, rope and sacking, rub- 
ber. Tansportation, G. H. & S. A. Ry. Natural 
resources, building stone. 

TERRY COUNTY— County seat, Brownfield; 
area, 828 square miles; pop., 2,236; one of the Plains 
counties of northwest Texas; created 1876; organized 
1904. Surface, slightly rolling, broken by few draws 
and basins; soil, red sandy loam. Industry, stock rais- 
ing, some farming and small orchards. Products, 
cattle, kaffir corn, cotton, apples, peaches and 
grapes. Gomes is another town of the county. 

THROCKMORTON COUNT Y— County seat, 
Throckmorton; area, 821 square miles; pop., 3,589; 



located in north Texas, west of central, cre- 
ated 1858; organized 1879. Surface, slightly roll- 
ing; soil, deep rich sandy loam and gray sandy. In- 
dustries, diversified farming, fruit and truck grow- 
ing. Products, various central Texas fruits, toma- 
toes, peaches. Transportation, St. L. S. W., M. K. & 
T. and the P. & M. Rys. Natural resources, lignite, 
brick and pottery clay. Towns, Winfield and Cook- 
ville. 

TOM GREEN COUNTY— County seat, San An- 
gelo; area, 1,363 square miles; pop., 15,210; created 
1874; oi'ganized 1875; located in west Texas. Pro- 
ducts, sheep, goats, horses, hogs, cattle, cotton, al- 
falfa, all west Texas staple crops; transportation, 
G. C. & S. F., K. C. M. & O., C. L. & S. S. V. Rys. 
Natural resources, brick clay, traces of oil. Towns, 
Water Valley, Woodland, Knickerbocker, Christoval. 
San Angelo is one of the important west Texas 
cities, has large manufacturing industry and is 
wholesale and distributing point for a vast terri- 
tory. 

TRAVIS COUNTY— County seat, Austin, also 
capital of the State of Texas; area, 1,036 square 
miles; pop., 57,616; situated in south central Texas; 
created and organized 1840. Surface, rolling, moun- 
tainous in sections; soil, sandy loam, black waxy, 
very fertiles. Industries, stock raising, farming. 
Products, live stock, usual staple products as cot- 
ton, corn, oats, feedstuffs, truck and fruit. Transpor- 
tation, M. K. & T., I. & G. N., H. & T. C. Rys. Nat- 
ural resources, brick clay, traces of oil and gas. Good 
roads. Towns, Manor, Littig and Manchaca. 

TRINITY COUNTY— County seat, Groveton; 
area, 704 square miles; pop., 13,623; situated in 
east Texas; created and organized 1850. Products, 
cattle, cotton, corn, potatoes, peas and peanuts, ber- 
ries, melons, figs, honey. Transportation, M. K. & 
T., B. & G. N., I. & G. N., E. T., the G. L. & N., 
and the T. S. E. Rys. Natural resources, lignite, 
asphalt, salt, chalk and sulphur, clay. Good high- 
ways. Towns, Trinity, Saron, Pennington, Helmic and 
Centralia. 

TYLER COUNTY— County seat, Woodville; area, 
925 square miles; pop., 10,415; located in east 
Texas; created and organized 1846. Surface, high 
and rolling in northern part, level plain in the 
southern portion; soil, light sandy, rich black land. 
Industries, fruit and truck growing, farming. Pro- 
ducts, all manner of east Texas fruits and vege- 
tables, cotton, corn and other staples. Transporta- 
tion, T. & O., M. K. & T. and the W. & C. P. Rys. 
Natural resources, sandstone and brick clay, traces 
of oil. Towns, Warren, Rockland, Doucett. 

UPSHUR COUNTY— County seat, Gilmer; area, 
527 square miles; pop., 22,472; located in north- 
east Texas; created and organized 1846. Sur- 
face, undulating, sloping and northwest to south- 
west; soil, dark sandy, red sandy and a light sandy 
with an occasional streak of stiff black waxy land. 
Industries, lumber, fruit growing, farming, swine 
interest, live stock. Products, peaches, plums, pears, 
small fruits, cotton, corn, oats, sorghum, alfalfa, pea- 



182 



COUNTIES 



nuts, hogs, dairy animals, horses and mules and 
lumber. Transportation, M. K. & T., T. & P., St. L. 
& S. W. Rys. Natural resources, iron, brick clay. 
Towns, Big Sandy, Bettie, Latch, Smith, Simpson- 
ville, Ida, Glenwood, Ewell and Koffeeville. 

UPTON COUNTY— County seat, Upland; area, 
1,190 square miles; pop., 253; located in west south- 
west Texas; created 1887; organized 1910. Surface, 
level in northern part, in the south, rolling and 
hilly. Industry, live stock. Transportation, K. C. 
M. & O. Rys. Natural resources, salt. 

UVALDE COUNTY— County seat, Uvalde; area, 
1,759 square miles; pop., 10,769; located in south- 
west Texas; created 1850; organized 1856. Surface, 
southern portion level, northern mountainous, rich 
valleys between the ranges; soil, rich, black and 
sandy loam. Industries, live stock and apiculture, 
slight farming. Products, honey, goats, (angora), 
cattle, staple products. Transportation, G. H. & S. 
A., C. C. & U., now known as the S. A. U. & G. Rys. 
Natural resources, asphalt, limestone, sandstone, 
traces of oil. Town, Sabinal. 

VAL VERDE COUNTY— County seat, Del Rio; 
area, 3,034 miles; pop., 12,706; located in southwest 
Texas on the Mexican border; created and organ- 
ized 1885. Surface, rough and broken, many val- 
leys; soil, rich, very productive. Industry, live stock 
raising, some apiculture and fruit growing. Pro- 
ducts, sheep and goats, mohair wool, honey, figs, 
grapes, pears, quinces, peaches, berries. Transpor- 
tation, G. H. & S. A. Ry. 

VAN ZANDT COUNTY— County seat, Canton; 
area, 877 square miles; pop., 30,784; situated in 
northeast Texas, southeast of Dallas; created and 
organized, 1848. Surface, generally level; soil, 
black and gray sandy loam, also a dark sandy loam, 
and a rich red soil. Industries, diversified farming, 
live stock. Products, cotton, corn, oats, ribbon cane, 
sorghum, peanuts, peas, potatoes, many vegetables 
and a great variety of fruits, cattle. Transportation, 
T. & P. and the Texas Short Line Rys. Natural re- 
sources, salt,, limestone, iron ore, brick and pottery 
clay. Towns, Grand Saline, Wills Point, Ben Wheel- 
er, Edgewood. 

VICTORIA COUNTY— County seat, Victoria; 
area, 883 square miles; pop., 18,271; located in the 
west Gulf coast country, touching Lavaca Bay at the 
southeast corner; organized 1837. Surface, gently 
undulating, sloping toward the coast, broken by 
valleys; soil, many varieties, mostly black waxy and 
black alluvial, very productive. Industry, diversi- 
fied farming. Products, cotton, corn, sugar cane, 
figs, small fruits, strawberries, many kinds of 
grapes, poultry. Transportation, St. L. B. & M., 
G. H. & S. A. and the S. A. & A. P. Rys. Towns, 
Nursery, Telfenner, Alloe, Bloomington and Pla- 
cedo. 

WALKER COUNTY— County seat, Huntsville; 
area, 754 square miles; pop., 18,556; located south- 
east Texas; created and organized, 1846. Surface, 
rolling and hilly, some level prairies. Soil, from 
sandy to a stiff black with alluvial soil along the 
river. Industries, lumber, farming and fruit growing. 
Products, cotton and corn, sweet and Irish pota- 



toes, peas, oats, sugar cane, alfalfa, peaches, 
plums, grapes, poultry, lumber. Transportation, I. 
& G. N., T. V. S. & B. and the Great Northern Rys. 
Natural resources, lignite, sandstone, fire clay, red 
ochre, glass sand, building stone. Towns, Dodge, 
Riverside, El Mina and Phelps. 

WALLER COUNTY— County seat, Hempstead; 
area, 510 square miles; pop., 10,292; located in south- 
east Texas; creatsd and organized, 1873. Surface, 
rolling, much level land in southern part; soil, rich, 
dark alluvial, dark sandy loam with some black 
waxy. Industries, diversified farming, fruit grow- 
ing, poultry and truck. Products, melons, cotton, 
corn, rice, figs, pears, peaches, dairy and poultry 
products. Transportation, H. & T. C. and the M. K. 
& T. Rys. Chief towns, Waller, Brookshire, Patter- 
son. 

WARD COUNTY— County seat, Barstow; area, 
858 square miles; pop., 2,615; located in west Texas; 
created 1887; organized 1892. Surface, generally 
level, some hills and rolling land. Industries, cattle, 
some farming. Products, live stock, alfalfa, grapes, 
peaches, pears, apricots, plums. Transportation, T. 
& P. Natural resources, borax, gypsum, sulphate, 
sulphide of soda, traces of oil and gas. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY— County seat, Bren- 
ham; area, 568 square miles; pop., 26,624; situated 
in southwest Texas, an original county; organized 
1837. Products, fine cattle, horses, hogs, sheep, figs, 
peaches, plums, pears, berries, poultry, etc. Trans- 
portation, H. & T. C. and the G. C. & S. F. Rys. 
Natural resources, lignite, limestone and brick clay. 
Towns, Chapel Hill, Burton, Independence, Gay Hill, 
Greenonine, Washington and William Penn. 

WEBB COUNTY— County seat, Laredo; area, 
3,421 miles; pop., 29,152; located on the Rio Grande, 
four counties removed from its mouth; created and 
organized, 1848. Products, cattle, Bermuda onions, 
melons, cantaloupes, tomatoes, carloads of other 
truck. Transportation, I. & G. N., R. G. & E. P., 
and the Texas Mexican Rys. Natural resources, 
coal, brick clay, sandstone, natural gas. Towns, Nye, 
Pescadito, Aguilares, Ojutalos and Minera. 

WHARTON COUNTY— County seat, Wharton; 
area, 1,137 square miles; pop., 24,288; located in the 
Gulf coast country, one county removed from the 
Gulf of Mexico; created and organized in 1846. Sur- 
face, level with gentle slope to the south and east, 
rolling along margins of streams; soil, black sandy 
to light sandy, red sandy and alluvial soils. Indus- 
tries, farming, fruit growing, live stock, poultry and 
sugar industries. Products, cotton, sugar cane, po- 
tatoes, fruits, rice, corn, pecans, turkeys, geese, 
ducks, poultry, sugar. Transportation, G. H. & S. 
A., G. C. & S. F., S. A. & A. P. Rys. Town, El 
Campo. 

WHEELER COUNTY— County seat. Wheeler; 
area, 851 square miles; pop., 7,397; situated in 
the northwestern part of the Panhandle; created 
1876; organized 1879. Surface, generally rolling; 
soil, black loam and sandy loam. Industries, live 
stock, agriculture, horticulture. Products, cattle, al- 
falfa, broom corn, apples, grapes, pears, plums. 
Transportation, C. R. I. & G. Ry. Natural resources, 



183 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



red sandstone, brick clay, undeveloped. Towns, 
Shamrock, Benonine, Ramsdell and Mobeetie. 

WICHITA COUNTY— County seat, Wichita Falls; 
area. 606 square miles; pop. 72,911; located in north 
Texas, created and organized, 1858. Surface, mostly 
undulating prairie; small amount of broken country 
in river valleys; soil, vary from sandy loam to a stiff 
clay. Industries, oil, stock raising, farming. Pro- 
ducts, one of Texas' biggest oil fields, wheat, corn, 
maize, oats, sorghum, fruits, vegetables, best 
grades of beef, dairy animals, wool and mutton 
sheep. Transportation, Ft. W. & D. C, W. V., W. F. 
& S., W. F. & O. and the M. K. & T. Rys. Natural 
resources, oil brick and pottery clay, natural gas. 
Wichita Falls is one of Texas' leading cities in ac- 
tivities and commerce in proportion to her size, is 
the distributing center for a vast territory. Other 
towns, Burkburnett, Electra, Iowa Park. 

WILBARGER COUNTY— County seat, Vernon; 
area, 923 square miles; pop., 15,112; located in the 
lower Panhandle, bordering the Red River on the 
north; created 1858; organized 1881. Surface, slight- 
ly rolling, wide level stretches; no timber. Soil, dark 
loam soil predominates, some black waxy, some 
sandy land. Industries, farming and cattle raising, 
truck, fruit growing. Products, live stock, sheep, 
cattle, horses, alfalfa, cotton, grain, kaffir, corn, 
milo maize, melons, fruits, apples, peaches, plums, 
apricots. Transportation, Ft. W. & D. C, St. L. & 
S. F., K. C. M. & O. Rys. Towns, Odell, Harrold, 
Oklaunion, Colbert. 

WILLACY COUNTY— County seat, Sarito; 
created 1910; organized 1911. Surface, level; soil, 
sandy loam. Industries, farming and stock raising. 
Products, cattle and feedstuffs, fruits, vegetables, 
Transportation, St. L. B. & M. Ry. Towns, Maffin, 
Turcotte, Katherine, Rudolph. 

WILLIAMSON COUNTY— County seat, George- 
town; area, 1,169 square miles; pop., 42,934; created 
1848, organized same year; situated in south central 
Texas. Surface, equally divided between rolling 
prairie and hilly land; soil varies from a black waxy 
to a sandy loam. Industries, farming, cattle raising, 
dairying. Products, cotton, corn, oats, peaches, 
truck, melons, berries, fruits. Transportation, M. K. 
& T., I & G. N., T. C, B. & W. Rys. Other towns, 
Taylor, Hutto, Round Rock, Bartlett, Granger, Flor- 
ence, Liberty Hill, Leander. 

WILSON COUNTY— County seat, Floresville; 
area, 784 square miles; pop., 17,289; situated in 
southwest Texas; created 1860; organized 1870. 
Surface generally rolling; soil, fine Norfolk sand to 
clay and sandy loam. Industries, farming, apicul- 
ture, fruit growing, live stock, dairying. Products, 
cotton, corn, hay, onions, melons, peaches, pears, 
grapes, plums, honey, wax, cattle, especially Jersey 
herds. Transportation G. H. & S. A. and the S. A. 
& A. P. Rys. Natural resources, traces of oil and 
gas; mineral springs. Good roads. Towns, Stock- 
dale, Lavernia, Sutherland Springs, and Calavares. 

WINKLER COUNTY— County seat, Kermit; area, 
888 square miles; pop., 81; located in southwest 
Texas, northwest corner bordering New Mexico; 
created 1887; organized 1910. Surface, level except 



chain of low sand hills in eastern part; soil, deep 
sandy loam. Industries, diversified farming and 
live stock. Products, cattle and feed stuffs. Trans- 
portation, T. & P. Ry. 

WISE COUNTY— County seat, Decatur; area, 843 
square miles; pop., 23,363; situated in north Texas; 
created 1856; organized 1858. Surface, undulating, 
considerably broken portions and hilly; soil, black 
waxy for most part, dark alluvial. Industries, live- 
stock, farming, mining. Products, cattle, alfalfa, 
wheat, feedstuff, peaches, pears, plums, grapes, ap- 
ples, vegetables. Transportation, Ft. W. & D. C, 
C. R. I. & G. Rys. Natural resources, coal, fire and 
brick clay, lime rock, sandstone. Good highways. 
Other towns, Bridgeport, Chico, Alvord, Paradise, 
Rhome, Greenwood, Boyd and Slidell. 

WOOD COUNTY— County seat, Quitman; area, 
688 square miles; pop., 27,707; located in northwest 
Texas; created and organized 1850. Products, cot- 
ton, Elberta peaches, grapes, grains, sugar cane, 
sweet and Irish potatoes, live stock. Transporta- 
tion, T. & P., M. K. & T. Texas Short Line, M. & E. 
T. and the I. & G. N. Rys. Natural resources, lig- 
nite. Towns, Mineola, Winnsboro, Golden, Alba, 
Hawkins. 

YOAKUM COUNTY— Plains is .the county seat; 
area, 840 square miles; pop., 504; situated in west 
Texas, on the New Mexico border; created 1876; 
organized 1907. Surface, undulating, free from 
hills; soil, deep mellow loam. Industries, live stock, 
farming, small fruit industry; products, Indian corn, 
maize, kaffir corn, cotton, various forage crops, 
fruits, vineyards, cherries, apricots. Transporta- 
tion, no railroads. 

YOUNG COUNTY— County seat, Graham; area 
821 square miles; pop., 13,379; located northwest 
of Ft. Worth, two counties removed from Red River; 
created 1856 and organized the same year, and re- 
organized in 1874. Surface, gently rolling, higher 
elevation, being known as Twin and Gold Mountains; 
soil rich and varied. Industries, oil, live stock and 
truck. Products, oil, cattle, vegetables, peaches, 
pears, apricots, grapes, coal. Transportation, C. R. I. 
& G., W. F. & S., and the G. T. & W. Rys. Natural 
resources, coal, oil, salt. Other towns, Olney, Orth, 
Jean, Loving, New Castle and Balkin. 

ZAPATA COUNTY— County seat, Zapata; area, 
1,269 square miles; pop., 2,929; situated in south- 
west Texas on the Rio Grande River; created 1858; 
organized 1858. Surface, rolling; soil, rich, black 
sandy loam to red chocolate clay. Industries, live 
stock and farming. Products, cattle, horses, mules, 
goats, feedstuff. No railroads. Natural resources, 
lime and sandstone. Traces of oil. San Ygnacio is 
another town of this county. 

ZAVALLA COUNTY— County seat, Batesville; 
area, 1,328 square miles; pop., 3,108; southwest 
Texas county, created 1858; organized 1884. Sur- 
face, generally rolling, considerably level land; soil, 
black sandy to dark loam, narrow strips of sand and 
gravel. Industries, cattle raising, truck farming, 
apiculture. Products, live stock, onions, various 
truck, honey. Transportation, S. A. U. & G. Ry. 
Other towns, Crystal City. 



184 



ABB 



INDEX OF TEXAS. 



BAR 



TEXAS 

Area, aus.sus s/. m. 

Population, 4,et>3,228. 

COUNTIES. 

COUNTY. OO. SKAT. INDEX. POP. 

Anderson, Palestine. .L 26 34,318 

Andrews, Andrews . .K 11 350 

Angelina, Luf kin. . . .M 28 22,287 

Aransas, Rock port.. .U 23 2,064 

Archer, Archer City. H 19 5,254 

Armstrong. Claude... D 14 2,816 

Atascosa, Jourdanton.S20 12,702 

Austin, Bellville P25 18,874 

Bailey, MuleBhoe F 11 517 

Bandera, Bandera. ...Q 18 4,001 

Bastrop, Bastrop P 23 26,649 

Baylor, Seymour H 18 7,027 

Bee, Beeville T 22 12,137 

Bell, Beltou N 22 46,412 

Bexar, San Antonio.. K 20 202,096 

Blaneo, Johnson Clty.P 20 4,06» 

Borden. Gail J 14 965 

Bosque. Meridian. .. .L 22 18,032 

Bowie. Boston H 29 39,412 

Brazoria, Angleton.. .R 27 20,614 

Brazos, Bryan N 25 21,975 

Brewster, Alpine P9 4,822 

Briscoe, Silverton E 14 2.948 

Brooks, Falfurrias..W 20 4,560 

Brown, Brownwood. .L 19 21,682 

Burleson, Caldwell.. .0 24 16,855 

Burnet, Burnet N 21 9,499 

Caldwell, l.ockliart. . .Q 22 25,160 

Calhoun, Port Lavaca.T 24 4,700 

Callahan. Baird K 18 11,844 

Cameron, Brownsville. X22 36,662 

Camp, Pittsburg I 27 11,103 

Carson, Panhandle. . .C 14 3,078 

Cass. Linden I 29 30,041 

Castro. Dimmitt E 12 1.948 

Chambers. Anahuae. .Q 28 4,162 

Cherokee, Rusk L 27 37,633 

Childress, Childress. .E 16 10,933 

Clay, Henrietta G 21 16,b64 

Cochran, Morton .H 11 67 

Coke, Robert Lee L 16 4.557 

Coleman, Coleman. ..L 18 18,805 

Collin, MeKiuney....H24 49,609 
Collingsworth, 

Wellington... D 6 9,154 

Colorado, Columbus.. y 24 19,013 

Comal, New BraunfelsQ21 8.824 

Comanche, ComancheL 20 25.748 

Concho, Taint Roek.M 17 5,847 

Cooke, Gainesville. . .G 22 25.667 

Coryell, Gatesville. . ,M 21 20.601 

Cottle, Paducah ¥ 16 6,901 

Crane, Mil 37 

Crockett, Ozona 14 1.500 

Crosby, Crosbyton. . .H 14 6,084 

Culberson, Van Horn. L 7 912 

Dallam, Dalhart All 4,528 

Dal las. I )allas J 24 210,55 1 

Dawson, Lamesa 1 13 4,309 

Deaf Smith, Hereford. D 11 3,747 

Delta, Cooper H 26 15.887 

Denton. Denton H 23 35.355 

De Witt, Cuero R 23 27,971 

Dickens, Dickens H 15 5,876 

Dimmit, 

Carrizo Springs.. T 17 5.296 

Donley, Clarendon... D 15 8,035 

Duval, San Diego V 20 8,251 

Eastland, Eastland ... K 19 58,505 

Ector, Odessa L 11 760 

Edwards, Rocksprings.Q16 2.293 

Ellis, Wax ahachie....K 24 55,700 

El Paso, El Paso L6 101.877 

Erath, Stephenville..K 21 28,385 

Falls, Marlln M 23 36,217 

Fannin, Bonhani G 25 48,186 

Fayette, Lagrange .... Q 24 29,965 

Fisher. Itohy J 16 11,009 

Floyd, Flovdada F 14 9,758 

Foard, Crowell F 17 4,747 

Fort Bend, Richmond. Q26 22,931 

/ranklin.Mt. Vernon. H27 9,304 

Freestone, Fairfield. .L 25 23.264 

- ? rio. Pearsall S 19 9,296 

Gaines, Seminole J 11 1,018 

Galveston, Galveston. R27 53,150 

Garza, Post 114 4,253 

Gillespie, 

Fredericksburg. . O 19 10.015 

Glasscock.Garden CityL14 555 

Goliad. Goliad T 22 9,348 

Gonzales, Gonzales.. .R 22 28,488 

Gray. Le For? C 15 4,663 

Grayson, Sherman. ..G 24 74,165 

Gregg, Longview J 28 16,767 

Grimes, Anderson. ...O 25 23,101 

Guadalupe. Seguin...Q21 27,719 

Hale. Plamview F 13 10,104 

Hall, Memphis E 15 11,137 

Hamilton. Hamilton.. L21 14,676 

Hansford, Hansford.. A 14 1.354 

Hardeman, Quanah..F 17 12.487 

Hardin, Kountze O 28 15.983 

Harris. Houston P 26 186,667 

Harrison. Marshall. ...J 29 43.565 

Hartley, Chanuing... .B 11 1,109 

Haskell, Haskell 117 14.193 

Hays, San Marcos. ...P21 15.920 

Hemphill. Canadian.. B 16 4,280 

Henderson. Athens. ,K 26 28,327 

Hidalgo, Edtnburg. ..Y 21 38,110 

Hill. Hlllsboro ;..K 23 43,332 

Hockley, Levelland-..H 12 137 

Hood, Granhury J 21 8,759 

Hopkins, 

Sulphur Springs. .1 26 34.791 

Houston, Crockett... M 26 ^8,601 

Howard, Big Spring.. K. 14 6,962 



Hudspeth, Sierra 

Blanca M 5 962 

Hunt, Greenville 125 50,350 

Hutchinson, Plemons.B 14 721 

Irion, Sherwood M 15 1,610 

.Jack, .lacksboro H 20 9,863 

Jackson, Edna S 24 11,244 

Jasper, Jasper N 30 15,569 

Jeff DaviS.Fort Davls.N 8 1.44S 
Jefferson, Beaumont.. P 29 73,120 
Jim Hogg, 

llebbronvllle....W 20 1.914 

Jim Wells, Alice V 21 6,587 

Johnson, Cleburne . . . J 29 37,286 

Jones, Anson J 17 22,323 

Karnes, Karnes City. .S 21 19,019 
Kaufman, Kaufman.. J 25 41,276 

Kendall, Boerne Q 20 4,799 

Kenedy, Sarita W 22 1.033 

Kent, Clairemont I 15 3,335 

Kerr, Kerrville P 18 5,842 

Kimble, Junction O 18 3,581 

King, Guthrie II 16 655 

Kinney.Brackettville.H 16 3.716 
Kleberg, Kingsvllle .V 21 7.837 

Knox, Benjamin II 17 9.240 

Lamar, Paris G 26 55,742 

Lamb, Olton F 12 1,175 

Lampasas, Lampasas. M 20 8.300 

La Salle. Cottilla T19 4,821 

Lavaca, Hallcitsville. R 24 28,964 

Lee. Giddings O 23 14.014 

Leon. Centerville....M 25 18,236 

Liberty, Liberty P 28 14.637 

Limestone. Groesbeek.L24 33.2-3 
Lipscomb, Lipscomb. A 16 3,684 
Live Oak, George WcstT 21 4,171 

Llano, Llano O 20 5,360 

Loving, L9 82 

Lubbock, Lubbock.. .H lo 11.096 

Lynn, Tahoka I 13 4,751 

Mcculloch, Brady.... M 18 11,020 
McLennan, Waco....M 23 82,921 
McMullen. Tilden. . . .T 20 952 

Madison.Madisonville.N25 11,956 

Marion, Jefferson 129 10.88* 

Martin, Stanton K 13 1,146 

Mason, Mason O 18 4,824 

Matagorda, Bay Clty..S 25 16,589 
Maverick, Eagle Pass. S16 7,418 

Medina. Hondo R 19 11,679 

Menard, Menard N 17 3.162 

Midland. Midland.... L 12 2,449 

Milam. Cameron N 23 38,104 

Mills, Goldthwaite....L20 9,019 
Mitchell, Colorado. . .K 15 7,527 
Montague, Montague.G 21 22,200 
Montgomery. Conroe.O 26 17.334 

Moore, Dumas B 13 571 

Morris, Daingertield. .1 28 10,289 
Motley, Matador .... b" 15 4,107 
Nacogdoches. 

Nacogdoches.. L 28 28,457 
Navarro, Corsieaua...K 24 50,624 

Newton, Newton N 30 12.196 

Nolan, Sweet Water.. K 16 10,868 
Nueces.Corpus ChristiVSO 22,807 
Ochiltree, Perryton. . A 15 2.331 

Oldham. Vega C 11 709 

Orange, Orange P 30 15,379 

Palo PintO.PalO PInto.,120 23.431 

Panola. Carthage K29 21,755 

Parker, Weatnerford.I 21 23,382 

Parmer, Farwell Ell 1,699 

Pecos. Kort Stockton. Oil 3,857 

Polk, Livingston N 27 '6,784 

Potter. Amarillo C 13 16,710 

Presidio, Maria P7 12,202 

Rains. Emory 126 8,099 

Randall, Canyon D 13 3,675 

Reagan, Stiles M 13 377 

Real, Leakey Q17 1.461 

Red River,ClarksvilleH27 35.829 

Reeves, Pecos M9 4,457 

Refugio, Refugio T23 4,050 

Roberts, Miami B 15 1,469 

Robertson, Franklin. N 24 27,933 
Rockwall. Rockwall.. I 24 8,591 
Runnels, Ballinger. . .L 17 17,074 

Rusk, Henderson K 28 31 ,6*9 

Sabine, Hemphill. ...M 30 12,299 
San Augustine, 

San Augustine.. M 29 13,737 
San.Taeint0,ColdspringO27 9,867 
San Patricio. Sintou..U 22 11.386 
San Saba, San Saba. . . N 19 10.045 
Schleicher. Eldorado.N 16 1.851 

Scurry, Snyder J 15 9.003 

Shackelford, Albany.. I 18 4.960 

Shelby. Center L 29 27,464 

Sherman, Stratford. .A 14 1.473 

Smith, Tyler J 27 46,769 

Somerve'll.Glen Rose.K 21 3,563 

Starr. Riogrande X 20 11 .089 

Stephens,BreckenridgeJ19 15,403 
Sterling.Sterling City.L 15 1,053 
Stonewall, Aspermont. 1 16 4,086 

Sutton, Sonora 015 1,598 

Swisher, Tulia E 13 4,388 

Tarrant, Fort Worth.. J 22 152,800 

Taylor. Abilene K 17 24,081 

Terrell, Sanderson... .O 12 1.595 

Terry. Brownlield I 12 2,236 

Throckmorton, Throck- 
morton 1 18 3,589 

Tltus.Mount Pleasant.H27 18,128 
Tom Green, 

San Angelo..L15 15,110 

Travis, Austin 22 57.616 

Trinity. Groveton... .N 27 13.623 

Tyler. Woodville N 29 10.415 

Upshur. Gilmer I 28 22,472 

U pton iiaukin M 1 2 258 

Uvalde, Uvalde R17 10.769 

ValVerde, Del Rio. . .Q 14 12,706 
Van Zandt. Canton. . .J 26 30.784 
Victoria, Victoria. ... S 23 18,271 



Walker, Huntsvllle.. .<) 2« 18.556 

Waller, Hempstead. .P 25 10,292 

Ward, Barstow M9 2,615 

Washington, l(renham.P25 26,624 

Webb, Laredo V 18 29,152 

Wharton, Wharton. . ,E 25 24.288 

Wheeler. Wheeler.. . .C 16 7,397 

Wichita, Wichita Falls.GHt 72,911 

Wilbarger. Vernon. ..F 18 15,112 

Willacy, RaymondvlllcX22 X 
Williamson. 

Georgetown.. ()22 42,934 

Wilson. Eloresvllle...R 21 17,289 

Winkler, Kermlt Lll 81 

Wise, Decatur 122 23,363 

Wood, Quitman I 27 27,707 

Yoakum, Plains I 11 504 

Young, Graham I 19 13,379 

Zapata, Zapata W 1 8 2,929 

Zavalla, Bates ville.. ..S 17 3,108 

Total 1,663,228 

TOWNS. 

Bold Face type. County Seat. 
Roman typo, Post Otiices. 
Italic type have no Post Office, 
(r. d.) no Post Office, but served 

by rural delivery. 
Incorporated place. 
X Population not reported. 

TOWN. CO. SKAT. INDEX. POP. 

Abbie, (v. d.) Jones. .117 200 

Abbott©, Hill L23 303 

Abercrombie, Travis. O 21 x 
Aberdeen, Collings- 
worth D 16 20 

Aberfoyle. (r. (l.)Hunt I 25 60 

Abernathy. Hale G 13 300 

Abilene ©.Taylor.. J 17 10.274 
Abilene J un c lio n, 

Taylor T 17 X 

Abies, El Paso L6 11 

Abies Springs, Kauf- 
man J 25 25 

Abner, (r. d.) Kauf- 
man J25 40 

AbneiJS. Harrison J 28 X 

Abra, Collingsworth. D 16 50 

Abram, Hidalgo Y20 300 

Absarmcos, Bexar. . .R 19 X 

Acampo. Shackelford J 18 X 

Ace, Polk 027 x 

Acheson, Hunt 124 X 

Acme, Hardeman. . .F 17 500 
Acona, (r. d. ) Guad- 
alupe Q21 12 

Acton, (r. d.) Hood.. .J 21 150 

Acworth. Red River. G 27 50 

Ada, (r. d.) Upshur. . .1 28 X 

Adair, Fisher 115 50 

Adalia, (r. d.) Cald- 
well Q22 10 

Adams, Bexar Q 20 X 

Adams, Grayson G 24 X 

Adamsville.,LampasasM 20 50 

Addicks, Harris P26 35 

Addieton, Red River H 27 12 

Addison, Dallas 123 100 

Addran, (r. d.) Hop- 
kins T26 25 

Adell, (r.d.) Parker. .121 30 

Ad Hall, (r.d.) Milam N 23 25 

Adieu, (r. d.) Jack.. H 20 X 

Adkins, Bexar Q 20 200 

Admiral. Callahan. ..K 18 25 
Adobe Walls, Hutch- 
inson B 14 50 

Adora. Titus H 27 X 

Adrian, Oldham D 11 100 

Adsul, Newton N 30 250 

Advance, (r. d.) Par- 
ker 121 50 

Ado, Potter C 12 X 

Attie, (r. d.) Wheeler C 16 X 

Afton, Dickens G15 50 

Agee,(r.d.) Hamilton LJ1 X 

Agues, (r.d.) Parker. I 21 50 

Agua Dulce. Nueces.U 21 80 
Agua N u e v a , Jim 

Hogg W 20 X 

Aguilares, Webb V 19 300 

Alddag, Wharton Q 25 X 

Aiken, (P. (). name 

Floco) Floyd F 14 X 

Airline. Harris Q 27 200 

Aken, (r. d.) Shelby. L 29 25 

Akron, Smith J 26 X 

Alabama, (P. O. name 

Helmic) Trinity. . . M 27 X 

Alamito, Presidio Q8 X 

Alamo, Hidalgo Y 21 500 

Alamo Beach,Calhoun.S24 30 

Alamo Mill: Cass. . . .1 J9 100 

Alanreed, Gray D 15 300 

Alarm Creek, Erath. K 20 X 

Alatan, Nacogdoches L 27 25 

Alba©, Wood 126 1,352 

Albany©, Shackel- 
ford J 18 1,469 

Albert, Gillespie P 20 50 

Albion, Red River.. ..G 27 10 

Alcedo, Angelina M 28 250 

Alcino, Floyd F 14 X 

Alio, Angelina' L 28 X 

Alcorn, Montague. . . G 21 X 
Alderbranch, Ander- 
son L 26 50 

Aldine, Harris P 26 150 

Aldridgt. Jasper.... M 29 600 

Aleck, Tyler X 28 X 

Aledo. Parker J 22 500 

Aleman, Hamilton. ..L 12 50 

185 



Alexander, Erath K 20 

Aley.fr.d., Hendef-onK 26 

Alfalfa, ei Paso L8 

Alfalfa, Ochiltree.... A 16 
Alfred, Jim Wells...!! 21 
Algadon, Robertson. B 24 

Algerlta, Sai. Saba .M 19 

Aigoa. Galveston Q 27 

vWAam&ru. Hutchinson CI 4 
Alice©. Jim Wells. U 21 

Allef. Harris (/ 26 

Allamoore. Hudspath M 6 

Allen, Collin I 23 

Allen, Liberty O 28 

Allendale, Wichita. . .G 19 
Allenfarin, Brazos 024 

AHenhur3l,MatagoidaB,26 

Allei/, Hale G 13 

Alleyton, Colorado. . .Q 24 
Alliance, (r. (1.) Hunt.. I 25 

Allison, Wise I 22 

Alma, Ellis K 24 

Almeda, ( R. R. name 

/'earland) Harris.. Q 26 
Almira, (r. d.) Cass.. H 29 
Almont,(r. d.) Bowie II 29 

Aloe. Victoria S 23 

Alonzo, Walker O 26 

Alpha, (r. d.) Dallas. .J 24 

Alpha. Karnes S 21 

Alpine©, Brewster.. 9 
Alsa.tr.d.) Van Zandt J 26 

Altdorf, Ellis J 24 

Altair, Colorado Q 24 

Alta Loma. GalvcstonQ 27 
AltaVista. Jim Hogg.. W 20 
Althea. (r. d.) Bell...N 22 
Altman. (r.d.) Erath K 21 

Alto©, Cherokee L27 

Altoga, Collin H 24 

-4Ztonia,SanAugustlneL29 

Altuda, Brewster (J 9 

Altura, El Paso K3 

Alum, (r.d.) Wilson.. R 21 
Alvarado©, Johnson. .J 22 

Alvin©, Brazoria Q 27 

Alvord©. Wise H 21 

Alwyn, Upshur I 27 

Alzan, Bexar Q 20 

Amanda, Kinney R 15 

Amarillo©, Potter D13 

Arabia, Lamar G 25 

Ambrose, Grayson. ..G24 
Amelia, (r.d.) Jeffer- 
son 29 

Ames, Coryell L 21 

Ames, Liberty P 28 

Amherst,(r.d.) LamarG26 

Amherst, Lamb G 12 

Amicus, (r. d.) Marion I 28 

Amiga, Smith J 26 

Ammannsville, (r. d.) 

Fayette y 24 

Amphion. Atascosa .. R 20 
Ample, (r.d.) Haskell H 18 
Amsler, Montgomery O 26 
Amy. (r.d ) Delta. .. .11 26 
Anacucho, Kinney. . . R16 
Analiuac.ChambersP 28 

Anaqua, Victoria S 23 

Anarene, Archer H 19 

Anchor, Brazoria R 26 

Anchorage, Atascosa. R 19 

Ander, Goliad S 22 

Anderson, Grimes. O 25 
Andice. (r. d.) Wil- 
liamson 022 

Andrews. Andrews. J 12 
Andrews, Harrison... I 28 
Andrews, (r.d.)Wood J 27 

Andy, Anderson K 26 

Ange, Uvalde R 17 

Angeles, Reeves K 8 

Angelina, Angelina. .L 28 
Angelita, San Patricio U22 
Angrleton © , Bra- 
zoria R26 

Angus, Navarro K 24 

Anhalt, (r.d.) Comal. Q 21 

Anna©, Collin H 24 

Annarose, Live Oak. .T 21 
Anneta, (.r.d.) Parker J 21 
Anneville, (r.d.) Wise I 22 
Annoua. Red River.. .G 27 

Anson©, Jones J 17 

Anson J u n etion, 

Jones J 17 

Antelope. Jack H 20 

Antelope Gap, Mills. .M 20 
Anthony, Fannin... G 24 
Antl. (r. d.l (ass....l 29 
Antioeh, (r. d.)Hous- 

tou M 16 

Anrille. Wilson R2l 

Apolonia, (r. d.) 

Grimes O 25 

Appleby.NacogdochesL 28 
Appleg'ate, Jasper ... N 29 
Apple Springs,TrinityM27 

Aquilla. Hill L 22 

Aragon, Presidio O 7 

Arab. Scurry I 14 

Aransas Pass®, San 

Patricio U23 

Ararat, (r. d.) Co- 
manche L20 

Arbala. Hopkins I 25 

Arbor, (r.d.) HoustonM 26 

Arbula. Hopkins I 26 

Arcadia. Galveston.. Q 27 
Archer City ©, 

Archer H19 

Areola, Fort Bend... Q 26 
Ardatb, (r. d.) Collin. H 21 

Arden, Irion M 15 

Arena, Lavaca R 23 

Argo, (r.d.) Titus H 29 



800 
/ 
12 

60 
10 

1.880 
150 

/ 
350 
/ 
/ 
100 

/ 

/ 

250 

150 

10 

350 

250 
100 
100 
X 
X 

20 
X 
931 
26 



500 

1,081 

50 

30 

X 

X 

25 

1,284 

1,519 

1,376 

X 

X 



500 
X 

15 
100 
S3 
15 
600 

15 
300 



X 
X 
X 
X 
100 

1,043 
50 



750 
1,425 

X 
160 
X 
40 
100 

50 
X 

30 

600 
X 
300 
650 
X 
X 

1,569 

X 
130 
50 
X 

300 



100 
12 
X 

225 



Argyle, Denton I 22 250 

Ariola, Hardin O 29 / 

A m,, 1. Liberty M 28 / 

A, '.i,i-. HUUpetn M ', / 

Arleston,(r.d.)PanolsK2l / 

Arlle, Child r< SJ 
Arlington O. Tarrant..! 'i I 

Armstrong, Kenedy. . W22 21 

Ai 11 ui irony, William- 
son N 21 / 

Ariieckeville.DeWitt.:: 22 fcoO 

Arie-tt. (r.d. > CoryellM 21 72 

Arritm. Wharton P. 25 / 

Amo. Beeves L9 / 

Arnold, (r.d.; Collin. U 24 150 
ArrOVa Colorado, 

Willacy Y 22 / 

AiO'/a. Ward L 10 / 

Art, Mason N 18 28 

Arp. Smith K 27 

Artesla, I.a s,alle T18 100 

Artesia Weil-. LaBaUeTtt 100 

Arthur City. Umar. .(, 26 150 

Aimim. Dawson 113 / 

Asander, (r. d.) Titu-ll 27 10 

Ash, Henderson K 25 x 

Ash, (r.d. j Houston. M V> 150 

Ash in/, Matagorda S 25 150 

Asherton. Dimmit. ...T 17 1,500 

Ashland, 1'pshur I 27 250 

Ash Pond, Burleson. O 24 / 

Ashtoid. Donley D 25 x 

Ashville. (r. d.) Hunt. I 25 / 

Ashwood, Matagorda. R26 150 
Ashworth, (r. a.) 

Kaufman J 25 25 

Askew, (r. d.) Hop- 
kins 126 250 

Aspen, Cherokee L 27 / 

Aspermont 0, 

stonewall 116 436 

Asiin, Brazos N 21 X 

Atascosa. Bexar R 19 115 

Ater. (r. d.) Coryell. . M 21 100 
Athens ©, Hender- 
son K25 3,176 

Atkinson, WilliamsonN'21 X 

Atlanta©, Cass H 29 1,469 

Atlas. Lamar G 26 75 

Allast, Matagorda ...I? 26 215 

Allee, LaSalle T18 X 

Atinar, Trinity M 27 X 

Atmar Jc, Trinity. . M 2" X 

Attoyac, NacogdochesL 28 150 

Atwell, Callahan K 18 40 

Aubrey, Denton H 23 500 

Auburn, Trinity X 26 10 

Audelia, (r.d. )"DallasJ 24 20 

Audobon, Wise I 22 100 

Augusta. Houston L 26 120 

Augustus. Garza 114 x 

Aurora. (r. d.) Wise... I 22 X 

AUSTIN £ . Travis.O 21 34,876 
Austin Junction, 

Travis O 21 X 

Austwell©, Refugio. T 23 213 

Authon,(r. d.) Parkerl 21 50 

Avalon, (r. d.) EVlis..K24 300 

Avery, Red River G 27 1.000 

Avinger, Cass 128 "500 

Avoca, Jones 117 250 

Am/ink. Harris P 26 x 

Avondale. Tarrant 122 20 

A.rine, Cass 129 X 

Axtell. McLennan. ,.L23 2S5 

Azle. Tarrant 122 135 

B 

Baber. Angelina M 28 200 

Babyhead, Llano X 19 100 

Bacon, (r. d.) Panola.K 29 x 

Bacon, Wichita G 20 X 

Baer -7«>u«i'o«,HarrisP27 X 

Bagby,(r.d.) Fanmu. G 25 20 

Bai/iiett. McLennan. M 22 X 

Bagwell. Red River.. G 27 400 

Bailev, Fannin H 24 300 

Baikyville. Milam. ..M 23 250 

Bain, Navarro K 24 v 

Baird©, Callahan. ...J1S 1,902 

Baker, Cottle F16 X 

Batch. Parker 121 10 

aid Prairie, Robert- 
son M24 125 

Bald Ridge, Pecos. . . X 11 X 

Baldwin, Harrison 128 100 

2>'a//. Dallas J23 X 

Ballingrer ©, Run- 
nels L17 2,767 

Ballingei Stock Yatds, 

Runnels L 17 X 

Balm, (r. d.) Cooke.. G 32 X 

Balmorhea. Reeves. ..X S 250 

Balsora, Wise 1 21 45 

Bammel, Harris P 26 X 

Bancker.Cass I 2S X 

Bancroft, Orange O 30 X 

Bandera, Bandera. Q 19 419 

Bangs ©. Brown L 18 709 

Bankersmith,GillespieP19 225 
Bannister, San Augus- 
tine L2S 2,000 

Banquete. Xueces U 21 300 

Bantam, (r. d.) Fan- 
nin G25 15 

Barado, Walker X 26 20 

.Ba/'6rt>V'v<i.GuadslupeQ21 12 

Barclay, (r.d.) Falls.. M 23 70 

Bard well © . Ellis K 23 358 

Barker. Harris P 26 SO 

Barksdale. Edwards. Q 17 200 
Barksdale Sidiny. Har 

rison J 28 X 

Barlow, (r.d.) Cooke.G 22 10 

Barnes. Polk X 2S 35 

-S«rH€«5J/i7.',WalkerX26 X 



BAR 



INDEX OF TEXAS. 



CAT 



Barnl.art, Irion M 14 

Barnhart. i. r.d.) lcusklv 2S 

Barnum.Polk M SB 

Barroda, Cameron.. T 22 

Barn . Navarro K 24 

Barstow ■ . War.!... M 9 

Battle, Liberty O 27 

BartlettO. Bell N 22 

Spur. Wil- 
liamson X 22 

Barton, Robertson. .N 28 

Bartonslte, lla\- G IS 

Bartonvllle, it. A.) 

Denton B 23 

Bascom, v r. A.) Smith...! 27 

Bas>. (r. d.> Smith J 27 

Bassett, Bowie ll 88 

Bastrop ■ . Bastrop. P 22 
Batoman. i,r. d.) Bast- 
rop P23 

Batesville, Zavalla.Rl7 

BatSOU, Hardin O 2S 

Battle, it. a.l McLen- 
nan L 23 

/■ . K.astland.J 19 

Baty, (r. ■i.i F ree- 

stone L 25 

Baucis. Trinity N 27 

Baurs, .r. d.) Harris. P 26 
Baxter, (r. d.lHender- 

son K 2.i 

B a y City • , Mata- 
gorda R25 

Bin/ Vity ■Junction. 

Matagorda R 25 

Bayou. Sabine M 30 

Bail f'rah te. Wharton R25 

Bayside. Refugio T 23 

Bayvieio, Galveston.. Q 27 
Bazette, (r. d.) Nav- 
arro K 21 

Beach. Montgomerv.li 26 

Beachey. Zavalla S 17 

Beadle, Matagorda.. .S 25 

Beau. ValVerde P 13 

Brio 0ree*,Tarrant...J 22 
Beasley Fort Bend.. Q 25 

Beatriz. Hidalgo Y 21 

Beattie. it. A.) Coman- 
che 1.20 

Beaukiss. Williamson. O 22 
Beaumont • , Jeffer- 
son O 29 

Bearer. Hansford A 15 

Belie. Gonzales Q 22 

Beckham, (r. d.) Hop- 
kins H26 

Beckham, RohertsonX 23 

Beckman. Bexar Q 20 

Beckville. Panoia. . ...J 28 

Becton, Lubbock H 13 

Bedford, (r. d.) Tar- 
rant I 22 

Bi-dias, Grimes X 25 

Bet Cares. Travis O 22 

Beechgrove, Jasper -X 29 
Beecreek. (r.d.) Ellis K 24 
Bee House, Coryell. ..M 21 
Beene. (r. d.) Free- 
stone L25 

Beevillei.Bee . ...T22 
Behrnville, (r. d.) Wil- 
liamson 22 

Belcherville Z . M o n - 

tague G21 

BelilViq. Pecos X 10 

Beltn.Kl Paso L3 

Belfalls, (r. d.l Bell. .X 22 
Belgrade. Xewton... N T 30 
Belk, (r. A.) Lamar. .G 26 

Bellaire, Harris P 26 

Bellbranch. Ellis... .K23 

Bell' amp, Archer H 29 

Bellevue©, (lay G 20 

Bellmead. McLennan. L 23 
Bells©, Grayson .... G 24 
BellviUe. Austin... P 25 

Bellwood, Smith J 26 

Belmont. Gonzales... Q 22 
Belott. (r.d.) Houston.M 26 
Belt Junction, TnrrantJ22 

Belton •>, Bell X 22 

Benarnoid. Milam... X 23 

Benavides. Duval U 20 

Benavides Spur,yVeWV18 
Ben Molt. Jim Wells. U 21 
Benbrook, Tarrant. ..J 22 
Benchley. Robertson. X 24 

Bernini, Newton X 30 

Bend. San Saba M 20 

Bendale, Coryell. ...M 22 

Bender, Ilarri- P27 

Benford. Polk M 28 

B e a fo t a Junction, 

Polk M27 

Ben Franklin. Deita. H 23 
Benhur, (r. d.) Lime- 
stone L24 

Benina, San Augus- 
tine M29 

Benjamin, Knox.. H 17 

Bennett*. Parker J 21 

Benoit. Bunnell L1J 

Benonme, Wheeler.. .C17 

Benton. Atascosa R19 

Bentonvllle,JimWell8r21 
Ben West, Jackson.. .S 24 
Ben Wheeler, Van 

Zanrlt J 26 

Bey,:. Bexar Q 20 

Berclalr, Goliad T22 

Berg, Bexar B20 

Berghelm, Kendall... P 20 

Bering. Polk X 27 

BerU hire. Wi-e I 21 

Bermuda, Dimmit T 17 

Bernardo, Colorado. .P 24 



50 
\ 
25 
\ 
300 
(90 



X 
X 

X 

300 

X 

X 

50 

1,828 

40 
600 
S00 

100 
X 

X 
X 
X 

X 

3,454 

X 
X 



X 

50 
X 
25 
200 
2,000 

100 
140 

40,422 
X 
20 

40 
X 
X 
400 
X 

75 
500 
40 
15 



15 

300 

25 

X 

782 

X 

585 

1,200 

X 

100 

500 

X 

5.098 

200 

800 

X 

50 

28 

40 



X 

500 



15 

400 

X 



340 
50 
X 

350 

X 

350 

100 

25 

/ 
MO 

100 
100 



Bemecker, Fisher 1 16 X 

Berrys fain t. Rusk . K 2S X 
Bern ville, (r.d.) Hen- 
derson K26 X 

Bertram, Burnet X 21 400 

Berwick, Jack H 20 40 

Bess. Duval V 20 X 

Bessemer, Llano x 20 x 

Bessmay, Jasper O 29 850 

Belli ant, Dallas 123 X 

/>'. t/iel, Anderson. ... K 25 10 

Bethi I. Tarrant J 22 X 

Bettie.rpshur 127 400 

Beverly, Briscoe ,...K 14 100 
Bexar, (r. d.l Bexar. .R 20 40 
Beyersvllle,(r.d.) Wil- 
liamson 22 10 

Biardstown. Lamar. ..G 26 100 
Bibb, ir. A.) Coman- 
che K 19 50 

Biegel,(r.d.) Fayette. Q 24 100 

Ilia Creek, Libertv. . . o 27 400 

Bigfbot, Frio R 19 300 

Blggers, ir. d.) Collmll 24 18 

Bighill, Limestone... L 24 100 

Bin Hill. Matagorda. S 25 X 

Bu/ Kimbnl. Polk..N2S X 

Big Lake, Reagan... M 13 25 

Big Lump. Milam ...X 23 25 

Big Paint, Real P 17 X 

Big Sandy O, Cpshur.J 27 658 
Bigsbev. Angelina. ...M 28 X 
Big Sin-ins:©. How- 
ard K 13 4,273 

Bigsguaie, Castro F 11 x 

Bigvalley, <r. d.l MillsL20 50 
Big Wells, Dimmit . . S 18 700 
Biilie, (r.d.) Wilson R 21 x 
Billington, (r. d.) Lime- 
stone L24 200 

Birch, (r. d.) Burle- 
son 24 300 

Bints Siding. Tarrant J22 X 
Birdston, (r. d.) Navar- 
ro K24 25 

Birdville, (r. d.) Tar- 
rant J 22 100 

Birdwell, Sabine L 29 x 

Birmingham, (r. d.) 

Red River. . .' H 27 X 

Birome. Hill L 23 25 

Birthright, Hopkins. .H 26 100 

Biry. Medina R 19 25 

Bisbee, Tarrant J 22 x 

Bishop, (r. d.) Mc- 
Lennan M23 20 

Bishop. Nueces V 21 1,309 

Bitles. Hardeman F 17 20 

Bivius. Cass 128 450 

Bivouac, Stephens x 

Bixbu. Cameron Y 21 x 

Black; Parmer Ell 15 

Black, (r. d.l Titus.. H 27 X 
Black Briciye, Robert- 
son X23 X 

Blackfoot, (r.d.) 

Anderson L 26 100 

Black Jack.Cherukeeh 27 10 
Blackland, (r. d.) 

Rockwall 124 X 

Blackoak, (r. d.) Hop- 
kins 126 40 

Biackwell, Nolan K16 400 

Blaine, (r. d.) Van 

Zandt J 26 X 

Blair, Taylor J 16 40 

Blair, Shelby K 28 x 

Blake. Brown KT9 10 

Blakeney. Red River G 27 100 

Blanchard, Polk N 27 50 

Blanchette. Jefferson. O 29 x 

Blanco. Blanco P 20 700 

Blanconia. Bee T22 200 

Bland, Bell M 22 60 

Blandlake, San Augus- 
tine L29 50 

Blanket ©, Brown. ..L 19 472 

Blanton, (r. d.) Hill. .K 23 50 

Bleakwood, Newton. N 30 150 

Bleiblerville, Austin. P 24 500 

Blessing, Matagorda*. R 25 250 

Blevins, (r. d.) Fail9M 23 20 

Bliss. Sterling . . . . K 15 X 

Bliss,(r. d.) Grayson. G 23 50 

BlOe, Angelina M 27 x 

Blocker. Harrison. ...J 28 250 

nioiK/eit, Harris P 26 X 

Blodgett, (r.d.) Titus. H 27 10 

Bloomburg©, Cass...H 29 436 
Bloomfield, (r. d.) 

Cooke G 22 31 

Bloomi ig Grove ©. 

Navarro K23 898 

Blooinington©, Victo- 
ria S23 600 

Blossom ©, Lamar... G 26 969 

Blowout, Blanco 20 50 

Blox, Jasper S 24 X 

Blue, (r.d.) Lee O 23 X 

Bluebird, (r.d.)LamarG X« x 

Bluegrove, Clav G 20 250 

Blue Mound. Tarrant. I 22 X 

Blue Ridge. Collin ...H24 425 

Blue r<«<o/<%CameronY2l X 

Bluff, Bandera P18 50 

Bluff, (r.d.)Fayette..Q24 2(H) 

Bluff Dale, Erath . ...K 21 700 
BlufTsprings, (r. d.) 

Travis O 22 50 

BlUffton, Llano N 20 25 

Blum©. Hill K 22 498 

Blumbergt Spur, Guad- 
alupe Q21 V. 

BlumentlUK, Glllesple019 20 

Blunt. Freestone L25 20 

Bluntzer, Nueces ['21 25 

Bly, (.r.d.) Titus H27 50 



Blythe, Gaines Ill 

Board, (r.d.) NavarroK24 
Board House. BlancoP 20 

Bobo. Shelby K 28 

Bobrille. MontgomeryOSp 
Boedeker Junction, v 

Colorado Q24 

Boerne©, Kendall. Q 19 
Bogata, Red River. . .11 26 
Bois D'Arc, KaufmanJ 24 

Boise, Oldham D 11 

Bola. Hudspeth M5 

Bolder, (r. d.) Van 

Zandt I 26 

Boliuiy, Wharton R 25 

Bolivar, (r.d.)l)eutonlI23 

Bolton, La Salle T 19 

Bomar.(r.d.) SanSabaM 19 

Bomarton, Baylor II IS 

Bouiinii. Jasper X 29 

Bonanza, (r. d.) Hop- 
kins I 26 

Honham©. Fannin G24 
B o n h n in J unction. 

Fannin G 24 

Bonita, Montague G 22 

Bonita Junction. Xa- 

cogdoches L 2S 

Bonner, (r. d.) Free- 
stone L 25 

Bounty. Brazoria Q 26 

Bono, Jonnson K 22 

Bonus. Wharton Q25 

Bon Weir, Xewton. .X 30 
Booker, (r. d.) BowieH 29 

lioone, Coryell M 22 

Boonsville, Wise I 21 

Booth. Fort Bend . ..Q 26 
Boracho, Culberson. ..M 7 
Borden, (r.d.) Colora- 
do Q 24 

Boren, (r.d.) Panola. K 29 

Bosque, Bosque Q 22 

Bosqueville, (r. d.) 

McLennan M 23 

Boss. Tarrant J 22 

Bostick, Smith J 26 

Boston, Bowie H 28 

Boswell, Walker X26 

Botchford, Brazoria. R 26 
Bottom, (r.d.) Bel!..N 22 
Bolts Spur. Gonzales. Q22 
Boulder, Cherokee. .K 26 
Boulevard Junction. 

Cameron T 22 

Bovina, Parmer E 11 

Bowden, (r. d.) Red 

River H 27 

Bowie ©, Montague. .H 21 
Bowieville. Matagorda R26 
Bowser, San Saba. . . M 19 
Boxelder, Red Riverll 27 
Box wood, (r.d.)Upshur 128 

Boyce, Ellis J 23 

Boyd 0, Wise I 22 

Boyds Cliappel, JonesJ 17 

Boydston, Gray D 15 

Boynton, Angelina.. M 28 

Boz, (r.d.) Ellis K 24 

Brachtield,(r.d.)Rusk.K28 

Bracken, Comal O 20 

Brackettville, Kin- 
ney R16 

Brad, Palo Pinto I 20 

Bruden, Kendall Q 19 

Bradford, (r. d.) An- 
derson L 26 

Bradley. Johnson I 22 

Bradshaw, Taylor K 17 

Brady 0, McCul- 

loch M18 

Bragg, Hardin O 28 

Brambleton, (r d. ) 

Tarrant 122 

Branch, (r.d.) Collin. H 24 
Branchville, (r. d.) 

Milam N23 

Brand, Scurry I 15 

Brandon ©, Hill K 23 

Branon. (r.d.) LavacaQ 23 
Bransford, Tarrant. . .1 22 
Brash'ear, Hopkins.. H 25 

Bravo, Hartley C 10 

Brazoria, Brazoria R 26 

Brazos, Palo Pinto... J 20 
Brazosporl. Brazoria.R27 
Breekenridge O, 

Stephens 1 19 

Breckwalker,StephensJ19 
Bremond, Robertson. M 24 
Brenliam 0, Wash- 
ington P 24 

Breslau,(r.d.)Lavaca.Q 23 
Briar, (r. d.) Wise.... I 22 

Brlce.Hall E15 

Brick Spur, El Paso . .L 3 
Bridgeport ©, Wise. .H 21 

flriilqes, Shelby K 29 

Bridgetown, Wichita.G 19 
Brien, McLennan. ... M 22 

BriggH. Burnet X 21 

Bright,! r.d. )XavarroK 24 

Brighton, Nueces V 22 

Brlgman, (r. d.)Hlll..K13 
Brinker, (r. d.) Hop- 
kins I 26 

Bristol, (r. d.) Ellis.. K 24 
Brit, (r.d.) Anderson. L 28 

Brite, Persidio P7 

Britton. Ellis J 23 

Broaddus, San Augus- 
tine M 29 

B road moor.McCul loch M18 
Broadway, (r. d.) La- 
mar G 28 

Brock, Parker J 21 

Brogado, Reeves X 9 

Texas 

186 



1,153 
500 



40 
6,008 



X 
100 
50 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
100 

X 

3.179 
X 
20 
50 
25 
100 
510 
X 
24 
X 
36 



1,600 
20 
X 



2,197 
100 



400 
X 

307 
X 
60 

300 
X 

800 

100 
X 

1,846 

X 

1,000 

5,066 
50 
30 
10 
X 

1,872 
X 
X 
X 
500 
X 
100 
60 

20 
350 
X 
X 
200 



200 
150 
150 



Bronco, Yoakum ...H 10 10 

Bronson, Sabine M 29 1,000 

Bronte 0, Coke Lie 539 

Brookeland,(R.R. name 

Brookland) Sabine. M 29 800 

Brookesmith. Brown L 19 43 
Brookhaveu, <r. d.) 

Bell M 22 75 

Brooks,(r.d.)ColemanL18 X 

Brooks, Jefferson P 29 X 

Brookshire, Waller.. P 25 1,000 

Brookston, Lamar... G 25 360 

Broome, Sterling L 15 10 

Broughton. CherokeeL27 X 

Browiler, Dallas 123 X 

Browndel. (R. R. name 

Browndell) Jasper. M 39 500 

Brownfield, Terry. H 13 800 

Brownings, Smith J 27 20 

Brown lee, Martin J 13 X 

Brownsboro, Shackel- 
ford J 18 X 

Brownsboro, Hender- 
son J 26 160 

Brownsville 0, 

Cameron Z 22 11,791 

Brownwood 0, 

Brown L 19 8,223 

Brownwood Junction, 

Brown L19 X 

Bruceville.McLennanM 22 600 

Bruinlow, (r. d.) Wise. 1 22 17 

Brundage. Dimmit. ..S 17 100 

Bruni, Webb V 19 60 

Brunswick, Cherokee L27 X 
Brushy, Williamson. O 21 X 
Brushy Creek, Ander- 
son K26 75 

Bryan O, Brazos.. X 24 6,307 

Bryan, Wood J 26 X 

Bryan ■) unction, Brazos X 

Bryan A{ou»il,Bva./.orii\K26 X 

Bryans Mill, Cass H 28 75 

Bryarly, Red River. .G 27 20 

Bryson. Jack I 20 350 

Buchanan, (r. d.) 

Bowie H29 25 

Buclitel, De Witt .... R 22 X 

Buck, Polk X27 400 

Buck Den, Real Q 17 X 

Buckeye, Matagorda.. R 25 200 
Buekholts, Milam ...N23 500 
Buckborn, (r. d.) Aus- 
tin P25 50 

Buckner, Parker J 21 50 

Buda Hays p 21 482 

Bud Miillheivs, Shack- 

elford J1S x 

Buel, (r. d.) Johnson. J 29 X 

Buenavtsta, Pecos ...Mil 200 

Buenos. Garza H 14 x 

Buffalo 0, Leon L 25 510 

Buffalo Gap, Taylor... K 17 500 

Buffalo Springs, Clay.H 20 125 

Bu/kin, Robertson.. M 23 X 

Bugbee, Hutchinson. B 14 8 

Bulcher, (r.d. (Cooke. O 22 30 

Bullard, Smith K 26 400 

Bullis. Val Verde.. ..Q 14 X 

Bulverde, Bexar Q 20 450 

Buna, Jasper 29 500 

Bunger, Young 120 9 

Bunker Hill, Jasper.. O 29 150 
Bunyan, (r.d.) Erath. K 21 X 
Burdette, (r. d.) Hill. K 23 X 
Burdette, Wells, Cald- 
well P 22 X 

Burgess, (r.d.) Bell. ..X 22 12 

Burk, Wichita G 19 x 

Burkburnett0, Wichi- 
ta F20 5,300 

Burke, Angelina M 28 200 

Burkett, Coleman K 18 150 

Burkeville. Xewton. .M 30 200 
Burkland,WU\him$ou02'Z X 
Burl, (r. d.) Guada- 
lupe Q21 40 

Burleigh, (r.d. )AustinP 25 X 

Burleson0, Johnson. J 22 241 

Burlington, Milam... N 23 400 

Burnet 0, Burnet. X r 20 966 

Burns, (r. d.) Cooke. .G 22 75 
Burns, (P. O. name 

Crim) Rusk K 27 X 

Burr, Wharton R 25 X 

Burris, Lubbock H 13 X 

Buriis, Irion M 15 X 

Bwrrouglts, (P. O. 
name Ellpleasant) 

Austin Q25 X 

Burrow, Hunt I 24 20 

Burton, Washington.. P 24 400 

Busby, Cherokee L27 X 

Bush (r.d.) Jones... J 17 5 

Bushland, Potter ....D 12 30 

Bustamante, Zapata. W 19 8 

Butler, Bastrop O 22 X 

Butler, F'reestone . . . ,L 25 107 
Butlerburg, Mont- 
gomery 26 X 

Byers, Clay F 20 600 

Byuum, Hill K 23 150 

Bi/rd, Dimmit S 17 X 

Byrds, Brown K 19 50 

Bi/rdston. Lamar G 26 20 

Byron, (r d.) Ellis... K 24 50 

Byspot, San Jacinto. O 26 X 

C 

Cabell, Fort Bend . ,.Q 26 X 
Cabeza,(r.d.)De Witt.R23 50 
Cabot, (r. d.) Chero- 
kee L27 X 

Cabra, Val Verde. ... Q 14 X 

Cactus, Webb U 18 450 

Caddo, Stephens J 19 300 



Caddo Mills, Hunt ....124 

Cadiz, Bee T21 

Caesar, Bee S 21 

Caffrey, Williamson. .N 22 
Caiu, (r.d.) Dallas... J 24 
Cain City, Gillespie. .P 19 
Cain Guiles, Liberty .0 28 

Calallen, Nueces U 22 

Calaveras, Wilson R 20 

Calcite, Bee T 21 

Calcote, San AugustiueL29 
Caldwell 0. Burle- 
son 24 

Caledonia, (r. d.) RuskL 28 
Calera, (r. d.) Hill.... K 23 
Calf Creek.McCulloehNIS 
Calhoun, (r.d.)Dallas.J 24 
Calhoun, Colorado. ..Q 24 

Call. Newton N 30 

Caltan, Menard N 17 

Callawai/ Spur, Wil- 
son R 21 

Callina, (r. d.) Lime- 
stone L24 

Callis,(r. d.) Collin. ..H 24 
Callisburg, (r. d.) 

Cooke G 22 . 

Call Junction, Jasper N 29 
Calvert©. Robertson. N 24 
Calvert Junction, 

Robertson N 23 

Calvin, Bastrop P 22 

Camden, Polk N 28 

Cameo, (r. d.) Guada- 
lupe Q21 

Cameron©, MilamX 23 
Carney Spur, Denton. I 23 
Camilla, San Jacinto. N 27 

Camp. Cass H 28 

Campbell©, Hunt H 25 

Campbellton.AtascosaS20 
Camp Colorado, Cole- 
man L18 

Camperdown, Whar- 
ton Q 25 

Camps, Gregg J 27 

Camp San Saba. Mc- 

Cullocb N 18 

Camp Springs, Scurry.I 15 
Camp <SjDit?%Wharton.R25 
Camp Verde, Kerr. . .P 18 
Canaan, Limestone .L 24 
Canadian©, Hemp- 
hill B 16 

Canary, Polk X 27 

Candelaria, Presidio ..P 6 

Candlish, Bee 1 22 

Canebrake. Wharton. R 25 

Caney, Matagor. a S 25 

Cannel. Webb U 17 

Cannon, (r. d.) Gray- 
son G24 

CantonQ.VanZandt.J 25 
Cautrell, (r.d.) Ander- 
son L28 

Canutillo El Paso K 2 

Canyon©, Randall. D 13 
C a n )/ o n Quarry, 

Shackelford J 18 

Caplen. Galveston. ..Q. 28 

Capron, Haskell i 17 

Caps, Taylor K 17 

Car, Mitchell J 14 

Caradan, Mills L 20 

Carancahua, Jackson. .S24 
Carbon©, Eastland.. .K 19 
Carbondale, Bowie... H 28 

Cardiff, Bastrop O 22 

Carey, Childress E16 

CV(?iAer,Xacogdoches K27 

Carl, Navarro K 24 

Carl, (r.d.) Travis... O 22 
Carlisle, (r. d.) Rusk.K 28 

Carlisle, Trinity X 27 

Carlos, Grimes, O 25 

Carlsbad, Tom Green. L 15 

Carlton, Hamilton L20 

Carmel, Pecos X 10 

Carmine, Fayette P 24 

Carinona, Polk M 27 

Carnero, Schleicher. N 15 
Carnes, Hardeman... F 17 
Caro, Xacogdoches.. L 28 
Carolina Spur, 

Walker N 26 

Carpenter, Wilson R 21 

Carpenters Bluff, Gray- 
son .' G 24 

Carricitos, Cameron. Y22 
Carrizo Springs©, 

Dimmit T 17 

Carroll,(r. d.) Smith. .J 27 
CarrolltonS, Dallas...! 23 

Carrs, Robertson N 24 

Carson, (r.d.) Fannin. G 25 
Carta Valley.Ed wards Q15 
Carter, (r. d.) Parker.l 21 

Carters, Wood 126 

Carthage©. Panola* as 
Carticright,FoTt BendQ26 

Cartwright, Hill L 23 

Cartivright, Kaufman J24 
Cartwright, (r. d.) 

Wood J 27 

Caruthers, Angelina. M 27 
Casablanca, Jim WellsD 21 
Casa Piedra. Presidio.. P 8 

Casey. Jeff Davis X 8 

Cash, Hunt I 25 

Cason, Morris I 27 

Cass, Cass H 29 

Castell, Llano N 19 

Castroville, Medina. .R 19 
Catarlna, Dimmit. . ..Til 
Cathrons Store, (r. cV. 
Lamar „ '* 



800 
29 
10 
X 

100 
25 
X 

300 

100 
X 
3~ 

1,689 
30 
35 
25 
150 
X 

1,000 
X 

X 

10 
300 

100 

X 

2,099 



250 
800 

30 
4,298 

50 
250 

X 
583 
200 



X 
X 

175 
50 
-X 
18 
X 

2,197 
60 
5(K) 
X 
X 
215 
X 

40 



X 

100 

1,618 

X 
X 
X 
12 
X 
25 



400 

X 

20 

X 

X 

100 

500 

500 

150 

100 

250 

750 

300 

200 

X 

X 

1.250 



250 
300 

954 
25 

573 
X 

150 
20 
40 
X 
1.386 
X 
50 
X 



X 
75 

100 
X 
75 

500 
75 
90 

679 
25 



CAT 



INDEX OF TEXAS. 



DON 



Caton, (r. (1.1 Red 

ltiver N 17 

Cat Spring, AiiHtin — P 21 
Cave Creek, Coryell,. M 21 

Ca\ mess. Lamar 0- 25 

Cavitl, Coryell M 22 

fjawthon. Brazos O 21 

Cayote, (r. d.)BonqueL 22 
Cellar, (P. O. name 

Gossett) Kaufmau..J 24 
Cedar,(r. d.)Fayette..Q24 
Cedar Bayou, Harris. P 27 
Cedar Creek, Bastrop. P 22 
Cedar Hill, Dallas ... ..I 23 
Cedarlake, Matagorda H26 
Cedar Laue,MatagordaR26 
Cedar Mills, (.r. d.) 

Grayson G 24 

Cedar Park, William- 
son <>21 

Cedar Springs, Falls. M 23 
Cedar Valley, Travis. P 21 
Ci'ilrir, (P. O, name 

Kails) Crosby G 14 

Cego, (r.d.) Falls.... M 23 

Cele, (r. d.) Travis 22 

Celeste©, Hunt H 24 

Celina©, Collin H 23 

Cement®. Dallas 123 

Centennial, Parola. . . K 29 
Center©, Shelby... K 29 
Center Citu, Mills . .. M20 
Center Mill, (r. d. ) 

Hood J 21 

Center Point, Kerr... P 19 
Centerville, Leon.M 25 
Centralia, Trinity.... M 27 
Ceslohowa. Karnes.. R 21 
Chadwick, Lampasas. M20 
ChadioicJc, Panola... K 28 
Clialia, (r. d.1 Dallas.. J 24 

Chaille. Grimes 25 

Chaison J unction, Jef- 
ferson () 29 

Chalk, Cottle G 16 

Chalk Bluff, McLen- 
nan i M23 

Chalk Mountain, Erath K21 
Chalmers, Bastrop. . .O 22 
Chalmers, MatagordaR25 
Chamberlain, Dallas. A 12 
Chumbeis Corner, 

Rusk K 27 

ghambersville, (r. d.) 

Collin H24 

Chambliss, (r.d.) Col- 
lin H24 

Champion, (r. d.) No- 
lan K15 

Chanre. Burleson. .. .O 24 
Chancellor, Pecos... N 10 
Chance//, Angelina. . M 27 
Chandler, Henderson..) 26 

Chanesa, Gray C 15 

Chuneii Junction, Har- 
ris..'. P26 

Channel, Harris P 26 

Charming, Hartley. C 12 
Chapel Hill, Washing- 
ton P25 

Chapin, Hood J 21 

Chapman, Runnels. .K 17 
Chapman. (r.d.) RuskK 28 
Chappel, San Saba...N 20 

Charco, Goliad S 22 

Charleston, Delta .... H 26 
Charlestown, Dallas. .1 24 

Charlie, Clay F 20 

Charlotte, Atascosa.. .S 19 

Charlotte, Dallas I 23 

Chase,(r.d.) Bosque. .O 22 

Chat, Hill K23 

Chatfleld, Navarro .. .K 24 
Chauncey, (r. d.) 

Eastland K 19 

Chautauqua, Callahan J18 
Cheaney, Eastland. ..K 19 
Cheapside, Gonzales. R 22 
Checkup, Cherokee. .K 26 

Cheek, Jefferson P 29 

Cheetham, Colorado. Q 24 

Cheisa, Dallas J 24 

Chenango. Brazoria. R 26 
Chenango Spur, Bra- 
zoria.. Q26 

CAe?i«?/6o/'o,Navarro.K 24 
Cherokee, San Saba..N 19 
Cherry, (r. d.) Red 

River H 27 

CAem/spn»(/,Gille8pie019 

Chester, Tyler N 28 

Chesterville, ColoradoQ 25 

Cheic, Anderson K 26 

Chlco,Wise H 21 

Chicota, Lamar G 26 

Chief, Kaufman J 25 

Chihuahua, Hidalgo.T 20 
Childress ©, Chil- 
dress F16 

Chillicothe ©, Harde- 
man F 18 

Chilton, Falls M 23 

China, Jefferson P 29 

China Spring, McLen- 
nan L22 

Chlreno, NaeogdochesL 28 
Chisholm,(r.d.) Rock- 
wall T 24 
Chispa. Jeff Davis' '. '. '. '. N 6 

Chita, Jefferson P28 

Chita, Trinity... N 27 

Choate. (r. d.) KarnesS 31 
Chocolate Bayou, 

Brazoria Q27 

Vhoctaw, Grayson... G 24 

Choice, Shelby L 29 

Chorn, Scurry .1 15 



50 
800 
25 
40 
X 



400 
400 
300 
10 
10 



X 
25 

23 

X 

35 
200 
1,022 
1.126 
878 
50 



600 

750 
150 



X 
X 
600 
X 

X 

X 

500 

600 

X 

X 

25 

10 

150 

200 

X 

200 

600 

X 

X 

10 



25 

X 
250 

50 
60 

300 

25 

X 

1,000 

100 
10 
X 



1,351 
500 
400 

300 
250 

250 
X 
X 
10 
80 

50 
43 
X 



Chrlesman, Burleson 23 

Christine©, Atascosa. S 20 
Christoval, Tom GrceuMie 
Chron Inter, Cherokee. 1/27 
Church. Hill, Rusk... K 28 
Clbolo, (It. R. name 
(Jihoio Valley) Guad- 
alupe o, 20 

Clma, Tyler M 28 

Clpres, Hidalgo X 21 

Circle, (r. (I.) Chero- 
kee L27 

Circleville, William- 
son N 22 

Cisco©, Eastland J 19 

Cistern, Fayette P 23 

Citrusgrove, Mata- 
gorda S 25 

Clairemont. Kent.. 1 15 

Clairette, Erath K 21 

Clara, Wichita F19 

Clara, Bee T 22 

Clarendon ©, Don- 
ley D15 

Clareno, Zapata W '.8 

Clareville, Bee T 21 

Clark, Calhoun S 24 

Clark, Liberty O 28 

Clarkridge, Eastland K 19 
Clarkson, (r. d.) 

Milam N 23 

Clarksville 0,Red 

River G27 

Clarkriew. Falls ....M 23 
Clarkwood, Nueces. U 22 
Claude ©, Arm- 
strong D14 

Clawson, Angelina L 27 

Clay. Burleson O 24 

Clayton, Panola K 28 

ClaytonMlle, Fisher.. J 15 
Clear Fork, Shackel- 
ford T 17 

Clear Fork Quarry, 

Shackelford J 17 

Clearlake. Collin I 24 

Clear Spring, (r. d.) 

Guadalupe Q 21 

Cleburne 0, John- 
son J22 

Clegg, Live Oak T 20 

Clem.(r. d.) Delta. ...H 28 
Clemville, Matagorda. R 25 

Cleo, Kimble O 19 

Cleveland, Liberty. . .O 27 
Clev enger, Nacog- 
doches L28 

Click, Llano O 20 

Cliff, (r.d.) Haskell... 117 

Cliff, Medina Q 19 

Clifford, (r. d.) Col- 
lingsworth E16 

Cllffside, Potter I) 13 

Clifton ©, Bosque. ...L22 
Clifton by the Sea, 

Galveston Q 27 

Climax, (r.d.) Collin. H 24 
Climax, Nacogdoches. L28 

Cline, Uvalde R 16 

Clint, El Paso L 3 

Clinton, Harris P27 

Clinton ©, Hunt" 124 

Clip, Goliad S 22 

Clodine, Fort Bend. . Q 26 

Cloniger, Cass 128 

Closrier, (P. O. name 
Penitas) Hidalgo. ..Y 20 

Clule, Brazoria R 26 

Clyde©, Callahan 1 18 

Coahoma, Ho ward... Kit 
Coaldale, Milam .... N 23 
Coalson, Fort Bend...Q 26 

Coates, Taylor K 17 

Cobb, Kaufman I 25 

Cobwrn, Lipscomb B 16 

Cochran, Angelina. . .L28 
Cochran, (r. d.) 

Austin P 25 

CockrellHill Q, Dal- 
las J 24 

Codman, Roberts C 15 

Cody, Waller O 25 

Coesfield, (r. d.) 

Cooke G22 

Coffeerille, Upshur ...127 
Coghill Spur, Shackel- 
ford J 18 

Colt, (r. d.) Lime- 
stone U 24 

Coke. (r. d.) Wood... J 27 

Coker, Robertson N 24 

Coldspring:, San 

Jacinto N 27 

Cole, (r. d. ) Callahan. K 18 
Coleman©, Cole- 
man L18 

Coleman Junction. 

Coleman L18 

Coleyville, Cottle.... F 16 
Colfax, (r. d.) Van 

Zandt J 26 

Coll